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servation the missionaries from Seneca and Cattaraugus have frequently preached, and a flourishing church has been organized. On each of the reservations, except that at Tuscarora, about half the Indians adhere to their heathen customs and have little intercourse with the portions who have embraced Christianity.

It appears that proposals had been made a year or two since, for such a general convention, but owing to some little difficulties the plan had been relinquished. During the visit to Alleghany, mentioned in my last, Young King, the principal chief of the Senecas, brought forward the proposition again, and the influential members of the church from the reservation being present, unanimously concurred, and appointed the time and place of the meeting. After our return to this station, little praying circles were formed, in reference partly to the state of religion here, which was at that time more É. usually interesting, but with special regard to the expected convention. At the same time it was thought expedient to open a weekly meeting for inquirers, which for a time continued to be attended by from five to twelve or fifteen anxious sinners. Previous to the convention also, our temperance society held its quarterly meeting, and voted to propose the organization of a general temperance society, to which the societies on the several reservations should be considered auxiliary.

On Monday evening the 27th of February, the exercises of the convention were opened by a sermon from Mr. Elliot of the Tuscarora mission, on the subject of education. In the morning the necessity of ef. fort for promoting the cause of religion was urged upon Christians from the text, “Thy kingdom come;" after which the male members of the churches separated from the congregation, to attend to the business of the convention, while Mr. Elliot continued to preach to the impenitent.

Preaching was continued in the asternoon and evening of this day. The foremoon of Wednesday there was preaching. The aslernoon was devoted to the cause of temperance, and in the evening there was preaching again. Thursday morning was occupied in addresses from the lndians. A chief from this reservation (Seneca White) spoke on the subject of missionary exer. tions, in behalf of their brethren beyond the Mississippi, urging with great force and propriety, the claims of those perishing pagans, and the obligation and practicability of sending some of their young men at no distant day to teach them the gospel. Seldom have I listened to a more consistent, lucid, and impressive appeal to the sympathies of Christians in behalf of the heathen. In the asternoon another sermon was delivered with reference to the communion which was to follow. Then two deacons,

one white Seneca of this church, the other Zechariah Lewis, a young man about twenty years of age, of the Cattaraugus church, were solemnly set apart for the du: ties of their office, and afterward the sacred ordinance of the Lord's supper was admin. istered to perhaps sixty communicants from the different reservations. The great Mas: ter of the feast was evidently with us, and it was a precious season. To see members of five Indian churches, all except one gathered within ten years, from among a people, till then o in the darkness and guilt of heathenism, with joyful hearts now gathering around the table of the Lordto see the same hands which once grasped the tomahawk and scalping knife now stretched forth in Christian meekness to receive the memorials of the Savior's suffer. ings—to hear the same voices which once made the forests ring with the war-whoop and death-yell, now sweetly singing the praises of redeeming grace—oh, it was enough to make your missionaries rejoice that they had devoted their lives to this ar. duous service, and bless God that they were not laboring in vain, or spending their strength for naught.

As we left the house, we said to each other, the witnessing of this one scene is an ample compensation for all the sacrifices we have made, of home and friends and comfortable parishes in New England.

During the afternoon the pagan party at Cattaraugus had assembled at their council. house, and at the request of some of the Christian chiefs had consented to listen to a discourse. Accordingly Mr. Elliol went immediately after the communion service and preached to a crowded assem. bly. As usual in such cases some were angry, some mocked, and some seemed in: clined to hear further upon the subject. In the evening, aster another sermon in the meeting-house, the anxious were called forward, and eight or nine requested the prayers of Christians. It was hoped that one or two of them submitted to Christ before they left the room; but it re. quires so long a trial for the full develope. ment of character among Indians, that in all such cases we dare not speak with con: fidence. It was expected that this evening would terminate the exercises of the meek ing, but a death having occurred in the neighborhood it was thought best for one of us to stay and attend the funeral on Fi day, P. M., and therefore we continued the meeting during the whole day. Many so gans attended the funeral, and the whol: assembly appeared more deeply affec than at any previous time during the meek ing.

Measures adopted by the Contention.

