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the throne of grace? May the prayers of many for us return in rich blessings upon their own heads and upon the church of our Redeemer.
It will be interesting to the friends of the imprisoned missionaries, and of the cause of the distressed Indians, to know that writs of error have been obtained from the honorable Judge Baldwin of the Supreme Court of the United States, which have been served on the governor and attorney general of the state of Georgia; and that it is expected that the case will come before the court during the present winter. The honorable William Wirt, of Baltimore, and the honorable John Sergeant, of Philadelphia, have been employed as counsel for the missionaries. Measures have been adopted in several of our large cities and in other places, to obtain by subscription money to defray the expenses incidental to the trial. The prospect now is that an adequate sum will be raised for this specific object.
ExTRACTS FROM A LETTER or MR. Thom Pson, DATED oct. 6, 1831.
Refutation of Charges against the .Missionat rees.
It has often been publicly asserted of late, that the missionaries have used improper exertions to induce the Cherokees to refuse to sell their country and remove across the Mississippi river; that they have encouraged the Cherokees to oppose the extension of the jurisdiction of the state of Georgia over them, and to resist the general policy of that state and of the government of the United States in respect to them. These and other similar charges have been brought by men in public stations, and were especially urged against Mr. Worcester and Dr. Butler, at their trial, and were reiterated by the judge when he Pronounced the sentence of the law upon them; though the only crime alleged against them in the indictment, and for which they were put on trial, was that of being found residing in the Cherokee territory without having taken a prescribed oath.
These charges brought before the public in * most general manner, without specification of time or place, or any other circumstances, and willon any attempt at proving them, the Com"ee have always been confident were wholly won foundation, and could not be substan*" by any competent and impartial testimony.
The ollowing extracts from a letter of Mr. "on, to the editor of the Charleston Ob***, and first published in that paper, repel *me of these charges.
I noticed in the Observer, a few weeks since, several communications from His Excellency George R. Gilmer, containing references to my own, and the conduct of other missionaries in this nation. In his letter to the Hon. J. H. Eaton, are allegations adapted to mislead the public mind in regard to my own doings, and to create prejudice against others who are engaged in the same cause. It is due, therefore, to your readers to be made acquainted with the course I have pursued, and for which I am accused.
His Excellency states that I am “reported to have been active in exciting the Indians to their attempts to sustain an independent government.” To this statement permit ine to subjoin a few facts. I have been in the nation nearly three years, but have never Attended a general council of the Cherokees. Nor have I ever been present at any of the regular courts. Once I witnessed a trial between citizens of this country at a place where I immediately afterwards preached. I was present also when some Cherokees had assembled to protest against the method directed by the president for receiving their annuity. In the doings of the Cherokees on that occasion I took no part except to witness the signing of their Ila in les.
The above is a detail of my attendance at the public meetings of the Indians, except when I have met them for religious purposes. I may safely challenge any man to adduce another instance. But if the reports which have reached governor Gilmer, are of sufficient validity to call for the steps which he has taken in regard to myself might it not have been expected that i would have been more interested in the councils, courts, and other meetings of the Indians, collected for the sake of sustaini an “independent government?” Or has it been reported to His Excellency, that I have been “active in exciting the Indians in their individual capacity?" If so, there has been a time and place when and where this has been done. His Excellency has not specified as to these particulars. And why not? For the obvious reason, that evidence is wanting. A candid and enlightened public, I apprehend, expect him to adduce tridence, not only that I have been active, but criminally so, before it will be prepared to pronounce as to my guilt. I do not wish, however, to conceal is.". that I am in favor of supporting the institutions and laws of the Fo To wrest from them these, would, in my view, be as palpable a violation of justice, as of those treaties by which they are walled around. The view expressed above, is among the causes which have deterred me from taking the oath prescribed for white men residing in this nation, by the legislature of Georgia. Aside from this, there are other intrinsic objections against binding myself with the obligations of the above oath: for some of
those laws which it is designed to support,
