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state of things produces much embarrass-ceivers until the evil transpires. Their ment on our part, in endeavoring to select herding together in the same house at night, the wheat from the chaff. Some of our without partitions between them, men, trials on this subject will be mentioned in women and children upon the same mat; the course of this letter. But we have this the unceremonious manner of intercourse encouragement, “The Lord knoweth them between the sexes, without any forms of that are his," and will order all things in reserve or any delicacy of thought and conhis Providence for the wisest ends. Though versation; the idle habits of all, especially it becometh us to use every caution lest un of the women, and their fondness for visitworthy persons be admitted to church priv. ing from home at night; and above all, the ileges, yet we can hardly hope to preserve force of long established habits, which, after the church pure from unworthy members. a season of effort at reform, return upon

The church at Kailua has received them with almost resistless force;—these, twenty-three members into her communion and their inexperience in resisting temptaduring the last year, making ninety-seven tion when it comes upon them, are some of in all that have been received. Of these the sources of so much irregularity among two have died within the year, and four this people. It is long since we have set have been suspended for unchristian con

our faces against all these practices, as so duct. Of the church at Kaavaloa, three many avenues to temptation. But the work have been suspended during the year, and is not of a day, perhaps not of a generation. one previously suspended is not yet re

Of those under our immediate influence, stored. The crime for which these persons

the majority have built comfortable houses, have been excluded from church privileges and have separate bedrooms, and are disis adultery, the sin which hangs heaviest of posed to conform as far as their ciicamall others upon the people of Hawaii.

stances will admit to the habits of civilized Drunkenness and theft are now scarcely

life. But this number, compared with the known; the sale of spirits is interdicted; whole community, is small. The great murder is absolutely unknown, and has

mass still prefer their old habits and mode been for a long time, but the sin of unclean

of life, with all its attendant train of evils. ness still cleaves to them like the leprosy, But we conceive the true secret of all and threatens to destroy both soul and these evils lies still deeper, and cannot be

effectually touched by any outward remeWe have long been aware that this sin, dies which have as yet been applied. The though driven from the open light of day total want of family government and disciby the arm of the law, still lurked in secret, pline lies at the root of every other evil. and that many, who professed to belong to The vagrant habits of children and mem the Christian party, were sometimes over bers of every family, and the total disregard taken by it, and went back to their former they show to the injunctions of their mode of life. We have made it a prominent parents or others over them, is a melancholy part in all our instructions, public and pri- prorf of the low state of domestic discipline. vate, to warn the people against the danger Here begin those habits of moral delinof falling into this sin, to expose its deform- quency, which grow up and strengthen ity, and hold it up to odium. And we have with their strength. Here then must begin made it a rule that candidates for church the reforming influence, by introducing membership should be kept at least two family government among their parents. gears under our instruction, before they be This is an object to which for some time admitted to the sacraments.

We supposed past we have been turning our attention. that in so long a time of probation, they it is to a future generation we must look would afford us some test of their sincerity for proper examples of Christian character. But it seems that some have crept into the Not that there will be no good examples church by deceiving themselves and us, among the present generation, for there are while in secret they have indulged in sin many already; but there is in those who Cases of this aggravated nature, however, appear the best, a certain want of quick are rare. The greater number of those who moral sense of right and wrong, which is have fallen, appear to have been merely the result of their previous habits of life; a overtaken in the temptation, and afterwards bluntness of perception which even grace concealed it through fear, until it transpir- does not wholly eradicate. Early educaed by some circumstance or other. Most tion alone can instil those feelings of virof those who now stand suspended, appear tuous moral perception, which distinguish to be thoroughly ashamed' and penitent. the enlightened Christian from the untuWe know of only one for whom we enter- tored savage, and the want of which is so

lamentable in the character of a Hawaiian. The habits and mode of life among the

There are some other points of character Hawaiians are such, as peculiarly expose attending this people, which do much in persons to temptations. And though there producing the effects above described, and are many who are improving in civilized which can only be remedied by industry habits, still there is so little concern or

and the arts. It is their going unclothed; watchfulness of one over another, that per- and the painful sight meets the eye at every 80ns are often never suspected of being de- li moment of time, until its familiarity has

tain no hope.

