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who are fully persuaded that the practice is 66 where forbidden;" who have, moreover, chapels* duly fur. nished with all the materials requisite for the papal worship; who are encouraged by an eager party to make continual advances towards the old religion, who venerate the saints, and “ all but adore” the “ blessed Virgin, Mary, the mother of God;" who think it a matter of very great importance to restore copes, and candlesticks, and side-tables, and altars ; will not, ought not, according to their principles, long to restrain their pious sympathies in rendering such assistance to the dead as they may consider themselves capable of bestowing: for what could be more inhuman than to withhold the
* The Chapel of Ease lately erected at Littlemore, near Oxford, under Mr. Newman's auspices, may thus be described :The architecture is correctly copied from the pointed Gothic; the chapel will hold perhaps 200 persons. On the altar is a large gold dish, resting against the wall, between two large handsome golden candlesticks. In the wall is a stone cross, in alto-relievo, which seems to stand on the altar; this cross is about a yard high. The wall about the cross is on some festivals of the church hung with crimson velvet; on one side of the altar is a stone side-board fixed in the wall, to receive the elements before they are consecrated and put on the altar. On the other side of the altar is a large tablet, recording in golden letters the names of some benefactors, with this text from Nehemiah : “Remember me, O my God, concerning this, and wipe not out my good deeds that I have done for the house of my God, and for the offices thereof” (xiii. 14). On this tablet, the building is styled, “The Chapel of Saint Mary the Virgin, and Saint Nicholas, Littlemore.” On the roof are hung eight escutcheons, bearing some symbolical paintings--a pelican-an anchor and a fish-a cope of a priest-a crown of thorns, &c. It was reported that shortly there was to be introduced a comely picture of “the Queen of Heaven,” to be hung up at the west end, over the door of entrance.
Before the altar is a small faldstool covered with erimson, on which the priest always kneels during service, turning his back to the people.
Service is performed every afternoon, to a congregation of about three people.
Littlemore is about three miles distant from Oxford.
services of mercy or affection from those who may stand in need of all the intercession of their friends upon earth? Such must be the reasoning of the Oxford sect; and will not an argument so powerful counterbalance any scrupulous regard to the letter of the prayer book ? Yes, truly; and it is far from improbable that ere now certain priests of the Pusey persuasion, in proper costume, may have said or sung a mass composed for the occasion for the soul of Mr. Froude. We shall hear much more of their proceedings in this department of their superstitions, and both in prose and verse it will be taught us what sort of ceremonies they think proper to follow on these occasions.
But what is the secret of this revolting absurdity? A disbelief in the efficacy of the death and righteousness of Jesus Christ unto a full; complete, and perfect justification. This, indeed, is the whole secret; for they that know not what it is to stand on the right foundation, who never have believed that “there is no condemnation to them that are in Christ Jesus ;" who never have gone to God for a free grace pardon without
mixture of human merit; who never have cast aside all hopes of pleasing God by repentance, or preparation, or good works, or future sanctification, as a means of obtaining pardon; and who, therefore, never have been by free grace freely forgiven; cannot, dare not, trust their own souls, or the souls of the most saintly persons that ever lived, to meet that Judge in whose sight the heavens are not clean, and who chargeth his saints with folly. Hence, when a good man is dead, the ignorant opponents of justification by faith dare not say, with Paul, Who shall lay anything to the charge of God's elect? It is God that justifieth.” Neither dare they with Paul argue from predestination, through calling and justification, unto final glory (Rom. viii. 30). No; they have been going about to establish their
pray for the