In regard to the measures adopted by the gonvention, the more important were fixing of a time for a similar meeting *

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nually, on the second Wednesday of February, to be held on the different reservations in rotation; the next to be at Alleghany: the formation of a general temperance society to which the reservation societies are auxiliary, and of a general missionary society whose auxiliaries are the several churches; and the adoption cf a resolution to abrogate the law of non-intercourse with the pagans on the subject of religion. It appears that some agent of the United States government, in order to quiet the dissensions of the two parties, had instructed them that they ought not to interfere with each other at all on the subject of religion, but let each worship in peace according to his own views of duty. . To this both parties gave assent at the time; but, ever after, the pagans considered it a breach of contract if any of the Christian party spoke to them at all, in ever so friendly a manner, on the subject of religion. It was against this perversion of the contract that the above resolution was directed, and the adoption of it gave occasion to o very spirited addresses, only a part of which I was able to get interpreted. Among other things, a brother from Tonawanda remarkedin substance, that Christ had commanded his children to preach the gospel to every creature; that this gospel was making rapid progress through the earth, and would soon overspread it. "You might as well attempt to prevent the water of a river from flowing downward by building a dam across it, as to prevent the progress of the gospel. It will either flow over, or cut a channel around or under the dam, and you cannot stop it. Shall we then allow ourselves to behindered from preaching the gospel to our pagan brethren, by their perversion of our agreement? Is that perversion a dam sufficient to prevent the water of life from flowing in this channel? &c. &c.

Church at Seneca—Cholera.

For several weeks after this meeting the state of religious feeling in this reservation appeared to be improving. Several persons expressed hopes; two or three of them such as till within a few weeks had been reckoned with the pagan party. But when the season arrived for making maple sugar. many families removed for that purpose to a distant part of the reservation. Some of

em were absent three or four weeks; and the business of their farms claiming immediale attention as soon as the sugaring was finished, the worldly spirit began to prewall, and our hopes of a powerful revival, were blasted in the bud. Our church reQeived an addition of five, however, on the 8th of April. One of these was James Young, the scholar who aided brother Har* in his translation of the gospel of Luke, **, Two out of the five had been baptised "...childhood. One has since fallen into E"evous sins, and we shall probably ex

clude her at the next church-meeting. She had appeared the most promising of all the converts since my arrival here, É. now we have but little hope of her. Doubtless it is for wise reasons that the Lord permits such disappointment of our expectations. None but those surrounded by heathen can know how bitter such trials are to missionaries. As yet but one person has been excluded fiom this church, and that was on the 9th of June last. He had been a church-member five or six years, and for a time had been very zealous, and apparently sincerely devoted. But for three years past his conduct has been a scandal upon the cause. The crimes for which he was expelled were intenperance and violation of the Inarriage contract.

About the middle of July the cholera a peared o us and became the all-absor ing subject of anxiety and exertion. For a while its progress was rapid, but a merciful God soon stayed its ravages;—not, however, till it had taught us many solemn lessons in regard to missionary zeal and faithfulness. As nearly as can be ascertained there were about a hundred cases on the reservation. Some of the Indians reckon many more; but perhaps they do not discriminate between the malignant and common cholera. There were only eleven or twelve deaths, and these were most of them in the heathen party. In much mercy the whole church, and { believe all except one member of the temperance society, were spared; and this one had recently violated his engagements.

Religious meetings—Additions to the Church at Alleghany.

In the mean time, aster the pestilence had left us, the Indians became anxious for a protracted meeting; and accordingly the 16th of August was fixed upon for its commencement. About a week previous to its commencement 1 was attacked with a slight bilious sever, which prevented my taking a part in the meeting, except preaching a short discourse at its close. The neighboring ministers, however, very kindly assisted us, so that we were able to continue the meeting six days.

We hope there were a few cases of conversion; one or two of them of a very interesting character. But the apparent results of the meeting would scarcely warrant a similar measure again, though we would by no means allow ourselves to despise the day of small things.

