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Paro SOHNSON, DR, Fate of Charles XII., 70 MICKIEWICZ, The Moor's Revenge, 458 The Wise Man's Prayer, . . 102 Miltox, The Saviour's Reply, .

59 JOnysox, E., The Water Drinker,

99
Moloch's Address,

.. 122 Jounson, R., Europe's Strupules,

Belial's Address, .

. 131 Joxsox, BEX, Catiline to his Army, . 12:2

Destruction of the Philistines, . 407 KELLOGG, Spurtacus to the Gladiators, .

Satan's Encounter with Death, : .408 KENNEDY, The Mechanical Epoch, . 41

llymn of our First Parents, KREUSITZEP, Rich and Poor,

. 5:36 MIRABEAU, Against the Nobles, ác., 171 KISG, Future of the U.S...

395
On Necker's Plan,

172 KNOWLEY, J. S., Speech of Caius Gracchus, 116

Disobedience to the Assembly, 1733 " Alfred to his Men,

Reply,

lit " " Caesar at the Rubicon,

On being Suspected, * St. Pierre to Ferrardo, . . 457

Eulogium on Franklin,
“ Wm. Tell on Switzerland, 488

Church and State, .
« Tell among the Mountains, 459 MITFORD, Rienzi to the Romans,

. 138 Kyox, The Curse of Cain, .

• 451 MONTGOMERY, JAMES, Love of Country, . 72 KORSFB, Batlle-hymn, .

. 159

The Common Lot, 75 Kossima: Appeal to the Ilungarians, 377

Patriot's Pass-worl, 139
Contentment of Europe, 378 Moors, The Torch of Liberty
Ilungarian Heroisin,

. 379 VORE, Duty to Country,
In a Just Cause,
. 379 MORRIS, Judiciary Act, .

299 Peace inconsistent,

Free Navigation,

.300. LAMARTINE, Revolutionary Men, . 53 MORTOx, Not ashamed of his Occupatiori, .001 Byron to the Greeks, . • 151 MOUNTFORD, Plea for the Sailor,

393 The Republic, 185 NAPOLEON, To the Army of Italy,

150 T.EE, For Independence,

. 285 NAYLOR, Ainerican Jaborers, LEE, NATHANIEL, Brutus and Titus, . 492 NEELE, Where is he, .

. 94 LELALE, The L. S. Constitution, . 313 NICHOL, Day conceals, Ou Returning to the U.S., ...31+ Norrox, The Soldier from Bingen,

122 LIVINGSTON, Aristocracy, . 292 Nores, Translation from Job),

561 Liry, Scipio to his Ariny, .

. 103

Translation - True Wisdom, llannibal to his Army,

. 101

Translation from Psalms,
Titus Quintius to the People, . 11+ O'COXSELL, Religious Liberty,
Virginias against Claudius, . 120

Irish Disturbance Bill,
Cuius against Patricians, ..121 Osgoon, Labor is Worship,

61 Logas, Speech or,

553 OTIS, JAMES, Supposed Speech of, LONGIALLOW, Lines, 80 OTWAY, Priuli and Jaffier,

514 Excelsior,

41 PALMERSTON, LORD, Civil War, Lover, Never Despair,

8+ PARDOE, The Beacon Light, LowTi, Translation from Isaiah, 464 | Pattex, The Seminole's Denance,

. 159 Lent, The Ship of State,

79 Paul, Defence, Lroys, Triumphs of Enzlish language, 99 PEABODY, Moses,

50 The Tempest Stiller, .

413 PEEL, Legislative Union, LYTTOx, SIR E. B., The Bari's Summons, . 135 Picuat, Speech of Leonidas,

107 “ Caradoc to Cyrians, . 136 PIERPONT, Whittling, .

