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The two first Sabbaths in March, the water being high, I could not get to the town; the time was occupied at the station with a few Indians residing there. The three following Sabbaths were spent in preaching at the station and at White Hair's Town. I also visited and preached at Wa-so-ches and the Bears Towns, and gave notice to all the people of the contemplated tour about to be performed among the several tribes, and urged them to bear it on their minds and be ready to hear, for much pains would be taken by missionaries abroad, to visit them for the good of their souls. April 6. A three days' meeting was commenced at Dwight station, among the Cherokees. This was a very interesting meeting. A considerable revival has been experienced among the people, of some time standing. Quite a number of young converts were present, and something like from 30 to 40 inquiring souls. The exercises were closed on Sabbath evening, the 8th. Monday was spent at the station with our missionary brethren, visiting the school, &c. Tuesday, we rode to the Forks of Illinois, to visit brother Newton's station and people. Wednesday, visited a number of families in the neighborhood of that station, exhorting and praying with them, and found nnmbers there who appeared o: |
tender upon the subject of religion. Thursday, attended an appointment at the garrison, when brother Washburn preached to a small, but an attentive audience. This is a very wicked, polluted place; but even here the Holy Spirit was evidently operating upon the minds of some. Friday, we commenced a three days' meeting among the Creeks. But few attended the two first days, but the third day, it being the Sab: bath, a large congregation assembled, and gave very good attention to the word spoken. e anxious were called for, in the course of the day, and a considerable number came forward; but there does not appear so much special interest on the subject of religion as there was a ..". ago. None were added to the church at this time. Tuesday, commenced meeting at Clammont's Town, preached five times in four different lodges. Once in particular to the females; and in every instance we had quite a number together to hear. We continued the meeting part of Wednesday, and came away, thankful that we had been permited to proclaim the gospel to so large, a number of this people. Spent Thursday in public worship at Union station. A few anxious souls there. Sabbath, 22, spent at Hopefield station, preaching to the Osages, who dwelt there, and we had a decent attention both parts of the day. One young woman, in particular, appeared affected with her situation, for whom special prayers were presented aster the public exercises were closed. She
was formerly a member of the school at Union. Wednesday, 25. Toward evening, we arrived at the little Osage town, where we were saluted with a war party, preparing for a war expedition, and with whom we were annoyed all the time we spent at the town, for they were extremely tumultuous and noisy. However, we tarried through the night, and succeeded in getting a considerable number to hear the next day. We collected them together several times in different lodges, during the day, and had one appointment for the females in particular. From this, we went to Wa-so-ches Town, where we spent Friday and part of Saturday. We kept up exercises almost constantly while there, at different lodges and with different classes of men, women and children. A large number in this town, of all ages and descriptions, had an opportunity of hearing something from the word of God. O that God would bless his word for their good. Spent Sabbath, 29, at White Hair's Town. We collected what we could twice, and preached two discourses to them each time. After which, we proposed holding exercises for the instruction of the females and the young men and boys in different lodges at the same time, when somethin like 100 of each sort, were collected, an paid a very respectful attention to the word spoken. The reason, why we called the women and boys separate from the men, is because it is contrary to their customs for them to assemble with the men, but in
every instance, where they in particular
have been invited, they have manifested as much or more engagedness than the mem. 30. It being difficult to pass the Noosho, on account of high water, o brethren from Union and 1) wight started on their way home, and left the visit to the Bears Town for brother Jones and myself, which we performed on the 31st. "We held two co. cises with them, one for all who would attend, and another in particular for the boys. The number was not large who attended, as part of them had started on a hunt, and the women were very busy in their fields, planting corn. This closed our missionary tour, and we think the appearances are more favorable than we ever saw them before among this people. Two Sabbaths have been spent at the Bears Town and two at the station. Attended a four days' meeting at Harmony station, which commenced the 1st day of June. Friday and Saturday the meeting was quite interesting, but the Sabbath was a most solemn and affecting season—13 persons came forward and took the vows of God upon, them, eleven by prosession, and two by letter—five were children of the mission family, four were Indian children, two Delawares, and two Osages and two were black persons, who are la: borers at the mission station. It was very pleasant to behold these young soldiers of the cross come around the table of their divine Lord, to commemorate his dying love, for the first time. During the meeting, five professed a hope in Christ, and within a day or two after perhaps as many more, and a number of others are under very serious impressions. I shall not be very particular in stating the hopeful appearances at Harmony, as no doubt brother Jones will do that in due time. I cannot forbear stating the goodness of God, which has been manifested in my own family, within the year past. My two eldest sons, who visited New England last year, came home, we trust, with new hearts.