own righteousness, and have not sub- unto the saints. These, therefore, mitted to the righteousness of God are the persons to (Rom. x. 3); and, therefore, are left, dead;" but all that they can do by all in their vain imaginations, to combat their ceremonies and litanies, will be with terrors, and struggle with appre- of as little avail for the souls of the hensions, whenever they ponder on the departed, as are the indulgencies and state of the dead and the holiness of
pardons of the Pope, duly paid for in the eternal Judge. Hence their poor the Roman chancery. nostrums of superstition to help a The council of Trent has thus united hopeless case, and to render assistance the views of the Romish church to by their own blind will-worship to purgatory. “ If
any one shall affirm those whom they never believed that that after the grace of justification Christ himself was able to save. Not received, the sins of a penitent sinner but that these men will declare they are so remitted, and his liability to believe in Christ, and often talk of eternal punishment is so cancelled, as faith ; but when their faith is closely that no liability remains to his sufferexamined, it is never more than a ing, either punishment in this life, or hope that Christ will give them grace
in the life which is to come in purgato save themselves by their own sanc- tory, before he can reach the kingdom tification, which is not believing in the of heaven-let him be accursed."Lord their righteousness, but in them- SESSIO, VI. CAN. XXX. selves. To look upon Christ as made sin for them that they may be the righteousness of God in him, they never have learned, never understood, never believed, but constantly and earnestly denied. These are the blind leaders of the blind, and into the ditch they fall—the deep, inextricable ditch The project of building a church at of papal lies, superstitions and frauds. Oxford as a monument to the memory This is the secret of all the purgatorial of Cranmer, Latimer, and Ridley, fable of the Romish church, the masses will not fail for want of funds; but, as for the dead, the indulgences, and an affair of principle, it seems to be the incalculable plunder of the papal
unsuccessful. hierarchy. The obits, the chauntries, The Archbishop of Canterbury, the prebends, the monasteries, and all the Bishop of London, and Bishop the religious houses, were founded for Philpotts, are names already on the no other purpose
than to make for list; which seems to be considered a the rejection of justification by faith. sort of public confession of sound Men would not believe in Christ; and principles, both by the Puseyites and as he is the appointed Sun of Right- the Evangelical clergy. Each party eousness, it could not be otherwise is anxious to shew that they are folthan that, in shutting their eyes to his lowers of the faith of the Martyrs, glory, they should wander into the though the project was set on foot at realms of darkness, into the valley of first by the Evangelical party. In our the shadow of death.
opinion, we think it quite capable of The Oxford Tractators have formally proof that, on the grand question of denied justification by faith ; in their baptismal regeneration, the Martyrs views of faith they do not in the were Puseyites, and that the Evangesmallest degree differ from the counci) lical clergy and laity, who subscribe to of Trent; and in one word, they pro- the Oxford memorial do not believe fess“ progressive justification," which this doctrine as the Martyrs did. is to reject the faith once delivered From the Tracts of the Anglican
Fathers, No. 1, “ Holy Baptism; a God, baptism doth work in us the Sermon set forth by the most Reverend work of God. For when we baptize Father in God, Thomas Cranmer, in the name of God, that is as much Archbishop and Martyr," lately re- as to say, as God himself should bappublished by the Puseyites, the ques
Wherefore we ought not to tion of Cranmer's views of baptismal have an eye only to the water, but to regeneration may easily be settled. God rather, which did ordain the “ The second birth,” says Cranmer, baptism of water, and commanded it “is by the water of baptism, which to be done in his name. For he is Paul called the bath of regeneration, almighty, and able to work in us by because our sins be forgiven us in baptism forgiveness of our sins, and baptism, and the Holy Ghost is poured all those wonderful effects and opeinto us as God's beloved children; so rations for which he hath ordained the that by the power and working of the same, although man's reason is not Holy Ghost we be born spiritually, able to conceive the same. Thereand made new creatures.
