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Cudiz? No. I looked another way. I sought materials of compensation in another hemisphere. Contemplating Spain such as our ancestors had known her, I resolved that, if France had Spain, it should not be Spain with the Indies.I called the New World into exist. ence, to redress the balance of the Old! Thus, Sir, I answer the question of the occupation of Spain by the army of France. That occupation is an unpaid and unredeemed burden to France. France would be glad to get rid of the possession of Spain. France would be very glad if England were to assist her to get rid of that possession; and the only way to rivet France to the possession of Sprin is to make that possession a point of honor. The object of the measure before the House is not war. It is to take the last chance of peace. If you do not go forth, on this occasion, to the aid of Portugal, Portugal will be trampled down, to your irrecoverable disgrace; and then war will come, and come, too, in the train of degradation. If you wait until Spain have courage to mature her secret machinations into open hostility, you will, in a little while, have the sort of war required by the pacificators: and who shall say where that war shall end ?

98. A COLLISION OF VICES, 1825. - George Canning. My honorable and learned friend began by telling us that, after all, hatred is no bad thing in itself. “I hate a tory,” says my honorable friend; "and another man hates a cat; but it does not follow that he would hunt down the cat, or I the tory.” Nay, so far from it, hatred, if it be properly managed, is, according to my honorable friends theory, no bad preface to a rational esteem and affection. It prepares its votaries for a reconciliation of differences; for lying down with their most inveterate enemies, like the leopard and the kid in the vision of the prophet. This dogma is a little startling, but it is not altogether without precedent. It is borrowed from a character in a play, which is, I dare say, as great a favorite with my learned friend as it is with me, - I mean the comedy of the Rivals; in which Mrs. Malaprop, giving a lecture on the subject of marriage to her niece (who is unreasonable enough to talk of liking, as a necessary preliminary to such a union), says, “What have you to do with your likings and your preferences, child ? Depend upon it, it is safest to begin with a little aversion. I am sure I hated your poor dear uncle like a blackamoor before we were married; and yet, you know, my dear, what a good wife I made him.” Such is my learned friend's argument, to a hair. But, finding that this doctrine did not appear to go down with the House so glibly as he had expected, my honorable and learned, friend presently changed his tack, and put forward a theory which, whether for novelty or for beauty, I pronounce to be income parable; and, in short, as wanting nothing to recommend it but a slight foundation in truth, "True philosophy,” says my honorable friend, " will always continue to lead inen to virtue by the instrument

* Sir James Mackintosh.

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ality of their conflicting vices. The virtues, where inore than one cxists, may live harmoniously together; but the vices bear mortal antipathy to one another, and, therefore, furnish to the moral engineer the power by which he can make each keep the other under control.” Adinirable! but, upon this doctrine, the poor man who has but one single rice must be in a very bad way. No fulcrum, no moral power, for effecting his cure! Whereas, his more fo: tunate neighbor, who has two or more vices in his composition, is in a fair way of becoming a very virtuous member of society. I wonder how my learned friend would like to have this doctrine introduced into his domestic establish. ment. For instance, suppose that I discharge a servant because he is addicted to liquor, I could not venture to recommend him to my hodorable and learned friend. It might be the poor man's only fault, and therefore clearly incorrigible; but, if I had the good fortune to find out that he was also addicted to stealing, might I not, with a safe conscience, send him to my learned friend with a cong recommendation, saying, “I send you a man whom I know to be a drunkard; but I am happy to assure you he is also a thief: you cannot do better than employ him; you will make his drunkenness counteract his thievery, and no doubt you will bring him out of the conflict moral sonage!"

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99 ENGLAND AND AMERICA. - Sir James Mackintosh. Born, 1765 ; died, 1832