so far as I understand their nature and end, are adapted to goad, instead of protecting the defenceless Indian. Governor Gilmer informs the late Secretary of War, that missionaries have “found their stations too lucratire to yield them up willingly.” When I hear this allegation from #. lips of injured avarice or wounded cupidity, in connection with its kindred in- | sinuations so frequently made to the Indian, “the missionaries have come to rob you of your lands and to enslave your children,” I can without great effort make up my mind silently to hear them. But I am not accustomed to hear them from a source so deserving of respect, as the executive of Georgia. I will not say that governor Gilmer has originated this allegation: for it is as old as the hostility to missions. I owe it, however, to myself, my brethren, and the cause of my master, to repel the assertion. So far as I myself am concerned, and so far as my knowledge extends to other missionaries, it is wholly incorrect. All I ask, and all I obtain for my labor among this people is a bare support. Nor would my pecuniary interest be affected in the least by the entire failure of the Indian cause. If any person is in possession of evidence to invalidate this statement he certainly has the right, and ought to produce it. I understand, governor Gilmer, as including me in that class of persons whose “influence,” he affirms, has been “exercised in opposition to the humane policy of the government.” By “the humane policy of the government,” is doubtless meant those measures in progress for the removal of the Indians beyond the Mississippi. I am represented as opposed to these measures. If by my “opposition.” His Excellency means no more than that I entertain views, on this subject, differing from his own, and that
they have been expressed, I admit the correctness of his representation. I am free to
| confess that I anticipate the removal of the
| Cherokees with their aversion to it, with the greatest solicitude. I view it as the precursor to a serious, if not entire and fatal interruption of their progress in civilization and religion. And should these feeble churches of Christ, to gather which has cost the toil and expense of years, be scattered and placed beyond the reach of instruction, I have resolved that it shall be done without my aid. If the children in the schools, must be compelled to return to their parents, and accompany them to the chase, and live and die in all the ignorance of nature, it shall be without any influence of mine. Did the prospect before them in the west, offer any equivalent for the loss they would sustain in points to which I have alluded, I should view the subject differently. And is it a crime for a missionary thus to express an opinion on a subject of such universal interest to our country?
Further than a free expression of my belief, I have not gone. And if by my “opposition to the policy of government,” governor Giltner would imply, that I have endeavored to prejudice the mind of the Cherokees against a removal, or that I have been disposed in any way to intercept the agent of government when engaged in the business of enrolling emigrants, I disavow any such interference. Indeed, I have been as destitute of an opportunity, as a desire thus to interfere; for no citizen of this nation has ever expressed to me a disposition to remove beyond the Mississippi. With such as have been so disposed, I have had no means of intercourse. So far as the feelings of individuals have been made known to me, they have been, without exception, averse to a removal.
UNDER date of Feb. 5, 1831, Mr. Judson writes as follows to the Secretary of his society.
The most prominent feature in the mission at present, is the surprising spirit of inquiry, that is spreading every where, through the whole length and breadth of the land. I sometimes feel alarmed,—like a person who sees a mighty en#. ...; to move, over which he knows he as no control.
One of the most remarkable illustrations,
in which the Holy Ghost can easily arrest the attention of a whole heathen people to the gospel, though published by only a few missionaries, and those on the frontiers of the country, is | contained in the following extract of a letter from Mr. Judson, written a month later than the | above.
The great annual festival is just past, during | which multitudes come from the remotest parts of the country, to worship at the great Shway Dagong Pagoda in this place, where it is believed that several real hairs of Gaudama are enshrined. During the festival, I have given away nearly 10,000 tracts, giving to none but those who asked. I presume there have been six thousand applicants at the house! Some came two or three months journey, from the borders of Siam and China,—"Sir, we hear that there is an etermal hell. We are afraid of it. Dr., give us a writing, that will tell us how to escape it.” hundred miles north of Ava, “Sir, we have seen a writing that tells about an eternal God. Are you the man that gives away such writings? If so, pray give us one, for we want to know the truth before we die.” Others came from the interior of the country, where the name of Jesus Christ is a little known, “Are you Jesus Christ's man? Give us a writing that tells about Jesus Christ.” Brother Bennet works day and night at the press; but he is unable to supply us; for the call is great at Maulmein and Tavoy, as wel
which we remember to have seen, of the manner || Others came from the frontiers of Cassay, a
The queen of Sheba came from the uttermost parts of the earth to see the wisdom of Solomon. The wise men of the east came to see the Savior in Bethlehem, having beheld his star in their native country. The Greeks wished to see Jesus, havine heard his fame. Report brought together a vast number to hear the gospel on the day of pentecost. Multitudes in Christian lands are drawn within the sound and saving influence of the gospel, by curiosity.