And so by
fore consider, good children, the baptism we enter into the kingdom of great treasures and benefits whereof God, and shall be saved for ever, if God maketh
us partakers when we continue to our lives' end in the
are baptized, which be these. faith of Christ .... wherefore, good The first is, that our sins be forchildren, to the intent you may the given us; the second is, that the better know the strength and power Holy Ghost is given us, which doth of baptism, you shall first understand shed abroad the love of God in our that our Lord Jesus Christ hath hearts; the third is, that the whole instituted and annexed to the Gospel righteousness of Christ is given to us three sacraments (!), or holy seals, of by baptism, that we may claim the his covenant and league made with us. same as our own; fourthly, by baptism And by these three, God's ministers we die with Christ, and are buried as do work with us in the name and it were in his blood and death, that we place of God (yea, God himself should suffer afflictions unto death, as worketh with us), to confirm us in Christ himself hath suffered. And our faith, to assure us that we are the as the man which is baptized doth lively members of God's true church, promise to God that he will die with and the chosen people of God, to whom Christ, that he may be dead to sin and the Gospel is sent, and that all these to the old Adam, so, on the other part, things belong to us, whereof the God doth promise again to him, that promises of the Gospel make mention. he shall be partaker of Christ's death The first of these sacraments is bap- and passion. But, peradventure some tism; by the which we be born again will say, How can water work such to a new and heavenly life, and be great things? To them I answer, received into God's church and con- that it is not the water that doth these gregation, which is the foundation and things, but the Almighty Word of pillar of the truth. The second is God, which is knit and joined to the absolution, or the authority of the water; then it is the bath of regenekeys; whereby we be absolved from ration, and baptism-water, and the such sins as we be fallen into after lively spring of eternal salvation, and our baptism. The third sacrament is a bath that washeth our souls by the the communion of the Lord's Supper; Holy Ghost..... ye shall also diliby the which we be fed and nourished gently labour, good children, to keep and fortified in the faith of the Gos- and perform these promises, which pel. .... Wherefore, by the virtue of you made to God in your baptism, and this commandment, which came down which baptism doth betoken: for bapfrom heaven, even from the bosom of tism, and the dipping into the water,
doth betoken that the old Adam, with tually, and washed from our sins, and all his sins and evil lusts, is drowned grafted in the stock of Christ's own and killed by daily contrition and body, and be appareled, clothed, and repentance, and that by the renewing harnessed with him in such wise, that of the Holy Ghost we ought to rise as the devil hath no power against with Christ from the death of sin, and Christ, so hath he none against us, so to walk in a new life, that our long as we remain grafted in that man may live everlastingly in righ- stock, and be clothed with that appateousness and truth before God, as rel, and be harnessed with that St. Paul teacheth, “ All we that are armour.” baptized into Christ Jesus are bap- Now, by this extract, it is entirely tized into his death; for we are buried certain that Cranmer, the great with him by baptism into death, that founder of the Church of England, as Christ has risen from death by the and its most illustrious martyr, held glory of the Father, so we also should views on baptism fully in accordance walk in newness of life.' .... thus ye with the decrees of the Council of have heard, good children, what is Trent, the Confession of Augsburg, meant by the words of baptism, by and all the great continental Lutherthe which we are born again, and ans; for it is to be observed that made new to everlasting life. Learn Luther always professed complete these things diligently, and thank God assent to baptismal regeneration, and who in Christ hath called you to be there can be no question that Cranpartakers of so large and ample bene- mer's opinions were influenced in a fits: and express baptism in your life, high degree by the authority of and baptism shall be the great com- Luther, and his renowned associates. fort to you, both in your lifetime, and Bishop Ridley entirely agrees with also in your death-bed. For by bap- Cranmer. “ Now on the other side," tism we be grafted into the death of says he, “after the truth shall be truly Christ; wherefore sin, death, or hell tried out, it be found that the subcannot hurt us, but we shall overcome stance of bread is the material suball these things by faith, as Christ stance of the sacrament, although for himself overcame them. And so by the change of the use, office, and this new birth we shall enter into dignity of the bread, the bread indeed, the kingdom of God and life ever- sacramentally, is changed into the lasting
body of Christ, as the water in bapAs Cranmer freqnently changed his tism is sacramentally changed into opinions, or rather was continually the fountain of regeneration, and making progress in religious disco- yet the material substance remaineth veries, it might be suggested that he all one as before,” ...“ there is no afterwards relinquished these popish need to hold the dogma of transubviews of baptism; but it is certain stantiation in order to believe that that this was not the case; for in his Christ is imparted in the Eucharist, answer to Gardiner, A.D. 1551, only because he is equally imparted in two years
before the accession of baptism, and yet no one contends that Queen Mary, he has thus expressed the water is transubstantiated.”.... himself,
« For this cause Christ or- “ in baptism the body is washed with dained baptism in water, that, as the visible water, and the soul cleansed surely as we see, feel, and touch water from all filth by the invisible Holy with our bodies, and be washed with Ghost.” “ in baptism our sins are water, so assuredly ought we to be- taken away, and we from sins purged, lieve, when we be baptized, that Christ cleansed, and regenerated in a new is verily present with us, and that by man, to live a holy life according to him we be newly born again spiri- the Spirit and will of God.