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gation of the plants. Fifteen persons have Sandwich Islands:--Joint Letter from Messrs. Thurston and Bishop. destroyed all feeling. It is not peculiar to have rendered it one of the most pleasant this people, but belongs to all tribes who and healthful spots in the islands. Though live in a state of nature, and who consider not so cold as Waimea, it is also not so wet clothing rather as an ornament for display, I and uncomfortable. li stands at an elevathan a covering to their deformity. Therion of about 2,000 feet above the level of evil, however, is real; and it becomes the | the sea, and is fanned by the sea-breeze by friends of civilization to devise some reme day, and the land wind by night. The soil dy; not by furnishing them clothing made is highly fertile, and Mr. R. is growing the to their hands, for that would only increase various kinds of tropical fruits, such as the evil by encouraging idleness and foster grapes, figs, pomegranates, oranges, guaing pride. They need to be taught to man. vers, and coffee; which bid fair hereafter to ufacture their own clothing. We are produce a plentiful supply of these articles aware of our inability to suggest any ade for that place, and a nursery for the propaquate measures which shall remedy this evil by such means as we have at coin been received to the church during the mand. It is no small task to teach a savage || present year, and six more now stand propeople the necessity of industry and pounded for admission. knowledge of the arts, but we fully believe it practicable. They have no idea of the

Station of Waimea. process of manufacturing cloth, because the attempt to teach them has never been made,

The station at Waimea has been without though the wish has often been expressed

an occupant ever since last December. Mr. that they might be taught.

Ruggles returned to Kaawaloa, and Mr. Here there is a field of usefulness for Bingham soon followed him on a visit to some future effort of philanthropy; and he

this place, before his return to Oahu. Early who shall successfully perform it wil} reap

in the following February, Waimea was the rich reward of a grateful nation. Nor visited by the king and chiefs, after comneed it be deemed a hopeless effort, for pleting the tour of the island. Several of there is reason to believe that if rightly un

ihe missionaries accompanied them, and dertaken it would succeed. But it must be

there we spent a week together. At that made disinterestedly and devotedly, without

time all the schools of Kohala, Waimea, and any other hope of recompense than the Hamak ua were assembled and examined satisfaction of doing good. It must not be

one by one. The examination took up

four made with a view to mercantile speculation, 1) days. Afterwards the new church, then but with the sole object of putting it in the just finished, was dedicated by prayer to power of this people to clothe themselves. Almighty God. At the same time the king Funds will be requisite to procure and put made an appropriate speech to the people, in operation the machinery on a simple and concluded the whole by a prayer. scale. Perhaps the cotton spinning-wheel

There are a few at Waimea, who give or hand-gins would be the best things to pleasing evidence of piety, who will be teach them to spin, and hand-Jooms to propounded for church membership soon weave their cloth. Cotton can be grown

after the station shall be re-occupied. Mr. with great ease and to the full extent of || Baldwin has been appointed a permanent the demand. It grows spontaneously to

resident there, with a view to the medical some extent already, but has never been

wants of the families on this island. He is cultivated for the purpose of manufacture. expected to remove there as early as Jan.

uary next, when he will be accompanied Improved Location of the Village of Kaa- by one of the families at this place, to reualoa.

side with him until the next general meet;

ing of the mission, at which time it is hoped We still continue our weekly visits to

that provision will be made for a permanent Kaawaloa, which, with the residence of Mr.

associate for him. The place appears every Ruggles and family at that place, affords to

way eligible as a retreat for invalids, except that people a present adequate supply. For that it is too rainy, and is sometimes visited although the continued feeble health of Mr.

with severe gales of wind. Its remoteness R. precludes his doing as much as he from the sea is also some inconvenience in would, were he in firm health, yet his pre obtaining supplies, but it is hoped that this sence and advice to the chiefs and people, difficulty can in time be overcome. As a his instructing a daily school of the teach

field of usefulness, you have probably been ers, and his superintendance over the fully informed ere this by those who have schools attached to that station, place him | resided there. Still it is somewhat doubtin a useful post. He has a very pleasant || ful whether it will be permanently occusituation in the country, two miles back pied, should a mission family be sent from from the bay, to which an excellent car

among us to the Marquesas islands. riage road has been completed recently. A commodious chapel has been erected there. | Difficulties Encountered in the Education and the chiefs and people have deserted the

of the Youth. shore and taken up their abode near him. The recent improvements made in the We have had three examinations of the country to which the people have repaired, Il schools during the year, and our fourth is

ment.