Now the religion of Christ brings strange things to the ears of a heathen people—heaven, hell, a holy law, an infinite, eternal, holy God, a dying Savior. Let these, and other kindred facts contained in the scriptures, be noised abroad by verbal report, or by means of the press, and let the Holy Spirit employ them to arrest attention and awaken curiosity—as he does in Burmah, and has done more extensively at the Sandwich Islands—and it will not take long for a change of religion to be effected in a nation.
LoNDon JEws’ soci Ety. Twenty-Third Report, May 1831.
The receipts were 14,1441, 7s. 2d. The society has printed an edition of the German Bible to correspond with the pages of the Hebrew Bible it had previously published, and has now for distribution the Old Testament scriptures, with Hebrew and German on opposite columns.
The whole Bible has been translated by the missionaries of the society into the Judeo-Polish language.
. The New Testament was completed and published some years ago. The oTestament was commenced by the Rev. A. M'Caul, assisted by missionary brethren and some Jewish converts. The Pentateuch was first published, and oxtensively circulated; the book of the prophet Isaiah next followed; and those who can estimate the blessing of being enabled, for the first time, to read in the tongue wherein they were born the wondersul works of God, will form some idea of the benefit conferred on the immense Jewish Population of the north east of Europe, in giv"g them the scriptures in a language most ex"sively their own, the language of their collo|. Intercourse, and the only language which * great majority are able to read. The translation has lately been finished, after long and Persevering labor, by a Jewish convert, and
awaits the revision of your missionaries,
troubles which have arisen in Poland, have caused some suspension in this work; and the state of your funds has hitherto rendered it impossible for the Committee to proceed with printing even the parts that have been fully completed.
The present number of missionaries in connection with the society is thirty, besides three in India under the inspection of the Madras Committee. Of these ten are Jews. There are also five persons engaged as teachers in Jewish schools in the Grand Duchy of Posen;–making thirty-eight in all, engaged in promoting the objects of the society. Two missionaries are employed in England; two in France, who occasionally visit Switzerland; one in Hamburgh; one in the country adjacent to the Lower Rhine; one in Bavaria; one in Frankfort on the Maine; one in Dresden; one in Berlin; one in Konigsberg; one in Dantzic; one in Thorn; three in Posen; one at Breslaw; five at Warsaw; two in Lublin; two at Malta; and one at Smyrna.
After enumerating the various stations occupied by the society's missionaries, the Report concludes as follows:
Your Committee feel that a heavy responsi. bility rests upon them. The work of Jewish conversion is evidently going forward in England as well as in other countries. There is a wide field for labor amongst this people, many openings for the missionary; and many pressing calls for the Word of Life. A great door and effectual is opened unto us, but there are still many adversaries. There is a want of more laborers in this cause, ensued with simple, self-denying faith, uniting boldness of spirit with meekness of wisdom—mighty in the scriptures—men who confer not with flesh and blood, and who are not led away by the maxims of a carnal policy, but who give themselves to the work as unto the Lord. Such instruments does the present eventful period require; and your Committee ask your earnest prayer to the Lord of the harvest that he would prepare and send forth such, to labor in the cause of Israel. And they would now conclude their Report with the servent aspiration of the sweet Psalmist of Israel, in which they trust that every heart will unite: “O that the salvation of Israel were come out of Zion! When the Lord bringeth back the captivity of his people, Jacob shall rejoice and Israel shall be glad.”
LoNDON MISSIONARY SOCIETY.
Beneficial Effects of the Scriptures in Mada.
THE following paragraphs are from a letter of Mr. E. Baker, missionary printer at Tananarivo, dated July 1, 1830.
