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state of the religion of the world in subjection to this Whore. Kings have committed spiritual fornication with her; and even their very subjects have drunk deep, dreadfully deep, into the doctrine of her abominable errors.

" So he carried me away in the spirit into the wilderness.". This wilderness which St. John had a view of was the desolate state of the church; and it was a truly awful sight, a terrible desart; a waste howling wilderness; for when he came thither he “saw a woman sit upon a scarlet coloured beast, full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns." No doubt can now be entertained that this Woman is the Latin church; for she sits upon the Beast with seven heads and ten hörns, which has been already proved to be the Latin empire, because this empire alone contains the number 666. This is a representation of the Latin church in her greatest splendour; for she sits upon the scarlet-coloured beast, a striking emblem of her complete domination over the Latin empire. Her posture of sitting adds to her security; she is under no apprehension of being thrown from her seat; but has under her complete and easy subjec. tion, the whole Latin world. * The state of the

* As the phrases Latin church, Latin empire, &c. are not very generally understood at present, it will not be improper here to explain them. During the period from the division of the Ro. man empire into those of the East and West till the final dissolution of the western empire, the subjects of both empires were equally known by the name of Romuns. Soon after this event,

Latin church in the beginning of the fourteenth century may be considered that which corresponds

the people of the West lost entirely the name of Romans, and were denominated after their respective kingdoms which were established upon the ruins of the western empire. But as the eastern empire escaped the ruin which fell upon the western, the subjects of the former still retained the name of Romans, and called their dominion the Roman empire; by which name this empire was known among them till its final dissolution in A. D. 1453, by Mohammed II. the Turkish sultan. But the subjects of the eastern emperor, ever since the time of Charlemagne, or before, called the western people, or those under the influence of the Romish church, Latins, and their church the Latin church. And the western people, in return, denominated the eastern church, the Greek church, and the members of it Greeks. Hence the division of the Christian church into those of the Greek and Latin, For a confirmation of what has been here said, the reader may consult the Byzantine writers, where he will find the appellations of Roman and Latin used in the senses I have just mentioned in very numerous instances. Ilo may also consult every writer of Constantinopolitan and ecclesi. astical history; where he will also find these names frequently used. In Gibbon's Decline of the Roman empire, and Mosheim's ecclesiastical history, the following expressions are met with, when speaking of the western church, and its members, &c. The Latin world, The Latin church, The French or Latin kingdom, The Latin clergy, The Latin princes, The Latin allies, The La. tin kingdom of Cyprus, The Latin subjects, The Latin pilgrims, The Latin powers, The Latin Christians, The Latin empire, The latin emperors, The Latin throne, The Latin patriarch, The Latin monarchies, The Latin arms, The Latin priests, The Latin monks, The Latin synod, The Latin archbishop, The Latin camp, The Latin principality of Edessa, &c. &c. &c. In the public instruments drawn up by the general Popish councils, the Roman Catholics are sometimes denominated Latins, as may be

to this prophetic description in the most literal and extensive sense of the words : for at this time she

instanced in the following words which form a part of a decrec of the council of Basil, dated Sept. 26, 1437, “ copiosissimam subventionem pro unione Græcorum cúm Latinis,"

a very great convention for the union of the Greeks with the Latins. Even in the very Papal bulls this appellation has been acknowledged, as may be seen in the edict of Pope Eugenius IV. dated Sept. 17, 1437, where in one place mention is made of " Ecclesiæ Latinorum quesita unio," + the desired union of the church of the Latins; and in another place we read, “ Nec superesse modum alium prosequendi operis tam pii, et servandi Latinæ Ecclesiæ honoris;" I that no means might be left untried of prosecuting so pious a work, and of preserving the honour of the Latin church. By the Latin empire is meant the whole of the powers which support the Latin church. In this sense Mos. heim evidently uses it, when speaking of the Christian sects of the ninth century. 66 The sects, that had sprung up in the carlier ages of the church, subsisted still, without almost any change in their situations or circumstances that is worthy of mention. Such of them as were considerably numerous fixed their settlements beyond the limits both of the Greek and Latin empires, and thus out of the reach of their enemies." The following are a few of the very numerous instances to be met with in Greek writers, in which the members of the Roman Catholic church are named Latins : Η γαρ πριγκίπισσα αυτη δη απόγονος ούσα Βαλδεΐνε, ός Βυζαντία εβασίλευσε επί καιρόν καθ' όν υπό Λατίνοις xóaw xpórov. For this princess was a relation of Baldwin, who reigned at Byzantium for some time after it was taken by the Latins. Joannis Cantacuzeni, Hist. Lib. ii. c. 34.-Aid Toy επενεχθέντα τότε παρα Λατίνων Ρωμαίοις πόλεμον. On account of the war which was carried on by the Latins against the Ro.

# Ib. p. $2

* See Dumont's Corps Diplomatique, Tom. III. R.