537 “ Damon and Pythias, . 4:27 PINKNEY, Disunion,

301 The Battle, 429 PITT, American War Denouncert,

232 “ “ “ Richelieu to the King, . 474 On the Censure of Ministry, 4 4 4 Cromwell at Collin,

475 " Attempt to make him Resign, 233 MACACLAY, Icilius on Virginia's Seizure, . 118 Barbarism of Ancient Britons, Battle of Ivry,

. 143 Pope, The Order of Nature, . Irish Church,

267 The Dying Christian, .
Hlours of Labor,

. 268 PRAED, Charade,
Reform to Preserve, ... 269 PRENTISS, S. S., Defalcations,

:. 342 Men lit to be Free,

. 270
a «' Relief to Ireland,

..381 Second Bill of Rights, . 270 PRESTON, Eloquence and Logic,

883 Public Opinion and the Sword, 271 | PROCTER, Courage,

456 A Government should Grow, · 272 PULTENEY, Reducing the Army, Reform irresistible, 273 | Pos MATAHA, Speech of,

..652 Fate of Virginia, . 432 Pym, End of Government,

, 192 14 Horatius at the Bridge, . 433 QUINCY, The Embargo,

303 MAKAY, Cleon and I,

77 QUINCY, J., JR., British Aggressions, . 833 The Days that are Gone, . . 100 RANDOLPH, E., Extent of Country, SIACKINTOSH, England anıl America, . . · 251 RANDOLPU, Joux, British Influence, • Defence of Peltier, .

. 365

Greek Question, . Madisoy, Innovations,

Virginia Constitution, . 307 MANSFIELD, LORD, Present Popularity, . . 214 RECOlus, Speech of,

Attempts to Bias, .36+ RICHARD, To the Princes of the Crusaule, . 110 Marullrs, To the People,

. 126 RICHMOND, To his Men, . Massillos, Immortality, • 38 Rienzi, To the Romans,

. 138 DIATHEWY, Nothing in it, .617 | ROBESPIERRE, Agains. War,

,190 Mazzini, Ad Iress to Young Men,

Morality the Basis, McDuffie, Popular Elections,

Last Speech.

182 MCLEAN, Moral Power,. ..370 | RorssEAU, Death,

69 VEREDUSU, Frequent Executions, ... 207 | Rusu, On the Voice,

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INDEX TO NAMES OF AUTHORS, ETC.

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Pago RUSKIN, Utility of the Beautiful,

39 TACITUS, Speech of Galgacus, ROSSELL, LORD J., Parliament Reform, . . 266 TALFOURD, The World,

.. 41 Sallust, Caius Marius,

Charity,

84 SCHILLER, Damon and Pythias,

Copyright,

... 276 The Batle,

429

Literary Property, .
The Glove,

... 431
International Copyright, ..

278
To the Swiss,
..508 TAYLOR, What Makes a Hero, ·

66 Tell in Wait for Gesler,

Van Artevelde to Men of Ghent, . 145
Tell's Escape,

Van Artevelde's Defence,
Wallenstein's Soliloquy,

Van den Bosch and Artevelde, . 520
Belief in Astrology, ..513 TELEMACHUS, To the Allies, .

113 Grief of Bereavement, ...514 Thomson, Death Typified by Winter, 82 SCIPIO, to his Army,

. 103
Universal Hymn,

465 Scott, Sir WALTER, Princes of Crusade, . 140 THURLOW, LORD, Reply, Lochinvar,

415 | Titus QUINTIUS, Speech of, Marmion taking Leave, 416 Tobin, Balthazar and the Quack,

...491 Death of Marmion, . 417 TOCQUEVILLE, DE, Democracy, Death of Bertram, 418 TRELAT, To the Peers,

.... 183 Love of Country, . . 419 UHLAND, The Passage, SEGER, DE, Utility of History, ... 56 VAXE, Against Richard Cromwell,

.. 196 SERGEANT, Military Qualifications, . • .325 VERGNIAUD, To the French, . SIAKSPEARE, Polonius to Laertes, ., 94

Terrorism of Jacobins,

. 179 Marullus to the People, . 126 VERPLANCK, America's Contributions, Brutus on Cæsar's Death, 126 VIRGINIA, Ballad of,