We and the Board, are under peculiar obligations to Mr. Warren, for the many favors he has shown us, in various ways. He has made a donation to the mission of $100, mostly in household furniture and provisions, including a cow, besides giving us the use of a part of his house, much to the inconvenience of himself and family, and furnishing us with fire-wood, cut and drawn, with garden vegetables and various other things, for our comfort and convenience. He gives the mission one fourth part of the produce of his farm this year, for our superintending his farming business. He furnishes seed and most of the labor. Mr. Ayer labored on the farm about a month last fall, and during the time of utting in the seed this spring. This is a iberal offer, on the part of Mr. Warren. It will enable us to procure a sufficient quantity of potatoes, peas, and other productions, for the use of our family, should the season be favorable, with little expense to the mission. There was no ground cleared, that we could occupy, except his. It is probable that we can occupy his ground, on some advantageous terms, till the Board determine what to do in this region.
School and Preaching.
We commenced a school early last fall, which has been continued, except about two months in the spring, while the people of this place were at their sugar camps. It has been small. At no time has it exceeded 20 regular scholars, a large part of the time, not above 12 or 15.
The Indians have nearly all been absent from the island during the spring. Several families, which used to be here at this sea.
|son, are this year cultivating a piece of |ground on a river, 12 or 15 miles distant |from us... In consequence of their absence, several children, which attended schoollast fall and winter, have been taken out this spring. I commenced a religious exercise on the Sabbath, for Indians, immediately after our arrival, which has been maintained, except two or three Sabbaths in the early part of the winter, while Mrs. Campbell' was too unwell to go out, and during several weeks in the spring, when nearly every body was absent. We have also had a regular exer. cise in English, on the Sabbath, for the benefit of our own family and one or two | others. Our Indian meeting has been attended but by a few, except the children, who belong to the school. The Indians, when here, have not felt much interest, in coming to hear. The hearers have been principally females, who belong to the civilized families. When we have preached to the Indians, it has been from house to house. When we have been to their lodge, we have generally been well received. They have never refused to hear, when we have read or talked to them about Chris: tianity. They generally hear, however, with very great indifference. They never have made any objections to any thing, which we have communicated to them, from the bible. In some instances, the truth has seemed to produce some effect upon the conscience, for a time. In one instance, we have considerable ground to hope, a saving change has been wrought by the Spirit of God.
Roring Habits of the People—Progress in the Language.
Instruction, however, must be given, as the traders collect their furs, by following the Indians. . A missionary, in this country, cannot sit down and gather the heathen around him to hear the gospel. If he waits for them to come to him, he waits in vain. He must go after them and preach, where he can find them. He must preach to individuals and to families, for he cannot very frequently collect an assembly. I fear there will be an insuperable diffi. culty in the way to maintaining schools, while we depend on the parents for the sup: port of their children, so i. as the present mode of life prevails among them. There are no Indians in the country, who reside at the same place many months, at a time. They roam about continually over a coun: try, hundreds of miles in extent When they go from place to place, the whole family goes together. They are too poor to support their children at school, while they are absent on their hunts and for other pur. Poso, without help. We might, I do not doubt, collect many children"into school
* Mrs. C. at present acts as interpreter.