The laws of England, founded on principles of liberty, are still, in substance, the code of America. Our writers, our statutes, the most modern decisions of our judges, are quoted in every court of justice, from the St. Lawrence to the Mississippi. English law, as well as English liberty, are the foundations on which the legislation of America is founded. The authority of our jurisprudence may survive the power of our Government for as many ages as the laws of Rome commanded the reverence of Europe, after the subversion of her empire. Our language is as much that of America as it is that of England. As America increases, the glory of the great writers of England increases with it; the admirers of Shakspeare and of Milton are mul. tiplied; the fame of every future English man of genius is more widely spread. Is it unreasonable, then, to hope that these ties of birth, of liberty, of laws, of language and of literature, may in time prevail orer vulgar, ignoble, and ruinous prejudices? Their ancestors were as much the countrymen of Bacon and Newton, of Hampden and Sid. ney, as ours. They are entitled to their full share of that inheritanor of glory which has descended from our common forefathers. Neither the liberty of England, nor her genius, nor the noble language which that genius has consecrated, is worthy of their disregard. All these honors are theirs, if they choose to preserve them. The history of England, till the adoption of counsels adverse to liberty, is their history. We still

preserve or revive kindred feelings. They may claim noble ancestors, and we may look forward to renowned descendants,


anloss adverse prejudices should dispose them to reject those honors which they have lawfully inherited, and lead us to envy that greatness which has arisen from our institutions and will perpetuate our fame!

100. THE FATE OF THE REFORMER, 1830. LO I Brougham. I HAVE heard it said that, when one lifts up his voice against things that are, and wishes for a change, he is raising a clamor against existing institutions, a clamor against our venerable establishments, a clainor against the law of the land, but this is no clamor against the one or the other, it is a clamor against the abuse of them all. It is a clamor raised against the grievances that are felt. Mr. Burke, who was no friend to popular excitement, who was no ready tool of agitation, no hot-headed enemy of existing establishments, no undervaluer of the wisdom of our ancestors, no scoffer against institutions as they are,— has said, and it deserves to be fixed, in letters of gold, over the hall of every assembly which calls itself a legislative body,

“WHERE THERE IS ABUSE, THERE OUGIIT TO BE CLAMOR ; BECAUSE IT IS BETTER TO HAVE OUR SLUMBER BROKEN BY THE FIRE-BELL, THAN TO PERISH, AMIDST THE FLAMES, IN OUR BED.” I have been told, by some who have little objection to the clamor, that I am a timid and a mock reformer; and by others, if I go on firmly and steadily, and do not allow myself to be driven aside by either one outcry or another, and care for neither, that it is a rash and dangerous innovation which I propound; and that I am taking, for the subject of my reckless experiments, things which are the objects of all men's veneration. I disregard the one as much as I disregard the other of these charges.

“ False honor charms, and lying slander scares,

Whom, but the false and faulty ?”* It has been the lot of all men, in all ages, who have aspired at the honor of guiding, instructing, or mending mankind, to have their paths beset by every persecution from adversaries, by every misconstruction from friends; no quarter from the one, no charitable construction from the other! To be misconstrued, misrepresented, borne down, till it was in vain to bear down any longer, has been their fate. But truth will survive, and calumny has its day. I say that, if this be the fate of the reformer, - if he be the object of misrepresentation, an inference be drawn favorable to myself? Taunted by the enemies of reform as being too rash, by the over-zealous friends of reform as being too slow or too cold, there is every reason for presuming that I bare chosen the right course. A reformer must proceed steadily in his career; not misled, on the one hand, by panegyric, nor discouraged by slander, on the other. He wants no praise. I would rather say -.“ Woe to him when all men speak well of him! I shall go on in the course which I have laid down for myself; pursuing the footsteps of those who have gɔne before us, who have left us their instructions and success, their instructions to guide our walk, and their success to cheer our spirits.

may not

Falsus honor juvat et mendax infamia terret
Quem, nisi mendosur et mendacem ?

101. PARLIAMENTARY REFORM, 1831. - Lord Brougham. My Lords, I do not disguise the intense solicitude which I feel for the event of this debate, because I know full well that the peace of the country is involved in the issue. I cannot look without dismay at the rejection of this measure of Parliamentary, Reform. But, grievous as may be the consequences of a temporary defeat, temporary it can only be; for its ultimate, and even speedy success, is certain. Nothing can now stop it. Do not suffer yourselves to be persuaded that, even if the present Ministers were driven from the helm, any one could steer you through the troubles which surround you, without reform. But our successors would take up the task in circumstances far less auspicious. Under them, you would be fain to grant a bill, compared with which, the one we now proffer you is moderate indeed. Hear the parable of the Sibyl ; for it conveys a wise and wholesome moral.

