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WOL. XXVIII. JANUARY, 1832.
BRIEF VIEW OF THE MISSIONS OF THE AMERICAN BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS FOR FOREIGN MISSIONS.
THE Annual Report of the Board comes into the hands of but a small part of those, who patronise the missions of the Board, though it is sent over the country so as to be accessible to nearly or quite all. The printing of a very large number of copies would not be expedient, on account of the expense. It has therefore been found desirable to insert an abstract of the more important matters of the Report in the Missionary Herald. Such an abstract will now be given of the last, or 22d, Report, read at the
annual meeting in October, 1831.
tives had then never heard the gospel preached in their own tongue. No part of scriptures had been translated. Nothing had been done to attract attention to the Christian religion. Indeed, when Hall, Newell, and Nott first took their stand in Bombay—without a knowledge of the language; without books, or printing-press, or schools; without a chapel; without the countenance of government, and wholly unknown to the native population; when they contemplated the structure of society, so artificial and so connected with the idolairous systems of religion; and also the laws of India, which made the forfeiture of property the penalty for renouncing Hindooism, or Islamism;-they must have rearded the visible and tangible results of their abors as certainly remote. And so they did. But the note of preparation was heard, immediately on their arrival. The language was acquired; the New Testament and some portions of the Old were translated and printed; books for elementary instruction, and tracts of various descriptions, were published; schools were established; a chapel was built in the centre of Bombay, and opened regularly for Christian worship; the markets and other public places were frequented for conversation and preaching; journeys were taken, and schools multiplied.
After twelve years, Mr. Hall declared it to be his conviction, that the facilities for o: the appointed means of salvation among the people had multiplied ten sold since his arrival in 1813.
The means are now still greater, and they are continually increasing. . There are eight missionary stations within the Presidency of Bom. bay, connected with no less than five different societies in Great Britain and America—a sacks which makes it delightfully certain that a vasto amount of benevolent interest, in different parts
of the Christian world, is concentrated upon the Mahratta people. Ani in the city of Bombay itself there are, also, seven societies of various names, formed expressly for co-operating with kindred institutions in Great Britain in spiritually illuminating that part of India. The government, too, oão the complaints of natives that the divine origin of their religion and its obligations are publicly denied, tolerates the Christian missionary in every part of the country, and protects him in his labors, There has been no material change in the labors of the missionaries, or the number and character of the schools. The native attendance at the chapel had somewhat increased. The schools, of which there were 17 for boys and 18 for girls, comprised about 1,000 boys, and not far from 500 girls. Seventy-eight of the boys had Mohammedan parents, and iš) were of Jewish origin. Ten of the boys' schools were in different villages on the continent; the others, with all the female schools, were on the island of Bombay. It is au interesting fact, that most of the schools on the continent are under the instruction of Jewish teachers, who disallow the observance of heathenish customs in their schools. These schools exert a favorable influence on the character of the villages where they are situated, and the missionaries justly regard them as so many lights burning amidst the deep spiritual gloom which covers the country. They are an important means of preparing the way for the publication of the gospel, whether that publication be made through the medium of conversation, preaching, or the press. Six of the female schools are patronised by the Bombay district committee of the Society for Promoting Christian lonowledge. The anount of printing executed at the mission press during 1829 and until Nov. 20th, 1830,
is czhibited in the following table.
Copies. Pages. In 1829, 96,000 1,087,000 In 1830, 35,800 1,136,700 -r-- -
In Mahratta, 61,800 2,223,700 In English, 41,720 ,501
Total 103,520 2,996,201 x :
Or nearly 3,000,000 of pages in little more than twenty-two months. The whole amount of printing executed at Bombay from April 1817 to the close of 1830, was about 10,000,000 of pages.
Only about 10,000 of the above mentioned 103,520 copies were printed at the expense of the mission. The British and Foreign Bible Society and its Auxiliary at Bombay defrayed the expense of printing the scriptures in Mahratta; and the Bombay Auxiliary Tract Society, which was organized four years ago, paid the cost of tracts for gratuitous distribution.
Some of the natives, and among them three brahmins, profess to be serious inquirers into the truth of the Christian religion, and hopes are entertained concerning a few, that they have been renovated by the Spirit of God.
T, LLIPA 1. Ly:—Levi Spaulding, Missionary, and Mrs. Spaulding. Tjuncthy Dwight, Teacher in the Preparatory School; John Codinan, assistant Teacher; Seth Payson, Watire assistant; Charles Hodge, Cate| chist; Azel Backus, Cyrus Kingsbury, and others, Readers. Oodoo ville:—Miron Winslow, Missionary, and Mrs. Winslow. Charles A. Goodrich, Matire Preacher; Nathaniel, Catechist; Saravary Mottoo, Superintendent of Schools; Rusus W. Bailey, Teacher in the English School; John I}. Lawrence, Reader. PAN bit of iro:-John Scudder, M. D. Missionary, and Mrs. Scudder. Native Helpers not reported. MAN Ery:—Henry Woodward, Missionary, and Mrs. Woodward. Sinnatumby, Cater hist: Nathaniel, Superintendent of Schools; C. A. Goodrich, Teacher of English; Catheranian und Tuuber, Readers.