near at hand. The whole number of schol now in incipient operation, but something
ars belonging to the fifty schools in the of the same kind is needed at every station
northern part of the district of Kona, | as a nursery for teachers.
amounted, at the yearly examination, to
3,814; of which 1,100 were readers; the re When we look about us and see how
mainder were in the elementary books. Of | little has been done, and how much remains
the whole number there were, men and to be done, we are constrained to acknowl-
boys, 1,520, women and girls, 1,728, and edge our insufficiency for its accomplish-
children under ten years, 566. We have

We fear, too, that many in our not the record of the present number of country are beginning to think that much schools and learners at Waimea and Kaa more has been done than is really the case. waloa: they have, however, sustained their | Let God be praised for what our eyes see several examinations with credit, and their || and ears hear daily; but we have as yet numbers have not materially diminished. only entered the threshhold of the field, and

The effort made by us to collect the surveyed the length and breadth of the children into schools for instructirn, has not

land. Every step in advance but opens a succeeded so well as the adult schools. The

wider and wider field of labor, and prepares greater part of those originally entered have the way for more laborers. A long and forsaken the schools, and the remainder are

laborious life will not accomplish all which kept together with no little difficulty. we have conceived must be done for this Their restive minds, impatient of restraint, people, before missionary effort should begin and their ungovernable habits at home, to relax. It will be ours to collect, like present a very serious difficulty in the way David, the materials, and leave to our sucof bringing them under the discipline of

cessors the completion of the edifice. schools. At the first, there was a general

If human effort alone were to be relied readiness in them to join the schools, being

on in accomplishing the reformation of the enticed by a new book made on purpose for world, we might well say with the infidet, them, and bestowed gratuitously to all who that the attempt is futile. Many centuries desired to learn. But their books were have already passed away since the apossoon soiled and torn, the novelty was past, tolic commission was given, “Go, teach all and they returned to their old habits of nations;" and still the world is full of darkidleness.

ness, wretchedness, and the "habitations of But there is also another cause of the l cruelty.” But we have not so learned defection above mentioned—the incompe- ed. We have learned on whom to rely for

Christ as to despair of its being accomplishtency of their teachers. They fail to interest , because they know not how to teach; that it is to be accomplished through human

And though He has appointed and children, as well as adults, are quick to perceive their deficiency. This is a defect with you,” plainly indicates by whom suc

iustrumentality, the promise, "Lo, I am in the whole system of instruction in the

cess is to be attained. A spirit of benevoislands, with but few exceptions, and it can

lence has gone forth for the relief of “The only be remedied by time. Our hands are at present so filled with other duties having void; it will in due time reap the fruits of

world lying in sin,” and it will not return reference to preaching and translating the word of God, that we have found but little

its labors, in despite of the sneers and oppo

sition of the enemies of righteousness. It time to devoie to instructing the teachers. Many of those whom we have instructed

will not faint or grow weary under discourand sent forth, soon get above their work, | midst of death. While some are called to

agements, but live and thrive even in the and leave the drudgery of the business to

cease from their labors, and enter into their others less compeient than themselves. The immoral conduct of many of the teach- (rest, it is the Spirit who raises up others to ers, has also been a source of much trouble

follow in their steps, or even to go beyond

the bounds of their predecessors in carry-
to us. The superiority they assume over
others, and the deference paid them by ing the light of salvation to the remotest
their pupils, give them vccasion frequently ends of the earth.
to trespass upon their credulity and virtue.
There needs to be a radical reform in the
school system, and it must begin with the

Arkansas Choctaws.
teachers. The progress of instruction upon
the old system has nearly attained its

WILLIAMS, DATED height, and is becoming stationary for want

APRIL 12th, 1832. persons to carry it beyond the mere rudiments. But with all these de It was stated at p. 28, that Messrs. Wright and ficiencies in the system, it has thus far || Williams, connected with the Choctaw mission, answered the ends for which it was designed to our full expectations, and thousands

were about 10 proceed with their families 10 the have by it become competent readers, and

new Choctaw country, lying between the Arkansome in every place have been taught to

sas and Red rivers, with a view to commencing write. We have raised expectations of a missiou there. They reached Vicksburg, on good to be accomplished by the high school II the Mississippi, Feb. 6th, whence they proceeded

success.