The New Testament is rapidly dispersing through the whole district of Imerina, by means of the schools: it has even reached to the seacoast in several directions, through the circumstance of many, who were formerly scholars, being statione there on government service. Several instances have come to my knowledge, proving the zeal and spirit of inquiry with which I also reminded him,
it is read, sometimes equalling in ardor the 11 had made him angry.
eagerness with which it is at first sought alter. that, according to the testimony of scripture,
Two of my printers have, since its publication. begun to read it, and to pray in their families; and now bring each a wife and sister to chapes. Some complain, that, in many passages, they understand the words very well, but cannot get at the meaning. Of these, a few have, for some weeks past, voluntarily come every evening to read to us, and to obtain an explanation of the word of God. Some passages of scripture, as far as it regards the literal meaning, are peculiarly difficult to a Malagassy, arising from his ignorance of scripture generally, and from diversities of custom, &c. But even of these passages, the instruction they convey is often plain to them, though the literal meaning be obscurely comprehemised. Other passages are strikingly significant, from a coincidence of customs, and the state of society here. Thus the Malagasses understand immediately the parable of the talents, Matt. xxv.; because it is a custom here for masters, on leaving home, to commit money to the care of their slaves, and on their return to demand it back with profit. So also a boy, after reading to me Gal. iv., 10, “Ye observe days and months,” &c., said, “This condemns the people here, such as kill their children, because the |'' or month of their birth was an unlucky one; and others, who abstain from doing things at unlucky times.” In numberless similar instances, passages alluding to and condemning idolatry, sorcery, &c., come with great force to the apprehension of the Malagassy. This fact shows the wisdom of God, in leaving such passages on record until the fulness of the Gentiles be gathered in. I am often gratified with remarks thus illustrative of scripture, and which indicate considerable reflection upon the instructions they receive from the preached and the written word. One man, who has been as my right hand during the printing of the latter half of the New Testament, and is the slave of a scholar, appears to me peculiarly alive to religious impressions. JHe attended his master to school for some time without learning anything, until Mr. Griffiths formed a plan for the instruction of all such attendant slaves. This man was amongst the first to come eagerly forward, and ere long had learned to read and write tolerably, and was at all times remarkably attentive to every meeting for divine worship. He could engage in prayer, and was appointed to teach the servants of Messrs. Johns and Griffiths every evening. His industry and perseverance at the press-work have been truly unremitting, and that for a salary never exceeding one dollar |. month; which, according to custom, was divided with his master: but his chief desire, I fully believe, was to see the Testament completed: in meditation upon which, I trust, he now places his chief delight, whilst relying for salvation with much fear and trembling upon the Savior therein revealed. His zeal in persuading others has been correspondent with our best hopes of the state of his own mind. He related to me, a short time since, that he had often spoken to his father on the subject of salvation, and begged of him to learn to read; but the father always replied, “You are still young, how can you teach me any thing!” and perversely laughed at every thing read to him from the Testament, “What admonition or instruction am I,’” said he, “to give my father, under such circumstances!” I bid him not to cease, but to persevere in speaking to his father, avoiding, as much as possible, every word which
such, by nature, was the enmity of all to the word of God; but God onight hereafter change his father's heart, and incline him to receive instruction.
He has succeeded better with his fellow-slaves, several of whom can read pretty well. Two other slaves, fruits I am told of this man's zealous conversation and advice, have, by their behavior, attracted a good deal of my attention. They are the sovereign's slaves, and, engaging their fellowslaves to do their work during their absence, they have been able constantly to attend chapel. I know uo is, for many months, I have sailed to observe generally both, and always one of them, at the hour of prayer or preaching. I found them surprisingly acquainted with what are the simplest, but, as God has wisely ordered, the most important and leading doctrines of the gospel. They have had much scorn and ridicule to bear; yet one of them has commenced teaching his companions, and has induced six or eight fellow-slaves to become learners. He told me, that having the word of God himself, he desired that his friends might be able to read it; and so had brought them to me to try elementary lessons, promising to bring them again from time to time, that I might know their progress.
Encouraging Prospects of the Mission in Southeastern Asia.