Foucation.—This is conducted in a Theological School, Seminary, Boarding Schools, and Free Schools, in which are the following number of scholars.
Theological School, 20 scholars,
The Theological School is under the care of Mr. Winslow, and is composed o of young native men, who, having completed their course in the Seminary, are employed on a salary as assistants in the mission. They pay the expenses of their own board and clothing, and divide their time between teaching and study. Their scrvices are important, and their progress in learning, especially in the knowledge of the scriptures, is highly gratifying and auspicious. A few have .#. to preach the gospel. Mr. Poor is Principal of the Seminary. The first class contains 22, the second, 20, the third 19, the fourth 30. Including those who have finished their studies, and are employed as teachers in the Seminary, the number is 102. The principal building is called Ottley Hall, in honor of Sir Richard Ottley, chief justice of Ceylon, corresponding member of the Board and for ten years past an influential and ioral patron of the mission. This edifice, including virandah-rooms erected on one side and end, is 109 feet in length and 66 in breadth. Its height is two stories. It is designed for public examinations, lectures, the library, &c. A sufficient number of rooms has been erected within the college yard to accommodate one hundred students. The Seminary has been furnished with a resiectable philosophical and other, apparatus. The pnuematical and mechanical instruments, with the orrery and telescope, have been found particularly useful in illustrating various branches of study, which could not be effectually taught without such helps; especially where the prejudices to be chcountered are so inveterate, as not readily to yield even to ocular demonstrations. The mission library contains more than 600
volumes, o: class-books procured for the 1. Seminary,) and is in general well selected. The o members of the Seminary have the use of this library. . The sum of $5,372 has been collected for this h: institution among the friends of learning and re- to. ligion in Ceylon and lndia, all of which has been *" –– expended in erecting the necessary buildings. The residue of the expenditures for buildings, together with the cost of books and apparatus, the board and clothing of the students, the pay of the teachers, and the salary of the principal, has been provided for from the Treasury of the
The study of English, and of various branches of science principally in that language, occupies about two-thirds of the time of the students, and Tamul literature the remainder. The published journals of the Principal shew in what manner se studies are affecting the system of Tamul superstition. Boarding Schools. . The one at Tillipally contained 51 boys at the close of 1830. The one at Oodooville contained 37 girls, of whom seven were members of the church-It is a singular fact, stated by Sir Richard Ottley to be peculiar to the district of Jaffna which contains the mission stations, that the landed property is principally vested in the females. ee-Schools. The number of free-schools connected with the five stations is 89, containing 2,732 boys, and 635 girls; or 3.367 in the whole. PREAching, etc. Each of the five missionaries has a congregation of natives on the Sabbath varying in numbers from two to five hundred—composed chiefly of the children and youth belonging to the schools. The native preachers, though received with less respect and attention than the missionaries themselves, are useful helpers in the publication of the gospel in the high-ways and villages. The Mission Church contains 148 native members in regular standing. The mission has been repeatedly blossed with effusions of the Holy Spirit. Previous to the year 1824, thirty-four natives had been received into the mission church. During the first three months of that year, the mission was visited with very special divine influence, and 41 natives were added to the church. Another time of refreshing was experienced near the close of the same year; and there were hopeful conversions in the succeeding years. A third revival of religion was experienced near the close of the year 1830, as the first fruits of which 34 natives were added to the church in the April following. All, the buildings at the station of Manepy, with the principal part of Mr. Woodward’s és. sects, were consumed by fire March 30, 1831.
Malta is the book-manufactory for the whole mission, as well as a central point of intercourse and union. The library collected at this station is already valuable, both in the materials and helps for translations. There are three printingpresses, two of which are in constant use. There are founts of type for printing in English, Italian, Greek, Greco-Turkish, Armenian, ArmenoTurkish, and Arabic. The printing, however, has been chiefly in the Italian, modern Greek, and Armeno-Turkish languages, the last being the Turkish language written in the Armenian character. The press has ever been persectly secure in Malta, and has operated without any embarrassment from the government, though the publications have been subject to a mild and tolerant censorship.