. soon, if we had the means of feeding and clothing them. I do not know what opinion to form, as to what will result from the introduction of books into the Ojibeway language. We expect a small spellingo which Dr. James has been preparing, and which is probably printed before this time, on the return of the traders. We shall then make the experiment.
I have given considerable attention to the study of the lan My progress has not been very rapid. It is rather more dif. ficult, than I hoped to find it. I have received considerable assistance from some manuscripts, which I procured of Dr. James. When we shall be able to give instruction in it, I cannot tell. Mr. §. has spent much time in studying it for the last two #". but does not speak it at all fluently.
e has taught the school about half the time, since it was opened, the remainder of the time, it has been under my care. He has also collected the children into a Sabbath school, and has given considerable interest to our mission by teaching them to sing some Indian hymns. He and Mrs. Campbell return to Mackinaw with the traders. I shall have no means of preaching to the Indians till another interpreter arrives.
LETTER FRoM MR. Boutwell, DATED Fox du Lac post, JUNE 25, 1832.
Notice was given in the last number, p. 274, of the reception of this letter. The object of this tour to the head waters of the Mississippi is, to learn the state of the Indians in those regions, with reference, ultimately, to their instruction.
I write in the midst of confusion; all is hurry and bustle to make ready for our departure from this place, where we arrived on June 2d. We passed the Sabbath with Mr. Aitkin, who was on the point of embarking for Mackinaw, but who remained with his clerks and men till this morning. On arriving here I was not a little surso to find nearly 400 souls. French alf breed, Indians and white men. The scene at our landing was such as I never before witnessed, and enough to fill one, unaccustomed to the like as myself, with wonder, if not with fear. The yelling of Indians, barking of dogs, crying of childten, running of the multitude, discharge of musketry and flourish of flags, was noise in the extreme. But my feelings were indescribable, when Iome to my senses and felt that on my*If devolved the duty of preaching to this *ly group, the only salvation É. Jesus Christ. And what depressed me more than *'', the majority neither understood m language, nor Pt. sufficiently to ad*... them, except through an interpreter. The Lord, however, opened a wide and jectual door, and gave me utterance. At *** clock I preached to about 40 in Eng.
lish, the first sermon ever preached here— and at four, P. M., I addressed, through Mr. Johnston, more than twice that number–French, half breeds and Indians. Many of the latter of whom, for the first time, listened to the word of life. All listened with attention and interest. My interpreter sat on my right, while a chief occupied a seat at my left, around and before me, on the floor, sat his men, women and children, in a state of almost entire nudity, many of whom had no more than a cloth about the loins and blanket, but some of the children not even a blanket. All with their pipes and tobacco pouches, painted with all the variety of figures that can be imagined. The chief came to Mr. Schoolcraft three times, during the day, for permission to dance, but followed his advice, with the promise of the o in the morning. From five o’clock till twelve at night, my ears were filled with the monotonous beat of the Indian drum.
This morning, the drum was the first thing heard; and at eight, 30 or more, who joined in the dance, headed by their chief, came before our door, where they exhibited for an hour. Their approach was the most comical—a half hop, timed by the beat of two drums, accompanied with a monotonous sound of the human voice—each holding his musket in a presented position, which, as they came near, was discharged—two American flags were borne, at the right of their column.