The Rev. Messrs. Kidd and Tomlin, missionaries at Malacca, write thus, at the close of the year 1830,
A considerable portion of divine knowledge has, we doubt not, been already diffused over the Indian Archipelago, by means of tracts and scriptures. Indeed, we meet with many pleasing signs of their good effects. We frequently come in contact with Chinamen, who have at least a partial acquaintance with the doctrines of Christianity, and are familiar with the Savior's name and character. Let us then hope that the Lord will, ere long, make the knowledge they have gained effectual to their thorough conversion, by the energy of the Holy Spirit.
The tracts, which have gone abroad abundantly, have mainly wrought this preparatory work, through the blessing of the Lord: but the way being now opened for the scriptures, we hope to see the demand for them rapidly increasing.
In our recent visits amongst the Chinamen dwelling in the town and neighborhood of Malacca, we have taken the occasion of giving away a good number of parts of the Tamul scriptures to the Kling people, who come from the coast of India, and reside here, in considerable numbers, for the purpose of trade. With them we have very little trouble; for. having once found out that we have such books to give away, they frequently stop us in the streets, or coine to inquire for them at the college. Now and then we can also distribute a few Malay scriptures; and occasionally an Arabic Bible or Testament, to a native schoolmaster.
Mr. Gutzlaff is still in Siam: he has sent down to Singapore a copy of the Siamese New Testament, having revised it lately, two or three times: However, before printing the whole, we shall probably try the experiment of printing a single gospel.
Under a date a few days later the writers say—
Since writing the above, during the last five or six days, we have had a great many visitors at the college, anxiously inquiring for Malay Testaments: these are chiefly Malays and Arabs, who have lately come in prows from Java, and from Palembang (a considerable settlement on the Sumatra coast): several also resident in Malacca have been stirred up. Amongst our foreign visitors, however, there is a pleasing and grateful spirit manifest: several of these are respectable and intelligent persons, of Arab extraction, who read both the Arabic and Malay, and usually wish for the scriptures in both lan
ages, Besides supplying their own wants,
cy commonly request a few more to disperse amongst their friends at home. We can truly say we never witnessed such a frank, cheerful spirit in this people before; and such an eager desire for the |. seems to indicate a real hunger for the bread of life. Yesterday and to-day small parties have been dropping in continually, so that we have been much occupied in ministering it to them. Perhaps not less than 80 copies of the Old and New Testaments have been taken away within the last three or four days.
Less than three hundred years ago, the error began to prevail in Great Britain, that arden! spirit, as an article of luxury or diet, or as an aid to labor, is useful. The cause of this error was, the deceptive feelings of those who used it. Being, in its nature, a mocker, it deceived them. he consequence has been, as stated by a writer in Scotland, and as illustrated by facts, “There is reason to believe, that intemperance has cost that country more lives, demoralized more persons, broken more hearts, beggared more families, and sent more souls to perdition, than all other vices put together.” This fatal error, that ardent spirit is for men in health useful, did not prevail generally among the mass of people in this country, till after the erican revolution. . At the close of the first half century of our national existence, this diseased appetite had be“one so prevalent as to demand, annually, for its *fication, more than sixty million gallons of Huid fire. And while it cost the consumers more than thirty million dollars, it caused more than three fourths of all the pauperism, crimes, and
*tchedness of the community. It also greatly WOL. XXVIII.
In this cstimate, no account is taken of the loss of the labor of the paupers, prisoners confined for debt, nor of the cost of litigation created or excited by the use of ardent spirits, nor the salaries of judges, the expenses of jurors, nor of the fees of counsel.
How many panpers must be made by the abstraction of ninety-four millions of dollars annually from the small earnings of that class of societ upon which the greater part of this loss must o And what immense benefit would the inhabitants of this country derive from ninety-four millions of dollars expended annually for their best interest and comfort!
An annuity of ninety-four millions would, in twenty years, with simple interest only, at six per cent per annum, upon each year's annuity, from the time it became payable to the end of the twenty years, amount to 3,064,800,000 dollars. The valuation of all the lands, houses and slaves in the United States, in the year 1815, exclusive of Virginia, South Carolina and Tennessee, who agreed to pay their quotas of the direct tax without a valuation. was
$1,479,735,098 43-100. If we add for
------. will be $1,771,312,308 45-100
And if we suppose the value to have increased, since 1815, in proportion to the population, the