She now appears at your gate, and offers you mildly the volumes — the precious volumes of wisdom and peace. The price she asks is reasonable; to restore the franchise, which, without any bargain, you ought voluntarily to give. You refuse her terms — her moderate terms; = she darkens the porch no longer. But soon for you cannot do without her wares - you call her back. Again she comes, but with diminished treasures ; the leaves of the book are in part torn away by lawless hands, in part defaced with characters of blood. But the prophetic maid has risen in her demands ; — it is Parliaments by the Year

it is Vote by the Ballot it is suffrage by the million ! From this you turn away indignant; and, for the second time, sho departs. Beware of her third coming! for the treasure you must have; and what price she may next demand, who shall tell ? It may even be the mace which rests upon that woolsack! What may follow your course of obstinacy, if persisted in, I cannot take upon me to predict, nor do I wish to conjecture. But this I know full well; that, as sure as man is mortal, and to err is human, justice deferred enhances the price at which you must purchase safety and peace; you expect to gather in another crop than they did who went before you, if you persevere in their utterly abominable husbandry, of sowing injustice and reaping rebellion.

But, among the awful considerations that now bow down my mind, there is one that stands preëminent above the rest. You are the highest judicature in the realm ; you sit here as judges, and decide all causes, civil and criminal, without appeal. It is a judge's first duty never to pronounce a sentence, in the most trifling case, without hear. ing. Will you make this the exception? Are you really prepared to determine, but not to hear, the mighty cause, upon which a Nation's hopes and fears hang? You are? Then beware of your decision! Rouse not, I beseech you, a peace-loving but a resolute People ! alien

nor can

ate not from your body the affections of a whole Empire' As your friend, as the friend of my order, as the friend of my country, as the faithful servant of my sovereign, I counsel you to assist, with your uttermost efforts, in preserving the peace, and upholding and perpetuating the Constitution. Therefore, I pray and exhort you not to reject this measure. By all you hold most dear, by all the ties that bind every one of us to our common order and our common country, I solemnly adjure you, I warn you, I implore you, -- yea, on my bended knees, I supplicate you,

reject not this bill !

102. UNIVERSAL RELIGIOUS LIBERTY. - Daniel O'Connell. Daniel O'Connell, the great Irish “agitator," or "liberator,” as he was frequently ealled, was: born in the county of Kerry, Ireland, in 1775. He died in 1847. "His was that marvellous. admixture of mirth, pathos, drollery, earnestness, and dejection,” says Charles Phillips, “which, well compounded, form the true Milesian. He could whine and wheedle, and wink with oneeye while he wept with the other. llis fun was inexhaustible.” O'Connell was apt to be too. violent and vituperative in his denunciations, and they consequently failed of their effect. The abuse that is palpably exaggerated is not much to be feared.

Can anything be more absurd and untenable than the argument of the learned gentleman, when you see it stripped of the false coloring he has given to it? First, he alleges that the Catholics are attached to their religion with a bigoted zeal. I admit the zeal, but I utterly deny the bigotry. He proceeds to insist that these feelings, on our part, justify the apprehensions of Protestants. The Catholics, he says, are alarmed for their Church; why should not the Protestants be. alarmed, also, for theirs ? The Catholic desires safety for his religion ; why should not the Protestant require security for his ? Hence he concludes, that, merely because the Catholic desires to keep his religion free, the Protestant is thereby justified in seeking to enslave it. He says that our anxiety for the preservation of our Church vindicates those who deem the proposed arrangement necessary for the protection of theirs ; – a mode of reasoning perfectly true, and perfectly applicable, if we sought any interference with, or control over, the Protestant Church, — if we asked or required that a single Catholic should be consulted upon the management of the Protestant Church, or of its revenues or privileges.

But the fact does not bear him out; for we do not seek nor desire, nor would we accept of, any kind of interference with the Protestant Church. We disclaim and disavow any kind of control over it. We ask not, nor would we allow, any Catholic authority over the mode of arpointment of their clergy. Nay, we are quite content to be excluded. forever from even advising his Majesty with respect to any matter relating to or concerning the Protestant Church, - its rights its properties, or its privileges. I will, for my own part, go much further ; and I do declare, most solemnly, that I would feel and express equal, if not stronger repugnance, to the interference of a Catholic with the Protestant Church, than that I have expressed and do feel to any Protestant interference with ours. In opposing their interference with as, I content myself with the mere war of words. But, if the case

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