No regular and full report of the publications at the Malta press since the year 1829, has been received. Inong the works subsequently printed are known to be the following: viz. one of 48 pages, called the Child's Assistant; a small arithmetic; a simple grammar of the modern Greek; Pinnock's catechism of Greek history, with remarks, containing about 150 pages; and a reading book of about the same size, made up of interesting and useful selections. The lives of Joseph, Abraham, Moses, Samuel, Esther, and Daniel, had also been printed, or were in the press; and Mr. Temple was employed, when he ast wrote, in making selections of the most important events and narratives recorded in the Old Testament, for the use of the schools in Greece. In these works he has the valuable assistance of Mr. Nicholas Petrokokino, who was educated by the Board in this country; and there can be scarcely a doubt but they will be popular and useful among the people for whom they are designed.
But the most important work executed at the Malta press, during the last year, was the translation of the New Testament in the ArmenoTurkish language. The printing of this was commenced on the 8th of January 1830, and the last sheet was corrected in the press before the expiration of January 1831. This translation was prepared by Mr. Goodell from one made by him. self, with the aid of the Armenian bishop Carabet, from the original Greek, and another made at Constantinople, from the Armenian version, under the superintendence of Mr. Leeves, agent of the British and . Foreign Bible Society; and was carried through the press by Mr. Goodell, at the expense of that noble institution.
The whole amount of printing performed at Malta since July 1822, cannot be less than 12,000,000 of pages,
GREECE. Jonas King, Missionary, and Mrs. King,
Mr. King has removed from Tenos to Athens, While at Tenos he supported and superintended a school of 60 or | females, and distributed many copies of the New Testament. In this school he freely expounded the scriptures.
Athens is the place, which Mr. King has been desirous, ever since he entered Greece, of making o centre of !. o But in the autumn of last year, there being a prospect of its speed evacuation, Mr. King ...]" that ğ. spot, and made arrangements for his future residence. In April of the present year, he made a second visit to Athens and opened a Lancastc. rian school for both sexes, at the head of which
he placed Niketoplos, formerly master of the Orphan school at Ægina, and author of an epitorne of the gospels printed at Malta. On the 30th of May, this school contained 176 scholars of both sexes. The Committee have sent Mr. King 500 slates and a proportionate number of pencils, and he will be amply furnished with school books from the press at Malta. He ex: pected to have opportunity to supply many small schools in Attica, Thebes, and other parts of continental Greece, with books, and thinks it will soon be desirable to establish a college in the renowned seat of ancient learning, where he is now residing. The school at Syra, under the superintendence of Doct. Korck, Church missionary, in the commencement and partial support of which the Board has been concerned, so been of great service to the cause of education in Greece, especially in the islands called the Cyclades. Syra is one of these islands, opposite Tenos. The schools are three in number.
Scholars. The Lancasterian Boys' school, containing 275 The Boys’ Scientific school, ..". 34 The Girls’ Lancasterian school, containing 225
In all, 534
The three schools have grown out of the one established in January 1828, by Mr. Brewer, at the expense of the Board. When Mr. Brewer was about returning to this country, he gave that school into the hands of Dr. Korck. In the summer of 1829, there were 330 scholars of both sexes. The house for the school was erected by the government and people, and the salary of the Greek master, since the expiration of the first three months, has been paid by the Greeks. In 1829, another school-house was reared by the Greeks, with some foreign aid, having two apartments;–one for the accommodation of females, the other for a scientific school for boys. A great increase of pupils was the consequence of this division. The teacher of the female school, a Greek young woman, has derived her wages from the Treasury of the Board; and all the three schools were under the free, personal surintendence of Doct. Korck and his associate sr. Hildner, until the close of the last year. They have since experienced considerable embarrassment in their relations to these schools, from circumstances growing out of the policy of the government. . It should be stated, however, that the connection, which these schools have had with the government, were the result of necessity, not of choice and design, The Committee have never had any thought of embarrassing their operations in Greece, by any sort of connection with the Greek government. They were long doubtful, indeed, what measures were expedient. The inquiries addressed to the President of Greece in the spring of 1829, were merely for the se of gainin information, and they elicited some facts, whic deterred the Committee from a class of expenditures, that would have been in accordance with the popular feeling then pervading our communi}: t might have proved a fruitful source of isappointment and regret. The Committee resolved to direct almost their whole efforts, for a time, so far as Greece was concerned, to the production of books for elementary instruction, and to the introduction of these into the schools of that country. This they believe to be within their commission to publish the gospel to every creature, and the most direct and effectual
Messrs. B. and W. resnmed the mission in Syria in May 1830, and were received by many of the natives with the usual friendly salutations. Among those who received them gladly, were a few young men, over whom the missionaries had rejoiced in former years as the fruits of their labors, and who appeared to have remained stead: fast in the faith, and to have honored the gospel by their lives. The adherents of the Romish church began immediately to oppose, as in former years.