} j have mentioned in the former part of this communication that Mr. Hall the young gentleman employed in Mr. Elliot's place at Tuscarora during his abo sence to New England visited Caitaraugu, and Alleghany in my stead about the last of June. At the latter place he held meet. ings three or , four days in succession. There was much apparent interest excited

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Summary of the Missions of the Society.— In the several parts of the world, connected with the society's operations, there are 113 stations and out-stations, 92 missionaries, 19 European assistants, 133 native assistants, 54 churches, 4,771 members or communicants, 891 schools, 22,193 scholars. Being an increase during the year of 22 branch stations, two missionaries, four churches, 820 members or communicants, 39 schools, 1,495 scholars. The society has 13 printing establishments, at eight of which 139,000 books, including 33,000 rtions of Scriptures, have been printed. And #. nine stations 115,000 copies of books have been put into circulation. Missionary Students.-The number of young men desirous of serving the Redeemer among the gentiles, who have placed themselves under the auspices of the society, is nineteen. Funds.-The contributions for the ordinary urposes of the society, during the past year, ave been 34,568l. 3s. 8d.; for special objects 517t. 3s. 2d.; making a total of 35,085l. 6s. 10d.; being 6,304. 16s. 8d. less than the receipts of the preceding year. The expenditure during the ast year has been 39,240.10s. 7d.; being 4,155l. §. 9d. more than the receipts during the same period. The experience of the society in the year that is past, has added to the evidence of each one preceding it, in confirming the testimony of scripiure, that the advancement of the divine glory in the conversion of souls, the ultimate aim of all missionary efforts, must be the work of the Holy spirit. To his divine influences alone, the directors look sor success in the labors of their brethren; and encouraged by the promise of the Holy Spirit to them that ask him, they rejoice in the increased attendance at the missionary prayer-meetings in the metropolitan districts, and some other portions of the country; and regard this as one of the most favorable indications of divine approbation. The directors notice also with pleasure, the increasing number of holy and devoied young men, who, in answer to the claims of the world, and the prayers of the church, have been led, they would hope by the Holy Spirit, to consecrate themselves to missionary service, and are now training for the work. The tenor of communications from every quarter has shown so strongly the need of vigorous effort, that the expenditure of the year now closed has equalled i. of the preceding one, and exceeded that of the current period. #:

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THE Rev. Joseph Knight, of the Church Mik sionary Society in Ceylon, thus reviews the diff. culties which a missionary in the east is called to encounter in the prosecution of his labors. “Iti well to know the nature and extent of these diff. culties,” says the editor of the London Mission. ary Register, “but when we call to mind the do vine commission under which the missionary goes forth, and the triumphs which the gospel,a the power of God, has achieved over the most formidable opposition from the day of penteco to the present hour there is no cause sor despot dency or discouragement.”

In addition to the obstacles which arise from the depravity of human nature, and which, ho differing in degree among different people, so common to all, there are many peculiar so the country, which, therefore, demand particular to: lice.

Of these, one of the most obvious is, the eo; clusive and consequently forbidding and unsocial nature of their institutions, both civil and relio ious. These are blended together, and res!" the same authorities; viz. the Shasters, remo" antiquity, and universal practice. They so. i. as of divine origin, and as coeval with their existence as a people. They so insino themselves into every feeling of the mind,” every action of the life, that the views, and ho its, and character of the people are formed from them; and they totally exclude all, except* the hope of gain, or some such motive, opera*, from familiar intercourse with others.

1. Among the institutions of the too caste stands first. This pervades the wholeo tion, and prescribes the rank of every individu in the community, the trade and occupol.” which each must follow, the duties to be do the connections to be formed, &c. &c.; a these are all practised from generation to got ation, with the most undeviating scrupulosio. ... 2. Included in the above is a system of itary priesthood; forming an integral part of the nation, and from time immemorial claiming and exercising an indisputable supremacy over the .# classes. 'No. rests.