432 Mark Antony, : . 127 VIRGINICS, Against Claudius,

120 Richmond to his Men, .. 141 VILLEMAIN, The Christian Orator,

64
Henry V. to his Men, . . 142 | WALKER, Rules of Inflection,
Brutus and Cassius, . 500

On Gesture,
Regrets of Drunkenness,

Failure of his Method,
Cassius instigates Brutus, . 500 WALPOLE, How to make Patriots, .... 196
Cardinal Wolsey,

Against Pitt,
Hamlet to the Players, . . 502 WASHINGTON, To the Army,

... 150 Hamlet's Soliloquy,

France and the U. S.,
Snea, The O'Kavanagh,

.. 447
Foreign Influence,

... 294 SHELLEY, Peace and War,

.. 437 WAT TYLER, Speech of, . Drones of the Community, • 472 WAYLAND, International Sympathies, SHEIL, Charges against Catholics, . 260 WEBSTER, Eloquence of Action,

53 Irish Aliens,

261

Supposed Speech of J. Adams, . 288
Irish Establishment,

. 262
Opposition,

326 Repeal of Union,

Moral Force, :

327 England's Misrule,

Sympathy with South America, 328
Colonna to the King, .

.. 507
The Poor and Rich,

. 329 BHERIDAN, Atheistic Governinent, ..240

Sudden Conversions,
Political Jobbing,

Constitution Platform,

. 331 People and King,

Resistance to Oppression,
Rolla to Peruvians,

Peaceable Secession,
Putr's Account of Ilimself,

Clay's Resolutions, .

333 SURLEY, Death's Final Conquest,

58
Justice to the Whole,

534 SIMMS, The Union and Government,

Matches and over Matches, 335 SMITH, HIORICE, Merchant and Stranger, .513

S. Carolina and Mass.,

..336 Culprit and Judge,

Liberty and Union, .

338 Jester Condemned,

Guilt cannot keep its own Secret, 369
Poet and Alcheinist, . 5-17

To Revolutionary Veterans,
Blind man's Buff,

.648

State Obligations,
Moral Cosmetics,

55+

Fourth of July,
Farmer and Counsellor,

Apostrophe to Washi: gton,
Death,

Power of Public Opinion,

.. 394 Lachrymose Writers, . 556

Standard of the Constitution,
The Sanctuary,
547 WRATELY, Against Artificial Elocution,

22 SMITH, SYDNEY, Taxes, • 87 | WHITE, J. Blanco, Sonnet,

45
Government Vigor, .374 WILKES, Bold Predictions,
Rejection of Reform, .

. 374
Conquest of Americans,

213 BUITII, W. R., Prosperity, 349 Wirt, Instigators of Treason,

...36€ SOUTHEY, Wat Tyler to the King, 146 Burr and Blennerhassett,

... 307 SOUTHEY, CAROLINE B., Pauper's Death-bed, 554 Reply to Wickham,

.368 SPARTACUS, To the Gladiators,

123 WITHINGTON, To-lay, To Roman Envoys,

. 121 WOLFE, Gen., To the Army before Quebec, 147 SPRAGUE, Art,

80 Wolfe, CHARLES, Defence of Poetry, 89 STEELE, Measure of Speech, .

18

Burial of Sir J. Moore, . 15% STOCKTON, Flogging in the Navy, 350 | YANKEE, To a Child,

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67 STORY, Our Duties, ...

71 Young, Time's Midnight Voice, STRAFFORD, EARL OF, Defence

Frivolous Pleasures, 3wArx, One Story 's Good, &c.,

540) YRIARTE, The Monkey and Magpie, ..

. 193

THE

STANDARD SPEAKER.

INTRODUCTORY TREATISE.