Ib. p. 33.

had ascended to her highest pitch of worldly gran. deur and temporal authority. And Butler, speak


Ib. c. 36.-Τοίς εν Γαλατά Λατίνοις, The Lating in Galata. Ib. Lib. iv. c. 25.-Τοίς εκ Βενετίας Λατίνοις, The Lating of Venice. Ib.-Βασιλεύς ο πρώτος Μιχαήλ, επεί Βυζάντιον ανεσώσατο Ρωμαίοις, και Θράκην, και Μακεδονίαν, και την άλλη, απασαν εσπέραν έξήκοντα ολίγω πλείω έτη δελεύσαντο Λατίνοις, πεζήν μεν και ιππικήν δύναμιν, μεγάλην είχε. Michael (the first emperor, after that Byzantium was recovered by the Romans, together with Thrace, Macedonia, and the other western provinces, when they had been somewhat more than sixty years under the tyranny of the Latins,) had a great force of infantry and Cavalry. Ib.-Λατίνοι γαρ ολίγοι τινές εκ Γερμανών εν Βυζαντία διατρίβοντες. For there were a few German Latins still remaining in Byzantium. Ib. Lib. iii. c. 91.-Βασιλέα μεν Ιμπεράτορα καλεϊν έθος Λατίνοις έςί. It is a custom with the Latins to call the king Imperator. Annæ Comnenæ Alexiados, Lib. ii. c. 12. -Ενώ δε ταύτα εγένετο, πρέσβεις προς του Ρώμης 'Αρχιερέως επί τους Ρωμαίων ήλθον Στρατηγούς, ον Πάπαν Λατίνοις ονομάζειν έθος isl. In the mean time the Legates from the Roman pontiff (a name which it is usual with the Latins to give the pope) came to the generals of the Romans. Ιb. Lib. iii. c. 5.--Από κτίσεως κόσμο έως της βασιλείας Δούκα, έν ή και εάλω η Κωνσαντίνοπολις, παρα των Λατίνων, έτη σψις'. From the creation of the world to the reign of Ducas, in which time Constantinople was taken by the Latins, were 6712 years. Ducæ Michaëlis Nepotis, Hist, Byzant. c. 1.-Τοϊς Φωκαεύσι Λατίνοις, The Latins of Phocea. Niceph. Greg. Lib. ii. c. 1.-Η δε του Μαρκεσία τάξις, ου τα επισήμων εσί παρά Λατίνοις· αλλ' όπερ έν τοΐς Ρωμαίων σρατεύμασιν και την βασιλικήν κατέχων σημαίαν, τούτο παρά Λατίνοις Μαρκέσιος. The dignity of marquis is not very eminent among the Latins; for he that carries the imperial standard in the Roman armies is by the Latins styled marquis. Ib. Lib. vii. €. 5, $4.Οι εν Γεννούα τη πόλει Λατίνοι, The Latins in the city of Genoa. Ip. Lib. xiii. c. 17. $ 2.-Η Λατίνων εκκλησία, Της των Λατίνων

ing of the temporal power of the popes, observes, that “ the beginning of the fourteenth century,

εκκλησίας, Tη των Λατίνων εκκλησία, The church of the Latias. Nicolai Cabasile Liturgie Expositio, c. 29, 30.-Διαφορογενών Λατίνων, Latins of different nations. Nicete Choniate, Αηnales, Alexii Comneni, $ 10.-Ην γαρ Λατίνος Ισπανός τω γένει, He was a Latin, a Spaniard by nation. Ducæ Michaëlis Nepotis, Ηist. Byzant. c. 44.-Ορώντες δε οι Χριστιανοί Λατίνοι τε, και Ρωμαίοι τον όχλον, πάντες εις τους Τούρκες επεπήδησαν, και τους μεν ξίφει, τους δε ξύλοις έπαιον. The Christians, both Latins and Romans, seeing the multitude, fell all upon the Turks; and beat them some with the sword, and some with clubs. Ib. c. 43.Το δε μέσον ο Κορράδος Καίσαρ μετα των επί μισθό άγηγερμένων Λατίνων ιππέων τε και πεζών. Conrad Cesar, with the Latia horse and foot in his pay, occupied the centre. Nicetæ Cho. niatæ, Annales de Isaacio Angelo, Lib. i. p. 202. Edit. Venet. p. 246, Edit. Ρar.-Και πρώτος ο Κορράδος διακινείται φοινικοζα. φές μετα των αυτω συνόντων Λατίνων το των όπλων έχων επίσημον. And Conrad, with his Latins, whose armour had a remarkably purple hue, made the first attack. Ib. p. 247, Edit. Par. *Αλλας πλείσας Συριακάς υπηγάγετο πόλεις, Λατίνοις μεν υπηκόος. πρότερον, τότε δε προσκεχωρηκυίας Σαρακηνούς. Πe reduced many other Syrian cities, which first had been in subjection to the Latins, and had afterwards revolted to the Saracens. Ib. Lib. ii. p. 219, Edit. Venet. p. 266, Edit. Ρar.--Οι μέν ούν έν τή Κωνσαντινοπόλει Λατίνοι, και ο εν αυτοίς τάχα βασιλεύων Βαλδαϊνος πρεσβείαν έςειλαν προς τον Βασιλέα. The Latins in Constantinople, and Baldwin who reigned over them, sent an embassy to the emperor. Georgii Acropolita Historia, p. 70, Edit. Venet.-Ούτω μεν η Κωνσταντινούπολις προνοία Θεού υπό Ρωμαίαν εγένετο, Ιελία άγοντος κέ· ούσης Επινεμήσεως δ'. και από γενέσεως κόσμο έτος όντος σψξ'· υπό Λατίνων κρατήθεισα χρόνος πεντήκοντα οκτώ. Thus Constantinople, by the providence of God, came again under the Romans, on the 25th of July, the Indiction being 4, and the year from the creation of the world 6769,

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