LETTER

FROM

MR.

of suitable

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by steamboats to Little Rock, on the Arkansas, Choctaw country, which was on the 17th where they arrived on the 18th. At that place of March. I rode to a settlement of emi. they remained about a fortnight owing to the

grants about ten miles from the line, and sickness of Mr. Wright. As his health, though

spent the Sabbath

On Monday I set out improving, did not seem likely to be fully re

on my return for my family. We were fa

vored with comfortable health, and good established immediately, it was thought expe weather, so that by Saturday night, March dient for Mr. Williams and his family, with Miss 24th, we arrived at a settlement of white Clough, a female teacher, to proceed in their people near the line. field of labor, leaving Mr. and Mrs. Wright at Little Rock. The distance which they had

Reception among the Choctaws. travelled from the old Choctaw nation, following My feelings on crossing the boundary the course of the rivers, was about 800 miles. line, I cannot well describe. Suffice it to Mr. Williams gives the following account of bis say, I longed exceedingly for that wisdom

which is profitable to direct me in all my Journey from Little Rock to the Choctauo intercourse with the natives, so that, from Boundary

the first, I might exert a holy and salutary

influence, and no other. And, I think) As the Lord smiled upon my family in can add, my bosom heaved with gratitude regard to our health, it was thought best for for that divine mercy which had led me us to proceed on our journey. Finding it even to these distant wilds. The first naalmost impossible to obtain any other means tive I saw was a beloved sister in the of conveyance, without paying a most ex- church, who, with two other families is settravagant price, I took the advice of friends tled near the line. About seven miles furand purchased a wagon and team, believing ther west, I passed some lents where some that it would, in the end, be the most church members and others are settling, economical. We set out on the 2d of and two miles beyond them met with good March, with a common road wagon drawn old Tahoka, who received me with open by two yoke of oxen, which I drove, while arms: and when we kneeled down, he my family rode on horseback, having three made the woods echo with the praise of borses with us. We took the route of the God. On the morrow, it being Sabbath, a United States' wagons, which conveyed the very considerable congregation assembled Choctaws, which is first in a south westerly at a place in the woods already consecrated direction from Little Rock 130 miles, to to the worship of God. A number of Washington, Hemstead co.; thence nearly benches had been made, and the spot west about 65 miles to the Choctaw line. cleared of rubbish. After an interview with The road being mostly new was rendered a goodly number who had assembled early literally alınost impassable by the heavy in the day, in which we recounted to each loaded and numerous wagons, cutting deep other some of the Lord's dealings with us into the soft earth: so that with great exer during our wanderings, the people having tion, though our load was not very heavy, collected, public exercises commenced. we could advance only about eight or ten addressed ihem once more, after a separamiles a day, and some days not more than tion of one year, in their own language, five or six. The fatigue was too much from 1 Corinthians i. 2. "For I determinboth for man and beast; and it finally be ed to know nothing among you save Jesus came necessary to leave our wagon, bag- Christ and him crucified." I left an apgage, and team before we had got half way pointment for a subsequent Sabbath, but to Washington. Committing them, as we failed in going. I have since learned that suppose, to the care of a trusty man, we set

a very large congregation assembled on that out once niore with three horses, one of

occasion. Last Sabbath I spent in the same which we packed with some necessaries, settlement and preached twice, from Luke including our tent, an axe, and some 111. 4, and Isaiah xlv. 22. My situation in clothing, blankets, provisions, &c. On the the wilderness" and in these "ends of the other two horses, five persons, including earth” may have suggested the texts. The three children, rode, while the other two of congregation was larger than at the time of our number walked. In this way we got my first visit, and very attentive. I have along fifteen or twenty miles a day, and been requested to preach in another setile. with but little expense. We generally ment seven miles further west, and expect pitched our tent wherever night overtook to do so next Sabbath. us, and slept sweetly in the woods on our From what has been stated, you would blankets, with our feet to a large fire at the get a favorable impression as to the feelings tent door. Our Sabbaths we were permit of the people on the subject of renewing ted to spend where we could collect a num the mission among them. I may add to the ber of souls to hear the word of life. When above, it is by numbers hailed with, I bave we reached Washington, I left my family no doubt, unfeigned joy. And I have seen to rest a few days, while I could go on fur no one as yet on this side of the Mississippi ther west to reconnoitre. In this tour, also, who manifests a feeling unfriendly to our I was prospered, travelling safely through object. They had expected me, and no this wild strange land, until I reached the small interest was excited with reference to