I. ORATORY.

ORATORY, which has its derivation from the Latin verb oro, signifying to pleud, to beseech, may be defined the art of producing persuasion or conviction by means of spoken discourse. The word eloquence, in its primary signification, as its etymology implies, had a single reference to public speaking ; but it is applied by Aristotle, as well as hy modern writers, to compositions not intended for public delivery. A similar extension of meaning has been given to the word rhetoric, which, in its etymological sense, means the art of the orator, but now comprehends the art of prose composition generally.

ORATORY AMONG THE ANCIENTS.

st is apparent, from the speeches attributed by Homer to the chiefs of the Iliad, as well as by the commendations which he bestows on Nestor and Ulysses for their eloquence, that the art of Oratory was early understood and honored in Greece. But it was not till Deniosthenes appeared that Grecian eloquence reached its perfection. Demosthenes, who, by the consent of all antiquity, was the prince of orators, still maintains his preëminence. Of his style, Hume has happily said: “It is rapid harmony, exactly adjusted to the sense ; it is vehement reasoning, without any appearance of art ; it is lisdain, anger, boldness, freedom, involved in a continued stream of argument; and of all human productions, the orations of Demosthenes present to is the models which approach the nearest to perfection.” It is related of his great orator, that, in his first address to the people, he was laughed at and interrupted by their clamors. He had a weakness of voice and a stamrering propensity which rendered it difficult for him to be understood. By immense labor, and an undaunted perseverance, he overcame these defects, und subsequently, by the spell of his eloquence, exercised an unparalleled sway prer that same people who had jeered at him when they first heard him speak in public. The speeches of Demosthenes were not extemporaneous. There were no writers of short-hand in his days ; and what was written could only come from the author himself.

After the time of Demosthenes, Grecian eloquence, which was coéval with Grecian liberty, declined with the decay of the latter. In Rome, the military spirit, so incompatible with a high degree of civil freedom, long checked tlmio growth of that popular intelligence which is the only element in which the noblest eloquence is nurtured. Rhetoricians were banished from the country as late as the year of the city 592. A few years subsequent to this period, the study of Oratory was introduced from Athens; and it at length found a zealous disciple and a consummate master in Cicero, whose fame is second only to that of his Athenian predecessor. The main causes to which the extraordinary perfection of ancient Oratory is to be ascribed are the great pains bestowed on the education of the young in this most difficult art, and the practice among speakers of preparing nearly all their finest orations hefore delivery.

MODERN ORATORY

In modern times, Oratory has not been cultivated with so much care as among the ancients. The diffusion of opinions and arguments by means of the Press has, perhaps, contributed in some degree to its neglect. A speaker is now mainly known to the public through the Press, and it is often more important to him to be read than heard. Still, the power of Oratory in republican countries must always be immense, and the importance of its cultivation must be proportionate. We see it flourish or decay according to the degree of freedom among the people, and it is a bad sign for a republic when Oratory is slighted or undervalued. It was not till France began to throw off the trammels of her monarchical system, that the produced a Mirabeau. Her parliamentary annals will show that the eloquence of her National Assembly has been in proportion to the predominance of the element of constitutional freedom in her government.

The struggle against incipient despotism in England, which resulted in the execution of King Charles the First, was productive of some great bursts of eloquence from Vane, Pym, Eliot, and other champions of popular rights ; waose speeches, however, have been strangely slighted by the majority of English critics. The latter part of the eighteenth century was illumined by thie genius of Chatham, Pitt, Burke, Fox, Sheridan, and Grattan ; all of whom were roused to some of their most brilliant efforts by the arbitrary course of government towards our ancestors of the American colonies. Ireland is well represented in this immortal list. Her sons have ever displayed a true genius for Oratory.

The little opportunity afforded for the cultivation of forensic or senatorial eloquence by the different governments of Germany has almost entirely checked its growth in that country ; and we may say the same of Italy, Spain and Portugal, and most of the other countries of Europe. To the pulpit Oratory of France, the illustrious names of Bossuet, Bourdaloue and Massillon, have given enduring celebrity ; and in forensic and senatorial eloquence, France has not been surpassed by any modern nation. But it is only in her intervals of freedom that her senatorial eloquence reaches its high note.