The pipe was now lit, and first presented to Mr. S. and next to myself, then to Mr. Johnston, and finally went the rounds, when they commenced their dance, accompanied with the monotonous drum and the voices of a few squaws. At short intervals all united in a yell. The bodies of the principal part of the men were naked, except the cloth about the loins and leggins, and painted in a manner to exhibit the most hideous spectacle possible. Their heads and the bodies of many were ornamented with the feathers of the eagle. One character, in particular, attracted my attention—this was their medicine man. He was superbly painted, leggined and rolled in a fine Buffalo robe, which being too cumbersome to join in the dance, he stood by as a looker on. The pipe and dance with them are the highest marks of respect, and on which occasions they always expect presents. After the dance had proceeded a short time, one of the warriors began a sort of Philippic to the young men, recounting his exploits, in which he was careful to tell them how many of the Sioux he had killed. And here too I must acknowledge the kindness of my friend, Mr. S., who, immediately on receiving his instructions from the war department, dispatched a canoe for me to Mackinaw, and has been assiduous in every possible ho of making my tour pleasant and profita I trust I shall be
WE have enjoyed uninterrupted health in our family, since last fall, for which we can never be sufficiently thankful, and there have been very few cases of severe sickness among this people. I believe there have been but three or four deaths here, since last fall. One of these was a man, who would not be reclaimed from intemperance. One day, he came from the river, and went to the house where the poison is kept, obtained some and drank, and was found the next day upon the ice. Within the three years, I have been in this region of country, there have been as many as a dozen murders committed in the country, and as many, or more, have been found dead—frozen and drowned, &c.; and all have been directly the effects of intemrance. Could all the groans and sufferings and wailings, ...i. ardent spirits, only along the shores of this river, coine into the ears of the makers and venders of these death potions, surely they would at once relinquish this murderous work.
The following address was written and delivered by J. N. Chicks, one of the Stockbridge Indians, to a temperance society, composed chiefly of his nation, at Statesburgh, near Green Bay. The writer was, for a time, at the F. M. School, in Cornwall. Asier he left the school, he became notoriously intemperate. In February, 1831, he became serious. Some account of his seriousness, and the immediate cause of it, was given in the last volume, p. 153. Since that time, he has given increasing evidence that a saving change has been wrought upon him. The address produced a salutary impression on
those who heard it.—It is given almost cntire, and with but few verbal alterations.
Dear Friends—The object of our assem. bling this day is great and good, and may benefit both body and soul; but we are apt to think its of no importance, and, therefore, are inattentive to what is said at such times, when instructions are communicated to meliorate our conditions. Here we come and sit, and do we not often appear as a stick of wood when spoken to? Is it not because we never have sufficiently investigated the subject, and the causes of intem: perance? But I presume we are now all convinced of the evil and ill consequences of it.
I am conscious, as well as assured, that the formation of this Temperance Society is an object worthy of our attention, for without it we shall never rise to be a pros. perous and happy people. I deem it of great importance, and well adapted to our necessities; and it seems to point the only way the poor Indians can be saved from certain and swift destruction.
The commencement of this work cannot be said to be too soon, but rather too late, nor are its rules too strict in the attempt to save us. A man, who for a long time has been attacked by disease, and often been led to distress, if finally partly restored, doth not say, it is too soon, nor immaterial to use farther means to his perfect recoy. ery. . The use of ardent spirits, certainl has done more mischief among our people than any thing else, and though heretofote, it was just as necessary that measures should be taken to prevent it as now; but we ourselves never discovered, what method to take, probably observed not the danger.