Mr. Whiting is employed in learning the Arabic language. Mr. Bird is occupied in scattering the seeds of divine knowledge, which fall, like those of the sower in the parable, upon every description of soil. Among all classes of the people, there is a distressing apathy on the subject of education. as that does not enter at all into the ecclesiastical or civil policy of the country. There is but little demand for the Arabic copies of the word of God, though from twelve to twenty persons meet the missionaries every Sabbath for the purpose of reading a few chapters in the New Testament, which is accompanied by brief ex|...}. and practical remarks. Many are beieved to be dissatisfied with the religion taught in their churches, and it is generally conceded, that there is no such thing as vital godliness found in the country. Indeed a great amount of preparatory labor is yet to be performed, before the foundations of the ol temple can be laid, and the walls begin to rise.
William Goodell and H. G. O. Dwight, Missionaries, and their wives.
Mr. Goodell was instructed to leave Malta as soon as he had carried his Armeno-Turkish version of the New Testament through the press, and take up his residence at Constantinople, where he would be more favorably situated for exerting an influence upon the Armenians, and determining the value of his translation. This was in accordance with a plan of operations concerted at Malta, in the year 1929. Accordingly he embarked for Constantinople, with his fami§. on the 21st of May, in the Banian, captain Smith, which was to touch at Smyrna. He arrived at Smyrna on the 29th of May, and at Constantinople on the 9th of the following month. Before leaving, Malta, Mr. Goodell had commenced a translation of the Hebrew scriptures into the Armeno-Turkish; and the prosecution of this im'ortant work will continue to occupy a portion of his time. Mr. Dwight, after completing his arduous exploring tour through Armenia and the neighboring countries, in company with Mr. Smith, proceeded to Malta; but is expected to become as
sociated, for the present, with Mr. Goodell.
Exploring Tour in Armenia.
This occupied the year previous to May 25, 1831, and extended from Constantinople, through Tocat, Erzeroom, Kars, Tiflis, Shousha, Erivan, Etchmiazin, Tehreez, and from thence through Bayazid to Trebizonde on the Black Sea, and thence by water to Constantinople.
Messrs. Smith and Dwight, always courageous and enterprising, prosecuted their object without rashness, until they appear to have ascertained satisfactorily what is practicable and expedient, and what is not, for American Christians to attempt for the religious improvement of the Armenians in the Russian and Turkish dominions, and also with respect to considerable bodies of Nestorians on the south. The larger portion of the results is yet to be submitted, with the facts by which they are sustained, which will probably be done personally by Mr. Smith, during a visit he is about making to his native land. But enough is known already to prove the expediency of the enterprise, and to justify all the costs, labors, and risks it has occasioned.
JEWS IN TIFRKEY. William Gottlieb Schauffler, Missionary.
Mr. Schauffler has gone to Paris, where he will spend three or four months in completing his i. studies, and then proceed to Turkey. is central position is expected to be Constantinople. He is supported by the Ladies Jews Society of Boston and Vicinity.
The missionaries of the Board have traversed a vast extent of country around the Mediterranean. We may trace their routes from Tripoli to Tunis -stom Alexandria to Thebes in Upper Egypt— from Cairo through the desert to Gaza—through almost every district of Palestime—from Beyroot in Syria across the mountains of Lebanon to Damascus—thence to Aleppo and Antioch— thence down the shore to Beyroot—from the ancient Tarsus through the southern provinces of Asia Minor to Smyrna—from thence through the central district of the same country to Caesarea -stom Smyrna through the country round about which embraced the Seven Churches—from Smyrna to the Bosphorus—from Constantinople through the northern provinces of Asia Minor to room in Armenia—thence to Tiflis among the mountains of Caucassus—thence through the northern parts of Persia—thence through the inhospitable region of the Koords, and through Armenia, to Trebizonde on the Black Sea. We may trace their route, also, in Europe, to five of the seven Ionian Islands, throughout the Peloponnesus, in Attica, and to many islands in the ean. ... We now know, to a great extent, the physical, intellectual, moral, and religious condition of those countries we know what kind of moral power is most needed and most likely to sticteed. We know what places are most accessible and most promising. We know, far better than we did six years ago, how to economize and direct our labors. But little more exploring, at the expense of long and hazardous journies, now remains to be done in that part of the world. The missionaries may now locate and concentrate their influence. The press may operate with greater certainty in its various languages. Books
Islands. schools. Readers. Scholars. Oahu, 210 ,061 6,635 Maui, 2. 5,605 10,738 Molokai, 33 603 ,485 Lanai, 10 206 506 Kahoolawe, 1. 14 31 Tanni. ahout 90 2,500 about 5,500 Hawaii, about 300 about 9,000 at least 20,000
908 20,089 44,895