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ence occasionally paid to individual brahmins, they are regarded as little less than divine— especially such as hold the sacerdotal office, by those for whom they officiale; and, without any reference to the morality or immorality of their characters, they are, by the highest sanction, esteemed as the representatives of the Deity, and not unfrequently receive divine honors. Though the contributions which form the support of this class are, for the most part, voluntary, : such is the bondage in which the people are eld by custom, superstitious dread of demons, the authority of their sacred books, &c. &c., that the amount, paid annually by each respectable person to this object is said to be very great, Occasions (or such payments are endless. Not only from the very birth, but, in some castes, or by such as strictly conform to prescribed rites, even from the very conception, and onward through life, offerings are frequently made, or rites performed, which require the o: of the family brahmin, who always immediately receives, the accustomed dues. But not only through life are hurdensome and expensive ceremonies performed: feneral obsequies, and rites to the manes of progenitors, are deemed very important; and these are continued annually, and even monthly, so long as children or descendants survive, to bear in remembrance the name or any knowledge of the individual. 3. As the shasters are held in such high veneration, and regulate to so great an extent the views and practices of the people universally, they also must be regarded as forming a most powerful obstacle to ifie spread of truth. These are writings undoubtedly of great antiquity, deemed sacred, inculcating the rigid observance of the rites and custons prevalent in the country; and totally excluding foreigners, and all who are uot by birth of approved caste, from all participation. 4. The monstrous tales contained in these books also form a difficulty of no mean importance. All the puramas (sacred poems) are filled with the most extravagant and wonderlul accounts of the exploits of their gods and heroes, achieved in remote ages; which, strange as it may seem, are all received with the most unhesitasing confidence, being universally considered of divine authority. provided such accounts, whether ancient or modern, be in accordance will, or in support of, their systems, no evidence is required of their authenticity. No inquiry is ever instituted as to their truth or falsehood; for oubt seems never to enter the mind. With a People so credulous, the evidence arising from realmiracles has little weight. The miracles of the Bible are scarcely deemed worthy of notice; and abstract truth, however supported by arguonent, makes little or no impression on the mind. eir intellects are, as it were, blunted; and their

thinking powers but little brought into exercise,

except within certain prescribed limits; the writings and opinions ors: ancients always determining the bound of investigation. The utmost apathy characterizes the great mass of the .. with regard to every thing but what immediately affects the senses; so that the passions * no easily wrought upon by affecting representations, nor the conscience roused by fear of * danger in a future state. • The doctrines taught in their books are not * Pernicious. The doctrine of destiny, or rather of works of merit and demerit, supposed "have been performed in consequence of the onnection of the soul with matter in former

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states of existence, issuing into an endless succession of transmigrations and their attendant enjoyments and sufferings, has an inconceivably powerful hold on the mind. Joyous or adverse events, and even future destiny, being supposed to happen merely as things of course, or as the result of past actions not at all within their controul, and but little affected by present conduct, an inconceivable apathy pervades the mind with regard to futurity. The secling runs into all the occurrences of life. All their hopes and lears are regulated by it; and the stupifying salvo is constantly applied to lull the feelings under misfortune and disappointment. This doctrine is found in all their books, is inculcated by all their teachers, and is ever recurring in conversation, as the source to which all events are referred, whether they regard themselves individually or otherwise. Hence a superintending Providence is kept out of sight; but their system does not pos, admit of the idea. If powers are ascribed to the gods to do them good or evil, it can happen only according to their former merit or demerit; even the gods themselves, whether individually, or in their operations for others, being subject to the same unalterable influence. This doctrine is one of the most difficult to refute in the whole system, and is probably the last that retains possession of the mind of the convert to Christianity. It accounts for all the evils that exist in the world, whether moral or natural; and furnishes a reason wherefore one is poor and another rich, one a prince and another a beggar one wise and o a fool, one a man an another a brute or vegetable. All natural desects, as blindness, decrepitude, &c., among the brute creation, as well as among the human species, are ascribed to it; nor is there any thing in the whole range of creasion beyond its influence. Though shewn the absurdity of this doctrine again and again, except convinced by more than human power, the poor bewildered #. still clings to it with the utmost tenacity. 6. The very obscene character of these writings may also be mentioned. They surnish an almost inexhaustible sountain of impurity. calculated greatly to strengthen the depraved feelings of the natural heart; and thus form no inconsiderable barrier, to the spread of the religion of the holy Jesus. In other systems, purity and virtue are taught by precept and recommended for imitation, how much vice and obscenity soever may be found in practice: but here, the puramas, which are the class of sacred books chiefly read, and by which the views and feelings and general character of the people are for the most part formed, are full ..". grossest allusions. . No adequate conception can possibly be formed of the very low and debased character of these writings, except by those who have read them; and yet they are chaunted and explained in their temples from day to day, to companies of both sexes and all ages, and it is considered very meritorious to hear them. As might naturally be supposed, the state of morals in the country is exactly the counterpart of their books. 7. The degradation of the female character, arising from the low estimation in which it is held, and the proscription of female education also proves a very powerful obstacle to the sprea of knowledge. o be born a female is univer. sally considered an evil, both to the individual herself, and to the family in which she is born. Al; through life she is treated as a being of inserior rank in the creation; as unfit for society, and incapable of comprehending subjects conversed