The growth of eloquence in the United States has been such as to inspire the hope that the highest triumphs of Oratory are here to be achieved. Alrealy we have produced at least two orators, Patrick Henry and Daniel Webster, to

bon nouc, since Demosthenes, in the authority, majesty and amplitude, of ..jeir eloquence, can be pronounced superior. În proportion to the extent of vur cultivation of Oratory as an art worthy our entire devotion, must be our kuccess in enriching it with new and precious contributions. And of the power of a noble Oratory, beyond its immediate circle of hearers, who can doubt! “Who doubts ?” asks Mr. Webster, “that, in our own struggle for freedom and independence, the majestic eloquence of Chatham, the profound reasoning of Burke, the burning satire and irony of Barré, had influence on our fortunes in America ? Thiey tended to diminish the confidence of the British ministry in their hopes to subject us. There was not a reading man who did not struggle more boldly for his rights when those exhilarating

sounde, uttered in the two houses of Parliament, reached him from across the seas.”'

SUCCESS IN ORATORY.

For the attainment of the highest and most beneficent triumphs of the orator, no degree of labor can be regarded as idly bestowed. Attention, energy of will, daily practice, are indispensable to success in this high art. The author of “ Self-Formation ” remarks: “Suppose a man, hy dint of nel itation on Oratory, and by his consequent conviction of its inportance, to have wrought himself up to an energy of will respecting it, this is the life and soul of his enterprise. To carry this energy into act, he should begin with a few sentences from any speech or sermon ; he should commit them thoroughly, work their spirit into his mind, and then proceed to evolve that spirit by recitation. Let him assume the person of the original speaker,– put himself in his place, to all intents and purposes. Let him utter every sentence, and every considerable member of it,-if it be a jointed one,- distinctly, sustainedly, and unrespiringly ; suiting, of course, everywhere his tone and emphasis to the spirit of the composition. Let him do this till the exercise shall have become a habit, as it wero, a second nature, till it shall seem unnatural to him to do otherwise, and he will then have laid his corner-stone."

Quintilian tells us that it is the good man only who can become a great orator. Eloquence, the selectest boon which Heaven has bestowed on man, can never ally itself, in its highest moods, with vice. The speaker must be himself thoroughly sincere, in order to produce a conviction of his sincerity in the minds of others. His own sympathies must be warm and genial, it he would reach and quicken those of his hearers. Would he denounce oppression. His own heart must be free from every quality that contributes to make the tyrant. Would he invoke mercy in behalf of a client? He must himself be humane, generous and forgiving. Would he lash the guilty ? His own life and character must present no weak points, to which the guilty may point in derision. And not only the great orator, but the pupil who would fittingly interpret the great ortor, and declaim what has fallen from his lips, must aim at similar qualifications of mind and heart.

DIVISIONS OF ORATORY.

The Greeks divided discourses according to their contents, as relating to precept, manners, and feelings ; and as therefore intended to instruct, to please and to move. But, as various styles may oftentimes be introduced into the same discourse, it is difficult to make a strictly accurate classification. The modern division, into the eloquence of the Pulpit, the Bar, and the Senate, is hardly mere convenient and comprehensive.'

Oratory comprehends the four following divisions : invention, disposition, elocution, and delivery. The first has reference to the character of the sentiments employed ; the second, to their arrangement, and the diction in which they are clothed; the third and fourth, to the utterance and action with whi:h they are communicated to the hearer. It is the province of rhetcric to give rules for the invention and disposition of a discourse. It is with the fattor two divisions of Oratory that we have to deal in the present treatise

II. ELOCUTION. ELOCution is that pronunciation which is given to words when they are arranged into sentences, and form discourse It includes the tones of voice, the utterance, and enunciation of the speaker, with the proper accompani. ments of countenance and gesture. The art of elocution may there ore bp

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