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grace of God.

The second part opens with this Such expressions are used merely as proposition: that all moralists consider figures. Such a light in the mind vice and virtue as states of darkness must show the right proportions of and ignorance: and, on this head, power, wealth, reputation, beauty, though the author has involved his learning, and genius, after some heameaning in triple obscurity and ambi- venly manner" (83). guity of statement, it seems that he is They that are acquainted with the anxious to inculcate something very mystical writings of Isaac Pennington, like “the inward light” of the early would suppose that this was a parafriends. “ It may be stated,” says graph from one of his essays. It is a the Tract, “respecting our moral na- mixture of mysticism, Platonism, and ture, that there are clear indications quakerism, the natural result of the that our Lord is going about, exceed- line of theology adopted by the Oxingly desirous to disclose himself; but ford Tractators: for to this, all religionthat, nevertheless, he does, in a very ists must come who are determined to remarkable manner, hide and conceal

theologise deeply, and at the same himself from the view of those who time to deny the atonement and the are not desirous to retain him in their knowledge. In proof of this, the first To attain to the knowledge of this point which I would adduce, is the secret, and to remove the veil of refact that all the best moral writers, serve which is cast round the knowwhether sacred or profane, speak of ledge of divine things—to get at the a state of probation, as being one of hidden meaning of “the mysterious increasing moral light, or of increasing language of Scripture," we must be darkness; that a good life is, in some “good men.”

« If we attempt,” says especial sense, one of advancement in the tract, “ to arrive at any knowledge knowledge, and an evil life of growing of them by speculation, or any other and progressive ignorance” (34). To mode but that of practical obedience, this a statement” the author occa- that knowledge is withheld; and we sionally returns, but more directly in are punished for the attempt” (45). the grand conclusion of the whole ar- “ Knowledge is still the fruit of gument. - To see God implies, even death, till the heart is prepared for it: in this world, in all apparent imper- there is a knowledge boundless in exfection, to discern something which tent and infinitely good, and, indeed, is harmonious and life-giving; for no other than that of acknowledging even earthly passion, after the simili- the divinity of our Lord, to the attude of this affection, which is hea- tainment of which we are urged as venly, invests all things with itself, the great end of faithful obedience; and makes them to speak eloquently but unless obedience lead uş by the its own language. It is to be ob- hand, we shall never arrive at this served, that Holy Scripture, not only inner temple” (47): or still more speaks of it as THE LIGHT WITHIN, strongly in this passage; “St. John and its being darkened as a great often mentions this knowledge in condarkness, but introduces the natural nection with love, and love as the resenses as being in some manner the sult of obedience ; and experience seats or partakers of it. The loss of thus confirms it—actions of self-deit is not only the heart being har. nial dispose the heart to prayer; dened, but the eyes being blinded, prayer, to the love of God; the love of and the ears made dull of hearing. As God, to the knowledge of Him; and if, when quickened with this internal this secret and heavenly knowledge, light, all the senses were made to com- thus attained, seems alluded to in the municate with, and to convey from, expression, They sang a new song, things without this heavenly wisdom. which no man could learn, but the


hundred and forty-four thousand" “ reserve" in speaking of the atone(41).

ment; that it is a popular error to Here, indeed, all things are revert- bring it forward ; and that, if rightly

the sacred stream of Divine grace understood, the “ cross of Christ": is turned backwards, ανη ποταμων means self-denial, penance, sacrifices ιερων χωρουσι παγαι, και δικη και of personal comfort, and mortificaπαντα συστρεφεται. Instead of the tion. But let the Pharisee be heard sovereign grace of God drawing us in his own words.