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on by the other sex. When married, she is re- 9. The length of time requisite to acquire
garded by the husband as his slave; she cannot 'o a knowledge of the languages, customs,
eat till he has eaten, nor go to rest till he has re- || &c. of the country, as is necessary to qualily a
tired, nor do any thing but in obedience to his person to become an efficient teacher, among a
will. Though women frequent the heathem tem- || people so sternly untractable, so rigidly adhering
ples, and are more superstitious than the men, | to their supersutions, &c., also forms a difficulty
when spoken to by Christians on the concerns of of very great importance.
religion, of the soul, a future state, &c., their 10. The influence of climate on the European
common answer is: “Speak to our lords about || constitution ought not to be lost sight of The
this: we cannot comprehend such things.” Igno- || greater part of those who come out as missiona.
rance is a universal characteristic; and they are | ries are incapacitated for labor before they ac:
not only regarded as incapable of learning, but || quire a competent knowledge of the native lan.
instruction in a female is considered a thing to be || guage.
deprecated and avoided: hence, one of her 11. The natural tendency of his system, con-
natural and most estimable qualities, as given in sidering the invincible hold it has on the mind, to
their vocabularies, and sound generally in their induce the Hindoo to regard all others with con-
books, is ignorance or incapacity. tempt, or even with abhorrence—as life takers,
8. Another obstacle to the spread of divine || bee-eaters, &c.—should also be taken into ac-
truth arises from its teachers being obliged to || count.
employ terms, which, from their heathenish use 12. The want of a full exhibition of the Chris-
and application, necessarily convey different | tian character, by persons of their own nation,
ideas from those intended. Thus, if God be || may also be regarded as proving a check to the
spoken of, except the hearer has long been under || spread of divine truth. Many have formerly as:
hristian instruction, he will probably under- || sumed the Christian name, in different parts of
stand by it some one of his deities, who yields to || southern India, and large parlies have been
the vilest passions, and allows his worshippers to formed; but their Christianity has been, for the
do so too. By sin may be understood nothing || most part, it is believed, merely nominal. Their
more than ceremonial defilement, or an evil com- || religion has not been fully exemplified in life; and
mitted in a former birth; for which the person || the heathem, therefore, have had but little oppot.
feels himself no further accountable than as he is tunity so to appreciate its excellencies as to pro-
now suffering in consequence of it; or, if it be re- || duce conviction. In this island it was formerly
ferred to present actions, it is not an evil against || propagated by force. It may well be inlessed
a God of holiness and justice, who punishes the that the result on the native mind is any shing
sinner for the violation of his law, but a principle || but favorable.
ascribed to God as its author, equally with what 13. The natural character of the people may
is good, and alike pleasing to him. Almost || also be considered as unfavorable. They are
every theme that forms the subject of our ad- || credulous to a high degree, in what refers other
dresses is perverted in a similar way: so that | own system; but generally fickle, imbecile, and
when we think we preach in the clearest and ||easily affected by what strikes the senses. By
most intelligible manner, and hope we are fully ||terior decorations are their foibles. Public exhi.
understood, and that distinct and powerful im- || bitions always work on their minds. Idolato's
pressions are made on the mind, it is often sound, processions prove exceedingly imposing, ide:
on inquiry, that scarcely a correct idea has been | pendently of the superstition which operates
retained, and that most that was said was greatly || Scripture truth, therefore, simply romulgated,
misconstrued by the hearer. The newly arrived and unaccompanied by exterior J. and po
missionary is more especially liable to difficul-|rade, finds, in the habitual constitution of their
ties of this class. minds, no congeniality of soul.

ameritan i50art of Commissioners for joreign saissions.

sport Et Ari Es. tendence of agencies, the visiting of theological
seminaries and meetings of the principal eccle:
siastical bodies, &c.; Mr. Anderson will condu"
the foreign correspondence, with the mission”
ries and with other societies; and Mr. Green"
will have charge of the correspondence will
missions among the Indians, and of the editing of
the Missionary Herald. Other duties there will
| be common to the three, and each will assis the
others as occasions shall require.”

THE Rev. Benjamin B. Wisner, who was, at the late meeting of the Board, appointed one of its Secretaries, was, on the 12th ult., at his own request, dismissed, by an ecclesiastical council, from the pastoral charge of the Old South Church in Boston; and, on the same day, communicated to the Prudential Committee his acceptance of the appointment; and has en

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