I have often been surprised to behold the young people so intemperate; they are worse than the old people. How they be: came thus, is a question for you to deter. mine. “Just as the twig is bent the tree is inclined.” And further, when I was young, I, never saw the like, only in the aged. Was it not by them, you yourselves were led to it? And by you it is now handed down to the young; and so, at last, it has become so common to drink to excess, that the dreadful and overwhelming evil of it had almost lost its terror. We often looked opon an intemperate man, without any feeling or sense of his real situation. This was the case with professors of religion, be:
fore we left Stockbridge, N. Y. Our eyes
were so accustomed to the beholding of the drunkard, we paid but little attention to the representation; as he passed on, we laugh: ed, and made light ..". appearance, and grew, callous, and unfeeling of the guilt !s not this too much the case with us yet If our pity had ever been excited as it ought, if we have ever seriously reflected upon the real situation of the habitually in: temperate, if we have ever recalled to mind,
what they have been, what they will be in a few years, and of the eternity, prepared for all accountable creatures, we had not remained thus far so cold and unfeeling. Just recal to mind the cases of some whom you have known for years, who became miserable drunkards. In early life, his hopes and prospects exhibited as much encouragement as any of ours now—and who finally died like a beast;-his body was picked up in the street, and thrown out of the way. Let us remember, that this guilty, wretched creature had an immortal mind, he was like us, of the same flesh and blood, he was our brother, destined to the same eternity, created by, and accountable to, the same God, and will, at last, stand at the same judgment bar; and who, amid such awful reflections, will not weep at his fate whose eye can remain dry, and whose heart unmoved? How rapidly has this evil made its progress, since a few years. Undoubtedly by your unfaithfulness, and those who were before you and responsible for your welfare, you neglected to impress upon the minds of your children the baneful effects produced by drunkenness. Notwithstanding the great number of melancholy events, many of you have lived to witness, occasioned by intemperance, in the lives of those, whom you were intimately acquainted with, still you have never been sufficiently awake to this subject. It would be a different thing, had I related circumstances, which you, or I, have heard to have occurred to some nations, or people, in a distant country; but these scenes, with your own eyes, you have be: held among your relatives, friends, and neighbors. And you need not to look far back; even some of those children now present, were eye witnesses of the occurrences. Since we have migrated to this country, an aged woman was burnt and consumed in the flames. One of our school girls was terribly burnt, and so ex: o in a few days. One of our school oys frozen to death. All of which, was effected by the poisonous stuff. But ah! the occasion and manner of these deaths were then no surprising events, nor were they considered an ...i warning to the living. We looked upon them as the natural result of all things. It is true they are no more than what might have been expected, in considering our ordinary lives, and the way the youth were trained up. They only fell into the custom and imitated e example set before them, by their Parents; but unfortunately before they proseeded far in the paths their parents had tood; they were ushered into the presence of their angry Judge, only to hear the senonce, Depart ye drunkards! Oh! here "guage fails' poor mortal man cannot de*ibel tongue can never express the ex*uciating pains which must then be felt! Perhaps the very moment the sentence
was pronounced, they exclaimed, O you cruel parents' had you done as you ought to have done, we might have made our escape! In all your admonitions, your eyes remained dry, and a tear was never shed therefrom; neither did your example give force to your precepts and warnings! and, therefore, we continued in unbelief until we are ruined! and lost forever!
It fully appears, that the aged and parents have heretofore led the young people astray, even when the child was yet helpless, they attempted to do away the natural disrelish of ardent spirits. At the birth of an infant, (I have noticed this to be the general practice, among our people, whether it is so yet, I know not, but I am rather inclined to imagine it is) according to custom, the father starts in order to try to purchase a quantity of spirit. If he cannot get it from one place, he runs to another, till he gets it. It is thought to be as necessary as , any thing else. And the parent certainly acts, as if the child could not be born without it. The father treats his friends and his household, and the mother partakes with the rest. The infant is fed with it; as if he could not know the good things, he is heir to, without a taste of ardent spirits. They are kept on hand and often given to him, as medicine, especially where the parents are fond of it themselves. By this practice, even in the cradle, his disrelish for ardent spirits is done away.
Parents, has not this been the case with many of you, if it has, then never be surprised again at the prevalence of intemperance, even if it is practised by your children, as though you did not know who has been the cause of it. If you have been drunken, and taken notice of by your children, is it not enough to lead you (especially if any of them have died in an unprepared state) to weep and mourn over the past, during the remainder of your lives? O how great must be the guilt that awaits you! I would, that we were all made to feel our guilt. O that there was such a heart in us, that we would fear the Above and keep his commandments. G that we were wise, that we understood this, that we would consider our latter end.
Look at your children, and try to realize their frailty, and the worth of their souls. These dying immortals are placed peculiarly under your care, their instruction is committed to you. God commands you to bring them up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord, and to train them up in the way they should #. and when they are old, they will not depart from it. And what if they perish through your neglect? How then could you meet them at the judg. ment bar? What exertions are then roquired of us, to promote, and uphold that which tends to the rescuing of the risin generation, as well as those which are # unborn. Much, very much depends on #.