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is the first letter of the Greek Alphabet, and omega the last. Thus are we instructed, by three pássa ages, offered as it were on purpose, in the very book in which the number of the Beast is revealed ; that the number is to be counted by means of the Greek alphabet: for it is totally incredible that the Spirit of prophecy would, in one part of the Apocalypse, use the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet in a symbolical sense; and in another part of the same book, design that the mystery of the Beast should be computed according to the numerical values of the letters of some other language. It is, therefore, evident that the number 666 is a symbol of the GREEK name of the Beast,

CHAP. III.

Examination of the various interpretations of the

number of the Beast-Insufficiency of any interpretation yet given in solving the mysteryThat the number of the Beast is not 616, as in some Greek copies; but 666, demonstrated.

AS we have amply proved from incontrovertible evidence, that the number of the Beast must be computed by summing up the values of the letters in his Greek name, we shall now first examine the different expositions of this mystery in this language; as, for reasons already advanced, such interpretations have in this respect an advantage over all others.

Of all Greek names which contain the number 666, none can lay claim to greater antiquity than that famous one of Irenæus, which has been approved of by almost all commentators who have given any sort of tolerable exposition of the Revelation. The word alluded to is Aateīvos, * which was supposed by Irenæus to refer to the then existing Roman empire, “ for,” says he, “ they are

* The number in Aaremos is thus computed : A, 30, 0, 1, T, 300, 2, 5, 6, 107 %, 50, 0, 70, s, 200,=666.

Latins who now reign." * But the great majority of Protestant commentators, not without great reason, have applied this word to the dominion of the Roman Catholics, on account of this name being that by which this power was known in all parts of the Greek empire. As, therefore, this word has been supported by so many great writers, and is allowed to be the best explication of the number yet given, it will be indispensably necessary to examine it the more attentively, in order to point out in what it is to be approved, and in what disapproved. There appear only two circumstances which can be legitimately produced in favour of the word Aateivos, viz. That it is computed according to the numerical value of the Greek letters, and is also, (admitting the Protestant interpretation of the Beast to be correct,) the name by which the Papists were known in the Eastern countries. The objections are insurmountable. In the first place, the orthography is incorrect; for it should be written Agriyos, and not Aarşivos: t Bengel, in his Commentary on Apoç. xiii. 18, is very diffuse upon this point, and informs us, “ That Aattivos ought not to be spelled with the epsilon. For,” says he, "the Greek

*!?

when a consonant follows, the Latins in

Sed et Aareivos nomen habet sexcentorum sexaginta sex numerum : et valde verisįmile est, quoniam novissimum regnum hoc habet vocabulum; Latinį enim şunț qui nunc regnant. Iren, Lib. v. c.

30, p. 449. † See Critici Sacri, Tom. VIII. p. 539,

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CALIFO

deed write with an I, as èixcùv, icon; but the Latin ), is never written by the Greeks with an ev; and therefore Λατείνος has no analogy. For άκυλίνος is not written άκυλείνος, The same may be said of 'Αλβίνος, 'Ακραγαντίνος, Αλεξανδρίνος, Αντωνίνος, Αρκτίνος, Αρχίνος, Βροντίνος, Καλαϊνος, Καρίνος, ΚολλαTivos, Kgativos, &c. &c. &c. Even Irenæus himself constantly writes the Latin names, Justinus, Valentinus, Hyginus, and Florinus, in the following Greek form Iesϊνος, Ουαλεντίνος, Υγίνος, Φλωçivos.

And so Latinus is written Activos in the Sibylline verses, with the second syllable in some instances long, in one case short. Also, in one manuscript of Andreas. it is found without the diphthong, even contrary to the design of Andreas, the editor of this copy considering the diphthong improper. In another, Latinus is written Aateīvos, by an open confession of licence, which sort of liberty, as it is common with the Germans in their German eteostichi, so is it frequent in the etcostichi of the Greeks." In addition to what Bengel

* Mateivoś cum ε sumi non debuit. Nam ε. Græcum subsequente consonâ, Latini quidem per I exprimunt, ut šixwv, icon: sed I Latinum Græcè non transit in el; neque atsivos analogiam habet.' Non enim scribitur 'axureiros, X.T.1, sed 'axuxivos, 'A26 705, &c. &c. * Apud ipsum Irenæum, 'losivos, &c. constanter per , simplex : et sic Aativos, quod ipsum in Sibyllinis etiam modo productum, modo correptum, habet. Itaque in uno An

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* A great variety of examples of this kind are given by Bengel in his Commentary on Apoc. xiii. 18.

says, we may add, that the Greek word for Latinus is not written with the ai in any one of its various inflections, whether we consider it as an adjective or a substantive. For a proof of this assertion we may refer the reader to every Greek author who has used this word; among whom are Hesiod, Polybius, Dionysius Halicarnassensis, Strabo, Ρlutarch, Athenaeus, Dio Cassius, Photius, The Byzantine historians, &c. &c. &c. Eich

dreæ codice MS. Aativos, à librario emendante, contra Andreæ institutum, est repositum : in altero ad Λατείνος additur, δια διφJoy to, apertâ licentiæ confessione, quæ ut apud Germanos in Germanicis, sic apud Græcos in Græcis eteostichis frequens est.

* In illustration of what is said above the following examples may be of use: The substantive Aativos in its different cases.

Nominative Case, Singular. Βασιλεύς μεν 'Αβοριγίνων ήν Λατίνος και Φαύνε. Latinus, the son of Faunus, was king of the Aborigines. Dion. Hal. Antiq. Roman. Lib. i. p. 35.

Genitive Case, Singular. Τρίτω δε έτεϊ, του Φαύνε τελευτήσαντος, εκδέχεται την αρχήν και 'Αινείας κατά το κήδος» και τους 'Αβοριγίνας από του κηδεςού Λατίνα Φαύνε Λατίνες επωνόμασε. But in the third year after the death of Faunus, Æneas succeeded to the government according to his affinity; and named the Aborigines Latins, from his relation Latinus, the son of Faunus. Photii Bibliotheca, p. 51. Rothomagi, 1653. Appiani Alexandrini Historiæ Romanæ.

Dative Case, Singular. Και εβασίλευσε μετα Φαύνον έτη λε' ο Ηρακλής. έπειτα Λατίνος έτη λς'. τούτα κατά το τρίτον 'Αινείας εξ Ιλίε παραγίνομενος συμμαχήσας τε αυτώ Λατίνω κατα Ρατούλων, και Tούρνον ανελών, Λαξινία ζεύγνυται Λατίνα θυγατρί του βασιλέως, και βασιλεύει της χώρας μετα Λατίνον έτη γ. And Hercules reigned after Fau

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