“ The prevailing to himself, and changing our hearts notion," says he, "of bringing forand affections, and giving us a new ward the atonement explicitly and heart to come unto him, we, it seems, prominently on all occasions, is evibegin with obedience, from which re- dently quite opposed to what we consults love; from love is derived prayer; sider the teaching of Scripture. If the from

prayer, the love of God; from the epistles of Paul appear to favor it, it is love of God, knowledge. Why, even only at first sight. . . The whole of St. the Council of Trent, with all its in- Paul's life and actions, after his congenious explanations of the doctrine version, and the whole of his teaching, of grace would pronounce anathema as appears from his epistles, may be on a scheme like this, which is ultra- said to have been nothing else but a Pelagianism, Platonism, heathenism, setting forth of Christ crucified, as Hinduism. Every text of Scripture the one great principle which abin which the grace of God is men- sorbed his heart, and actuated all his tioned or alluded to, contradicts the conduct. . . But it may be seen by an statement which makes man the first attention to the context in all the

pasmover, makes man's obedience the sages where these expressions occuri.e. tried sure foundation-stone, builds all • Christ crucified'), that it is in a very upon a man's goodness, makes man different view, and, in fact, the opposite his own redeemer, and crowns human to the modern notion, which St. Paul excellence and perseverance with always intends by it. It is the necesknowledge of God here and fruition sity of being crucified to the worldof God hereafter. Was this the it is our humiliation together with knowledge of which Paul speaks ? “I him, mortification of the flesh, being count all things but loss for the excel- made conformable to his sufferings lence of the knowledge of Christ Jesus and his death." And again; “ All my Lord, for whom I have suffered the good that can be done to others the loss of all things, and do count must be by calling out by some means them but dung that I may win Christ their self-denial. The kingdom of heaand be found in him, not having my preached; but the violent alone own righteousness which is of the law, press into the possession of it. Naonbut that which is through the faith of para panuata was an ancient proverb, Christ, the righteousness which is of and is universally exclusive; there is God by faith" (Phil. iii.); or was no strength but in the cross. It will althis the obedience of which Peter ways be true of human nature, that it speaks to those who are “elect ac- cannot approach God without a sacri. cording to the foreknowledge of God fice.the Father, through sạnctification of It would be difficult in all the multhe Spirit, unto obedience, and sprin- titudinous volumes that have been kling of the blood of Jesus Christ ?written against the doctrines of grace, No, the obedience of Oxford is irre- to find anything so bold as this; to spective both of election and of the make “ the sacrifice” wherewith we sprinkling of the blood of Jesus are to approach God, our own mortiChrist. This wicked tract, which we fications, is not only rejecting the are examining, formally and delibe- sacrifice of the Lord our Righteousrately tells us that there should be a

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A few years

ness, but rejecting it by means of a Christ must remain, and the law pun; it is sporting with the words of perish, or the law must remain and Scripture, as if in derision of the Christ perish; for Christ and the law sacred text, in order to shew how “the can by no means agree and reign togegood men” of Oxford have discovered ther in the conscience. Where the such mysteries in the Bible as no righteousness of the law ruleth, there other person ever before dreamed of. cannot the righteousness of grace But mark the expression “the modern rule; and again, where the righteousnotion.” How modern ?

ness of grace reigneth, there cannot old only? No; that is not the mean- the righteousness of the law reign; ing of this Tract—modern as com- for one of them must needs give place pared with Popery : introduced by the to the other. And if thou canst not reformation, and not according to the believe that God will forgive thy sins Catholic consent of the Church,” i.e. for Christ's sake, whom he sent into not according to the theology of St. the world to be our high priest; how, Jerome, and St. Vincent Lirinensis, then, I pray thee, wilt thou beand St. Basil, and St. Ambrose, and lieve that he will forgive the same for St. Pacian, and St. Gregory Thauma- the works of the law, which thou canst turgus, and St. Gregory Nazianzen, never perform, or for thine own works, and the angelical doctor, St. Thomas which, as thou must be constrained to Aquinas, and all that squadron of confess, be such as it is impossible for saints and doctors registered in the them to countervail the judgment of popish ritual, to which the Oxford God. tractators are continually referring “ It seemeth to be a light matter to for theological instruction.

mingle the law and the Gospel, faith That these “ modern notions” are and works, together ; but it doth more at least as old as the Reformation, not mischief than a man's reason can coneven the modern tractators will dare ceive : for it doth not only blemish to deny; but lest they should have and darken the knowledge of grace, forgotten the burstings forth of that but also it taketh away Christ, with day-spring from on high, which gave all his benefits; and it utterly overlight to them which sat in darkness throweth the Gospel, as Paul saith in and in the shadow of death, and this place. The cause of this great guided their feet into the



peace, evil is our flesh, which, being plunged we will, as some relief after labouring in sins, seeth no way how to get out, through the palpable obscure of the but by works : and therefore it would Oxford mists, transcribe a passage live in the righteousness of the law, from Luther; it on Gal. i. 7,“ And and rest in the trust and confidence would pervert the gospel of Christ;" of her own works. Wherefore, it is

_" that is to say, they do not only go utterly ignorant of the doctrine of about to trouble you, but also utterly faith and grace, without the which, to abolish and overthrow Christ's notwithstanding, it is impossible for Gospel, and never rest till they have the conscience to find rest and quietbrought it to pass. Yet such pervert

“ The more holy ers of the Gospel can abide nothing the heretics seem to be in outward less than to hear that they are the shew, so much the more mischief they apostles of the devil; nay, rather, they do ; for if the false apostles had not glory above others in the name of been endued with notable gifts, with Christ, and boast themselves to be great authority, and a shew of holimost sincere preachers of the Gospel. ness, and had not vaunted themselves But because they mingle the law with to be Christ's ministers, the apostles' the Gospel, they must needs be per- disciples, and sincere preachers of the verters of the Gospel. For either Gospel, they could not so easily have


a simi

defaced Paul's authority, and led the book, with shocking impiety, equalGalatians out of the way.”

ises with the Redeemer; and this is A few more specimens of the sub- the man that the Oxford Tractators ject of this tract should not be omitted select as an instance of “ Christ con

—they are incidental remarks. Theau- cealed in the good conduct of his thor undertakes to shew that “Christ, saints.” as seen in the conduct of good men, The tract, in a sly hint, introduces thus conceals himself;” and proves it the heresy of celibacy, “ forbidding to by the “retiredness of spirit,” and marry,” according to that which was “solitariness of spirit” of his eminent predicted of “

predicted of “seducing spirits and saints. The illustrations selected are doctrines of devils” (1 Tim. iv. 1). “ It in the characters of George Herbert, is worthy of consideration," says

this Robert Nelson, Thomas à Kempis, * tract, “ that those who speak of the and one whose name is ushered in intimate connection of Christ with his with still greater reverence

church, under the type of marriage, lar sacred reserve was the character- are the Baptist, St. Paul, and St. John ; istic of Charles I”! Of all persons as if it were to THE HIGHER, OR in history, this unfortunate monarch VIRGIN STATE OF LIFE, that is the last we should have expected to the mysteries signified by this figure see announced as one in whom Christ, were confided(41). Thus we beas seen in his good conduct, concealed hold this system of iniquity gradually himself;" if, indeed, we had not no- unfolding itself. A long course of ticed this last sentence in Mr. Froude's practical obedience is the only way to remains, from which the tract before come to the knowledge of God; but us frequently makes quotations,—“I if we would reach the highest mysadore Archbishop Laud and Charles teries, we must be in “ the higher, or 1." If ever there was one in whose virgin state;" i. e. we must not enter character deceit and falsehood predo- into the holy estate of matrimony, lest minated, it was in this monarch. we should thereby defile ourselves Treachery ran through the whole of with women!

Truly the Oxford his life: it began with his love-errand Tractators are right here in appealing to Spain; it attended him in all his long to the 6 Catholic consent of the struggle with his people, and was the Church ;" for, from Origen and Terimmediate cause of his execution. The tullian, through St. Jerome, and St. discovery of his incurable duplicity, John Chrysostom, down through the but a few weeks before his trial, con- whole list of the holy popes and holy vinced the popular leaders, that with friars of the Romish Church, we shall such a man there could be no treaty, find them, with a marvellous consent, no safety of any compact. Charles I. declaring that the virgin state is the died a victim to his own duplicity. most acceptable and meritorious, and But this is the man that the prayer- that marriage is only a tolerable evil.

To what practical extent the Oxford * Thomas à Kempis. The March number of the British Magazine notices with

“good men” have applied this fadispleasure, that in a new edition of Thomas vourite heresy of Anti-christ, remains à Kempis, with an introduction by Dr. to be seen. The authority of “ Saint” Chalmers, the entire fourth book is wanting, John Chrysostom on this subject, may without even a hint that such a book ever

be not unacceptable, as

we have existed. This is characteristic of the British Magazine. The fourth book launches deeply already given a specimen of other into Popish doctrine, on the transubstantia. heresies propounded by that famous tion, “the dignity of the sacrament, and preacher. What is sweeter than the sacerdotal order." No Protestant could

virginity," says Chrysostom, “what is publish the fourth book ; but with the Oxford school it is, of course, inestiinably pre

more beautiful ?--what more lumicious.

nous (PWTELVOTepor)? for it even makes the splendour of the sun's beams to or should now be on my death-bed, shine more brilliant; it separates us yet, nevertheless, in honor of this from all the affairs of this life, and state of matrimony, I would have prepares us to look fixedly on the sun caused, or yet would cause, myself to of righteousness" (i. 283). « The vir- be betrothed to some honest maid, gins of the Church find many good and, for a marriage gift, I would give things (aya0a) which surpass the her a couple of silver cups.sight, and hearing, and mind of man” Yea, and those cups shall never be (i. 276). “ Virginity is a good thing, empty: one is brim-full of the love of this I acknowledge; but that it is God to man, and the other brim-full better than marriage, this also I agree of the love of man to his wife: and, to: and if you wish to know how maugre the Pope and the Oxford much higher I place it than matri- Tracts—we assert it with all the conmony, I answer, as earth is above fidence that ever animated the saints heaven, or the angels above men” (i. and prophets of the Lord, that it is not 275). The authors of the Oxford possible for man, whilst he is upon Tracts will thank us for these ex- earth, to be in a higher, holier, or tracts, as every thing uttered by “ St. purer state than when he is united to John Chrysostom” is, to them, full as Christ by a living faith, and united to valid as the authority of the Word of his wife in holy, happy, and fruitful God. But after such pernicious and love. unprincipled sentiments, it is but fair

The Tract, having led its credulous to transcribe, as an antidote, the glori- scholars into “the higher, or virgin ous words of Luther : “ He that hath state," would, as one step higher, not within himself the gift of celibacy, ensconce them in hermitages, and set the same prevaileth nothing with fast- them to the “ holy work of conteming, with watching, or other things plation;" would convert them into that plague and torment the body, Yogees, or Brahminical solitudinathereby thinking to live in a state of rians, according to the approved pracpurity. I myself have found it by tice of all the sons of darkness from experience; not that my temptations time immemorial. The advice is given were great therein.

But moreover in the division of the Tract headed and besides, although one had the gift “ This knowledge is considered as to live in celibacy, yet he ought to take something infinite and divine;" under a wife in contradiction to the Pope, which it is asserted, that “the prewho presseth upon the unmarried eminent saints of God stand out from life, and forbiddeth the spiritual per- the human race by a kind of solitude sons to marry: these are tricks and of spirit, from their minds appearing snares of the devil, whereby he goeth to be conversant with things above about to take from us the freedom of human nature ;” and Abraham, St. God's word. We must not only speak John, and St. Paul, are the examples and teach against the same, but also adduced; but in what respect they we must put in act; that is, we must illustrate the position, it is very diffimarry, thereby to contradict and op- cult to comprehend. At any rate, pose the false and superstitious ordi- Abraham, at least, was not in the nances and decrees of the Pope : for “higher, or virgin state,” whatever it the prophet saith ; Get up into the may please the author of the Tract to high mountain, lift up thy voice;' that assert regarding the celibacy of Paul is, we must not be silent, otherwise we and John—a celibacy, the existence might yield too much to them. For I of which cannot be proved even by wholly and fully resolved thus with tradition, without dispute ; for “ Saint" myself, before I took a wife, that Clemens Alexandrinus asserts, that although unawares I should have died, Paul had a wife, and was the father

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