It is not the water that washes us from sin, but errors of popery, yet they had not Christ, by his word and his Spirit advanced so far in the knowledge of given to us in baptism, that washeth the truth as to constitute them safe away our sins that we have of Adam authority for the household of faith. by our carnal nature.”
The timidity of Cranmer's character, Exactly in the same strain speaks the leader of the English reformaLatimer. “ Like as Christ was born tion, is well known ; his fears of his in rags, so the conversion of the whole tyrant master, Henry VIII., and of world is by rags, by things which are the papal party, betrayed him into most vile in this world: for what is so acts of submission and evasion in matcommon as water? Every foul ditch ters of religion, which would have is full of it; yet we wash out remis- classed him amongst the libellatici and sion of our sins by baptism; for like thurificati of the early Christians. We as he was found in rags, so must we
do not wish to recount his errors, for find him by baptism. There we begin: they have been long ago cast into the we are washed with water, and then depths of the unfathomable sea of the words are added whereby the God's mercy,* and no more inquisition baptism receiveth its strength. Now, is made for them in the chancery of this sacrament of baptism is a thing divine justice ; but what he did is reof great weight; for it ascertaineth corded in ecclesiastical history, and is and assureth us, that like as the water written for our warning. Other acts washeth the body and cleanseth it, so
of his, which were not the result of the blood of Christ our Saviour fear, but were the free exercise of his cleanseth and washeth it from all filth high authority, are also to be found in and uncleanness of sin.”
the pages of history-and his change Here, then, are the three Martyrs, of sentiment in religion is notorious Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer, each —he therefore is not a safe guide. believing and asserting their belief in Bishop Ridley was conspicuous in the the strongest words; that children reign of Edward VI. for his zeal in are really and bona fide born again in the matter of pontifical attire, insistin baptism, cleansed from original sin, ing vehemently on the necessity of and made heirs of the kingdom of arraying Bishop Hooper in those poheaven. This is what the Oxford pish vestments, which have, in conseTractators assert; this is the creed quence, been irreversibly bequeathed of Pusey, Newman, and Hooke; this to the bishops and priests of the Esis the creed of the Prayer-book and
tablishment. Hooper had been apthe Homilies; but this is not the creed pointed to the see of Gloucester, but of the Evangelical Calvinistic clergy. refused to wear the prelatical costume. They do not entertain the same opi
Ridley took up the question warmly, nions as the founders of the Esta- and endeavoured most earnestly to seblished Church; they do not believe in baptismal regeneration ; they con
* The death of Cranmer, with an irrestantly deny it, and consider it a mark
sistible evidence, must convince us that his of Oxonian superstition: yet these are
was that godly sorrow which worketh re
pentance unto salvation, not to be repented the persons who, in order to express of. His prayer at the stake is the very soul their aversion to Popery, both within
of faith:-" Lord Jesus, thou didst not die and without the church, would raise
for little sins only, but for great ones, like memorials to the martyrs whose faith
mine." Prayer like this before the throne,
of grace was never yet refused, nor ever they reject!
will be, as long as there is a Priest in hea. Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer, were ven, who can save to the uttermost all that holy men, but they were not without
come unto God by him. Cranmer's name faults ; and though they had disen
is great amongst that cloud of witnesses
who have testified that there is indeed forgaged themselves from many of the giveness with God that he may be feared.