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I was grieved to learn that the missionary considered himself as under no obligation to preach to the natives, and that their feet were not allowed to tread the threshold of this sacred place. No wonder its own children had dwindled to a handful, and the candlestick been well nigh removed out of its place. He that watereth shall himself be watered.
4. 5. To-day is the commencement of the sing-ming season with the Chinese, when they repair to the graves of their deceased relatives and sacrifice to their manes. Desiring to improve the opportunity of usefulness, we visited the largest cemetery in the neighborhood of Batavia, and spent §. of the morning in conversation and
stributing tracts. Many thousands were present and the whole scene presented a confused mass of heterogeneous characters and things. None of that solemnity or sadness of association, which are generally connected with the place of the ... and which might be thought to result from communion with invisible spirits, could be discovered. The graves were, with perhaps a few exceptions, adorned with colored papers. One of the tombs containing the dust of a mortal of earthly distinction, was covered with mats, and converted into a scene of pompous ceremony, and shameful carousal. This tomb was more magnificent than anything of the kind I saw in China. It occupied enough ground to bury a hundred men in ordinary graves, was composed of a high and spacious mound with a platform of cement in front, surrounded with a wall, and decorated with pilasters of the same material. Two hideous stone figures, more like lions than any other creature of earthly shape, were seated on pedestals to guard the entrance. On the platform, covering an area of probably fifty feet by twenty, was spread a table with a great variety of viands, fruits, preserves, &c. de
nominated sacrifice to the dead, but design
ed to gorge the living. Before the table two men were kneeling, one with his head in contact with the ground, the other holding a small tablet in his hand, from which he read for the information of the departed irit the devotion of the relatives and their esire to be reciprocally honored. The tablet was repeated in a corruption of the Mandarin dialect, which is generally considered the most dignified expression of the Chinese character. When this was performed the men arose; the assembly began to talk and laugh; the music struck up; and the dead appeared to be forgotten. We did not remain to witness the revel which ensues, and which adds so much zest to the observance of this ceremony. The tombs of the wealthy generally face a pond of water, and extend to its edge. The Chinese have a strange superstition about what they term Fung-shui), an exPression meaning “wind and water,” and applied to the science of determining the
site of buildings and graves. When the dead are displeased with the situation of their sepulchres, it is supposed that some temporal calamity, generally a defeat in money projects, is the certain evidence, and punishment. A small temple is erected on the ground, most frequently dedicated to “the god of happiness,” and believed to conciliate the spirit of the place.
In one of the idol temples o: to the Budh sect was a number of old stone images, representing Budh, Vishnu, Scheva, Ganesa, Doorga, and other figures of Hindoo origin. These had been thrown aside upon the introduction of Mohammedanism, and afterwards procured by the Chinese. Before the temple were stages erected, and children acting in the most unmeaning style for the amusement of the populace.
Mr. Medhurst was interrupted in publishing “the glad tidings of great joy" by a deranged Chinamen, who has either conceived a strange disposition to imitate the missionary, or been incited by wicked men or devils to oppose him. He appeared with a book in his hand, and after the manner of Mr. M. pretended to quote a text and explain it to the people. He generally conceives a most absurd sentiment, which he gravely repeats in the reading dialect, as though borrowed from some sacred book, and then descants on its meaning in the colloquial dialect. His conversation to-day was so obscene that we thought it prudent to leave him. Many sentiments were uttered and books distributed before we returned. The Lord in mercy shed down his onlightening Spirit, that the living may be instructed to pay due regard to |... and not waste their time on those who heed not their folly.
EXTRACTS FROM A GENERAL LETTER or THE Mission ARIEs, DATED JUNE 28th, 1831. By the arrival at New Bedford of the ship columbus, Capt. