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the tutelage of the monks, was prepared for the priesthood; into which grade, after a preparation of five years, he was duly elevated.

On the mode of baptism, then, in the twelfth century, there can be no question, it was by trine immersion, according to the custom which had been introduced about the middle of the second century, and of which Tertullian has given us a description. At the first, baptism was by a single immersion ; but when the symbolical elements and typical rites came into vogue, they thought to make the ordinance more complete by three immersions, in honour of the three persons of the Trinity. Baptism by immersion was partially continued in the Romish Communion till the sixteenth century. By the rubric of the first edition of the English prayer book, in the reign of Edward VI., trine immersion was commanded :-"I Then the Priest shall take the child in his hands, and ask the name; and naming the child, shall dip it in the water thrice. First, dipping the right side ; second, the left side ; the third time, dipping the face toward the font: so it be discreetly and warily done.” In the next edition, the rubric was altered thus :-" Then the Priest shall take the child in his hands, and ask the name ; and naming the child, shall dip it in the water, so it be discreetly and warily done, -saying," &c. “And if the child be weak, it shall suffice to pour water upon it, saying the foresaid words." The prayer which accompanied baptism in that era of the established Church is remarkable :-“O merciful God, grant that the old Adam in them that shall be baptized in this fountain, may be so buried, that the new man may be raised up again :" words which significantly indicate the sense in which the founders of the Church of England interpreted Rom. vi. 4 ; Col. 12; and 1. Cor. xv. 29; they understood immersion to represent the burial of the baptised person. This also was the interpretation adopted by the celebrated Pierre du Moulin, a Presbyterian minister of Geneva, in the early part of the seventeenth century. We give his commentary in his own words:

-- Le sens de ces mots doit estre pris du but de l’Apostre: son but est de prouver la resurrection : à cela il employe le Baptesme, lequel se faisoit lors par un plongement entier de la personne, en l'eau, en signe que nous sommes en la mort ; et l'issue de l'eau representoit la resurrection. Sainct Paul donc veut dire que ce signe seroit vain, s'il n'y avoit point de resurrection, et qu'en vain sommes nous baptisez pour morts, et pour representer que nous sommes en la mort, s'il n'y a nulle esperance de resurrection” (Faux de Siloé, p. 173).

That the death, burial, and resurrection, of believers in partnership with Christ, was represented in the immersion and emersion of baptism, and that this was the meaning of Paul in the passages of Scripture already referred to, is very generally the opinion of the ancient fathers. Chrysostom has explained this in lucid words :

-"When we, as it were in some grave, plunge your heads under the water, then the old man is buried, and going underneath, the whole man is entirely hid. kataờvs katw KPUTTETAL Ółog kabataš—then, we lifting you up, the new man rises up” (Homil. iii. in John). And to the same effect, Cyril of Jerusalem :—“The sting of death is destroyed by baptism : thou didst descend into the water bearing thy sins; but the invocation of grace sealing thy soul, does not permit afterwards that thy soul shall be swallowed up by that dreadful dragon. Thou descendest dead in sins ; thou comest up quickened, or restored to life, in righteousness :-vekposer αμαρτίαις καταβας αναβαινεις ζωοποιηθεις εν δικαιοσυνη-for if thou wast planted together in the likeness of the death of the Saviour, so also shalt thou be judged worthy of his resurrection. For as the Saviour took the sins of the whole world, and died, that by killing death he might bring about a resurrection in righteousness ; thus thou also, having descended into the water, and being buried there with him after a manner as he was in the rock, shalt be raised again, and walk in new. ness of life” (Cateches. iii).

456

GENERAL INTELLIGENCE.

DISSENTERS' COLLEGES.-A LEARNED

MINISTRY.

sures.

In the Congregational Magazine for August is the following information :

"The annual meeting of the supporters and friends of this excellent and venerable institution was held in the College Library, on Wednesday, the 26th of June, 1839—Henry Walker, Esq., the treasurer, in the chair. After prayer by the Rev. B. Hobson, of Welford, the senior student delivered an interesting essay on the 6 Invisible State.” The Rev. Messrs. Gilbert, Eccles, J. Stratten, G. B. Kidd, Scarborough, R. Weaver, M‘All, Stowell, Thomas Smith, James Bruce, J. Harrison, and other gentlemen addressed the meeting in brief but earnest and encouraging speeches. The character and attainments of the students, affording, as they do, unquestionable proof of the ability, learning, and piety of their excellent tutors, present the most encouraging prospects for the future prosperity and usefulness of the institution, which has already been so distinguishing a blessing to our churches throughout the British empire ; and it is confidently hoped that its friends, and the friends of an educated and pious ministry generally, will be stimulated to renewed and persevering exertions on its behalf. The increased and increasing number of the students requires liberal aid, so that the tutors and committee may be able to conduct the aff of the institution, and effectually help pious and devoted young men in their preparation for the difficult and important task of the ministry, free from the anxiety about funds, a deficiency of which is so serious an embarrassment to the due discharge of these duties.

“The junior class was examined in the Eclogues of Virgil, in portions of Valpy's Greek Dilectus, and in the Greek Testament. The translations from the Latin were partly literal and without premeditation, and partly written, with a view to comprise elegance of expression with correctness of rendering.

1. The next class read in Cicero's first oration against Catiline, as well as in the Cyropædia of Xenophon.

6 The senior class read, with constant attention to prosody, a considerable portion of the Prometheus Vinctus of Æschylus, and translated with a fluency, selection of words (?), and accuracy, which shewed that, with a little perseverance in the study of this language, they would soon be able to master its difficulties, to enjoy its beauties, and to possess themselves readily of its trea

“In Hebrew the junior class translated from the eighth chapter of Genesis ; the senior class was examined in Isaiah, and in the Chaldee portion of Daniel : they also read the first chapter of Philippians in the Syriac tongue.

“ The evening, to a late bour, was occupied by the theological class, of which there was an extensive examination on those subjects which had been treated in the lectures of the past session. Numerous questions were proposed to them on some of the most important and difficult doctrines of Christianity, and on the controversies with which they have been associated. To these inquiries they gave very ready replies, and such as to prove equally that their studies had been very skilfully directed, and the ability and willingness with which they had availed themselves of their advantages. The examiners were exceedingly gratified with what they had witnessed during the day, and they entertain a sanguine anticipation that the talents and acquirements of the young men in the house will become an extensive blessing to the churches, and fully sustain and advance the reputation of this very respectable and longestablished institution."

On the 2d of July the students of Highbury College were examined. The theological examiner selected for this occasion was the Rev. W. Lindsay Alesander, M.A., of Edinburgh. His “

testimony” is published in the Congregational Magazine, and speaks highly of the proficiency of the students in the Hebrew tongue. In divinity they were examined at considerable length upon the evidences of Christianity, and upon the arguments in proof of the existence, unity, and trinity of the Godhead.

re

Dr. Halley, the classical tutor of and Palæmon, Menalcas and Mopsus. Highbury College, has resigned his They learn to make the woods resound office in that institution, in order to with the name of the beautiful Amarylaccept the pastorate vacant by the death lis, and declare in tender strains how of Dr. M'All, of Manchester.

Galatæa is sweeter to them than the Mr. Henry Rogers, the professor of honey of Hybla and the roses of Pæstum, logic and rhetoric, has also resigned, in and they promiset the god Terminus order to occupy the chair of mathemati- that if their flocks increase they will raise cal and intellectual philosophy at the a gilded statue to his honour. Little did new college of the Congregational Dis- Tityrus dream, when he was piping senters, at Spring-hill, Birmingham. under his wide-spreading beech-tree,

The Rev. John H. Godwin, of Nor- that within a century a sect should arise wich, has accepted the situation of " destined to throw down all his gods and sident and philosophical tutor" at High- goddesses, and to evert his mythology, bury; and Mr. William Smith, late of root and branch, as a diabolical deluUniversity College, has accepted the de- sion; and still less could he anticipate partment of classical tutor, vacant by that eighteen centuries afterwards the Dr. Halley.

priests of that very sect should com

mence their clerical studies by reading Here then there is abundant prepara- his ditties, and passing examinations in tion to set up the wisdom and strength his idolatrous elegancies. of man against 6 the foolishness and Tityrus, Corydon, and Damætas have weakness of God” (1 Cor. i. 25). Nor their revenge in the colleges of Rotherdoes anything seem to have been omitted ham, Highbury, and Spring-hill. Chriswhich could prepare the students,” by tianity overthrew Paganism, but Paganan acquaintance with the Greek and ism is now undermining Christianity. Latin poets, the Hebrew Scriptures, The senior class was examined in the ancient mythology, modern divinity, Prometheus Vinctus of Æchylus; and, if Greek tragedies, " the most important we were here disposed to allegorise a little, and difficult doctrines of Christianity," we might say somewhat of Prometheus, mathematics, the Greek Testament, as representing the Christian strong in philosophy, metaphysics, logic, and rhe- the elements which are not of this world, toric, to come forth to the world as and conferring benefits on mankind by “men of talent,” and “ by their talents the fire which he derived from heaven ; and acquirements to confer extensive but when a new idolatry came in vogue, blessings on the churches.”

as no longer able to resist the tyranny of The junior class begins with Virgil's the fashionable system, and therefore Eclogues. The nascent clergy find their succumbing to its pressure, Force and pabulum amongst the swains of Latium, Strength—Bin and Kpatos-chain him with Tityrus* and Melibæus, Damætas down on the hard rocks, and insult over

him, as the Philistines did over Samson, The first eclogue of Virgil has always

and tauntingly remind him that he can appeared to us to express most felicitously

now do no more mischief; that he who the pleasures of the pastoral life, as we too

was a man of popular arts—lewpyov-is frequently see it in these days. With what now himself in servility, and “must give force the following lines describe the grate- up all hopes of resisting the power of ful feelings of a young clergy man who is the gods of this world.” Prometheus recounting the benefits conferred on him by feels his thraldom, and the vulture is his patron :

settled on his side; he beholds the ty“ O Melibæe, Deus nobis hæc otia fecit, ranny every where predominant : never

Namque erit ille mihi semper Deus; theless, he consoles himself that the days Ille meas errare boves, ut cernis, et ipsum of this tyranny too are numbered, and Ludere quæ vellem calamo permisit

that fate has fixed an irrevocable decree agresti.”—Ecl. i. 6.

against the apostasy.

“ These new gods “My patron shall always be a divinity to me, for be put me into this life of ease when be gave me this gem, the prettiest living in Stoddart, that cost eighty-five guineas.”England. He gave me this easy duty, so that See Inquirer, p. 418. I can let my flock wander whithersoever it + “Nunc te marmoreum pro tempore feci. may please them, as you see they do; whilst

mus; at tu I myself do just wbat I like, and occa- Si fætura gregem suppleverit, aureus sionally amuse myself with a piano-forte by

esto."--Bcl. vii. 33.

think they dwell in habitations free from fashion; politics; influence in elections, all approach of care: but they are mis- influence in newspapers, influence in taken ; for I, who have already seen two town-councils, influence in intellect, indynasties ejected, shall see this third fluence in eloquence ; these seem to be Lord of Heaven most miserably over- the prize of the high calling of those who thrown." (Prom. Vinct. 991.)

name themselves members of a church of And what then has been the force Christ, and who consequently are supwhich has chained down the strong one ? posed, by courtesy, at least,“ to have We answer, it has been the principles of crucified the flesh with the affections and this world ; the theory that the strength iusts thereof." And what, then, is at the and wisdom of man is the strength root of all this ? Certainly the system and wisdom of the church ; and that as of the priesthood, and the preparation men are made powerful in terrene philo- supposed to be requisite for making a sophy by operose investigations and im- priest, is the most apparent cause to mense acquisitions of science, so they which all may be traced. The congremay also make themselves equally power- gationalists have, through the Church of ful in theology, by nursing the intended England, from the Church of Rome, ministers of the Christian religion in inherited the apostasy. That apostasy classical lore, in heathen literature, in began in distrusting God the Holy Spirit mathematics, rhetoric, and logic. And as the governor of the church (compare is there not a hard captivity in this sys- 1 Cor. xii. 11 with verse 18), and in settem? Is there not weakness in it visible

ting up a “regularly ordained” caste of in the state of the churches? The land priests to take the functions of the whole is now very well stocked with learned body of believers. Rome for many cenministers; much the greater number of turies laboured to bring this system to its them, it is to be supposed, have by this full perfection according to carnal wistime come forth from the discipline of dom, and left, as a legacy of death, to the colleges, but what has been the her rebellious daughter the Church of result? Si monumentum quæris, circum- England, the parish priest, the one man, spice. Examine the actual state of the the only person (persona, hence parson : churches, and make the report according in Popery, the parson is the only acto the abundance of facts which every knowledged person of the church) to rewhere present themselves. Where there present believers. The dissenters omitis one of these talented and well-informed ted many evils of the Anglican church, ministers who are conferring blessings but to give up the one person of the by their talents on the churches," as they church, and for the church, was beyond tell us, how great is the number, on the their courage, or knowledge, or faith. other hand, where, even according to Hence they must have a distinct clerical the congregational estimate, matters are body; and if they have clergymen, then as discouraging as they well can be ! must they supply by learning and talent But even where all to the outward eye in them the deficiency of strength which seems in high prosperity, when the was intended to be, and for a season incongregation is numerous,

and the deed was, in all the saints. Having now chapel revenue is flowing in with a full become identified with the clerical hetide of opulence, and the church mem- resy, they are obliged to uphold it as bers are not a few,-how even then their very life; and all that they can do, sometimes is there less cause for satis- now that they are in this terra incognita faction than where, in a small village, an (this land unknown in the Gospel impoverished pastor is, with a heart full of charts), is to make the best of it, and to care, labouring amongst a poor and weak burn their ships, lest, peradventure

, flock! The worldly spirit is painfully some should wish to return. As a apparent in some flourishing dissenting learned ministry is now indispensable churches; it seems to be almost the with them, then the more learning they bond of union between its members : can acquire, the stronger they will or worldliness in all their outward appoint- ought to be, according to their theory. ments, in all their actions, in the whole And thus they keep advancing in the aim and bent of their lives. The acqui- path of error, till they have reached the sition of wealth, and the enjoyment of it ; very navel of the labyrinth. For a while the art of rising in the world, not above they were content with the Heathen it; the display of a formidable front to poets and prose writers, but now they rival systems, by education, opulence, have added mathematics, and have un

66

The an

swer

dertaken to drive all the clerical stu. chair, no doctor of divinity, can possibly dents over the Pons Asinorum, the Asses' reveal. They may talk about it, and the Bridge of Euclid. Having threaded their students may talk about it; but to speak weary way through the angles and circles in it is not an art to be obtained in a of the mathematician of Alexandria, they college. I believed, and therefore have dash into dialectics, and run through I spoken,” is the result of an erudition rhetoric, and then, last of all, are turned from the Great Teacher, whose chair is out into the interminable region of “phi- above the schools of mortality, and in losophy,” which may mean either meta- whose training this truth is first to be physics, according to its classical im- learned, “ that no flesh shall glory in his port, or

“all the ologies” of the modern presence;" for those who are his discischool!

ples “are of God in Christ Jesus, who These, then, are the only acknowledged of God is made unto them wisdom, and teachers of the Congregational churches ; righteousness, and sanctification, and rethese are the monarchical pastors whose demption ; that according as it is written, mouths may alone utter knowledge He that glorieth let him glory in the amongst “the holy brethren;" these are Lord.” the speaking monitors amongst the chosen But the students are taught in the though silent generation—the royal college ; and in their college-learning they though lay priesthood—and the holy have their strength. They receive a call though speechless nation. Is it then to to a Church; they are duly ordained by be expected, by any one who understands imposition of hands; they mount the the theory of the gospel, that teachers of pulpit ; and they preach such things as these pretensions, and with such an edu- they have scholastically acquired : an cation, should place their joy and strength oration they duly produce on any imagiin those doctrines in which there is life nable subject within the range of theology and power for the Church ?

-on the attributes—on Christian virtues may

be taken in the fact ; for if we -on “difficult questions.” A difficult enquire into the preaching of the doc- question is their delight, that they may trines of grace (which, however, is only build on it a “splendid argument.” They one important fact in this enquiry), it is dazzle, they sparkle, they blaze, they notorious that they are but very faintly pour forth torrents of rhetoric ; they deacknowledged in the Congregational liver their studied harangues with someChurches, and in some Churches are thing like enthusiasm ; they astonish never mentioned at all. There may be their hearers, and the people are delightmore than one explanation of this phe- ed with the abilities of their pastor. nomenon : but one is obvious. The stu- Sometimes, in the course of their ministry, dents who prepare for the ministry in the doctrines of grace are unlocked, and the colleges, are moral young men, who brought out of the strong box; but it is have received by education the orthodox with caution and timidity: for nothing scheme of evangelical tenets : these tenets the minister so much dreads as that his are further scholastically inculcated in people should not be practical in their the collegiate discipline, and by rhetoric views_(which has a deeper meaning and logic, and by close reasoning, the with the minister than we care to analyse fundamentals of the protestant faith are in this place)—and so he takes care to fortified in the minds of the academi- be practical and metaphysical, and logical cians. They write themes upon faith and rhetorical: but all this time he has and

compose

orations on never known by experience what it is to similar topics, and all difficult and ab- flee from the pursuer of his soul to the struse questions of technical theology city of refuge; he cannot, in the gratethey learn with the most precise accu- ful remembrance of his own salvation, racy, so as to be able to answer logically

6 ( taste and see that the Lord is all opponents. But all this while their good—blessed is the man that trusteth hearts are not taught; the teaching of the in him;" he cannot utter one word more Lord's people (John vi. 45, Eph. iv. 21, than he has learned in his education, 1 Thess. iv. 9) cannot be administered though he never would so far forget himby this system ; the sense of perdition self as to state anything opposed to the under unpardoned sin, and the joy of creed of the orthodox. To preach the salvation when grace is revealed, through gospel in the sense of life received, and the spiritual knowledge of Christ, no not in word only, but with power, is the tutors, no lecture-rooms, no professor's gift of those who have been in the good

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