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our coming, And I have remarked that this books, stand up and lead the congregation feeling is not confined to the professors of in songs of praise to Zion's King. I noticed religion. Others appear as though they re. a petition of one man, who prayed most fercognised in the missionary an old acquaint- || vently that God would hasten the preachers ance and friend. Much inquiry is made of the gospel with the word of life into about Mr. Wright. His people from the every part of the world. This individual Six Towns have been heard to say, in was lost in the Mississippi swamp, and not reference to him, “We have lost our father found till the fourth day, when, from cold, a long time. Oh that he would return to life was so nearly extinct that he was us." In short-every thing I have seen as speechless. He now shines a bright light yet is calculated to inspire us all with among his people. There is a great desire gratitude and to revive our hopes.

with a number to have a district school

opened immediately, and they wait with Situation and Appearance of the People. much anxiety the arrival of the new Choc

taw books. The settlement which I visited Mr. Williams had nol, of course, explored the is so populous and compact, that a very country sufficiently to form an opinion respect- large school might be collected, in which ing more than a small district on its east

both the English and the Choctaw lan

guages might be taught; and it is the wish eru horder, and he had seen but few of the

of this part of the tribe that Choctaw schools people.

may be established and multiplied, while That part of their country which I have by another part of the nation they are op

posed. seen is well timbered, and there is good land enough to support a pretty dense popu Present Situation of the Mission Family. lation. The people appear to be pleased on the whole, and have commenced the clear For several reasons we concluded to stay ing and fencing of land with a very com for the present within the bounds of the mendable spirit

. In some instances, several Arkansas territory. We were unacquainted families unite in opening a field, and throw with the location of the emigrants, and of ing a fence around a large tract; others course could not readily decide on a suitahave a field of their own commenced; and ble place for a station. The season was so some have been so fortunate as to get pos- i far advanced us to render it expedient to session of an old field which had been cul- stop and put some seeds into the ground that tivated by white people who have been re was already cleared, and as soon as possible. moved by order of the government of the | Besides, the price of provisions in the naUnited States. Such will probably raise tion was extravagantly highi, and they were corn to sell this season.

The appearance difficult to be obtained. We were much of industry among them is indeed very favored in finding a place about five miles gratifying, and is noticed by all the white east of the boundary line, in a settlement of people who have witnessed it. They are white people, where we are allowed to cul. desirous to prepare against the time when tivate two or three acres of ground rent they can no longer obtain provisions from free. Here provisions and various neces. the public storehouses, which will be in one sary articles can be obtained cheaper and year from the time of their arrival. As yet more readily, and time can thus be had for they mostly live either in the tents which obtaining a better knowledge of the counthey used on their journey, or in campstry, situation, and dispositions of the peowhich they have built for the purpose.ple, before we select a place and commence Some have already put themselves up a building. Our house or cabin is, to say the small house. But it should be recollected least, one of the poorest, but will keep off that they have but just arrived the first some of the rain. We have now the use of company only about iwo months ago, and a four or five cows, and buy corn, meat, and great proportion of them within five or six | salt. This is literally all that can be had weeks. Small companies who come on here at present, though flour and groceries their own resources

are arriving almost will probably be brought on by traders in a daily, having been four and five months on few weeks from this time. We are not at

all troubled with furniture, as ours has not It should be recorded with devout grati- yet come on. tude, that so many of the church members To the praise of divine grace be it rehold fast their integrity.

True, numbers corded, a great moral reform has changed have fallen; but I can truly say that the the aspect of society in this immediate state of things in the church'here is much neighborhood within a year past. A worthy better than I dared to expect. Some ap- ' preacher in the Methodist connection sei. pear to have grown in grace; others feel the iled here a year ago, who, with some aid effect of their past troubles and want of in- from circuit preachers, has been instrustruction, but still retain a desire to seek and mental of much wood. A considerable to serve God. The Sabbath is observed, majority of the adults are now in society. and they regularly meet for religious wor

I rejoice on account of the influence in ship. It was truly pleasant to see several favor of their Choctaw neighbors which we young men, with their Choctaw hymn I hope will be realized. VOL. XXVIII.

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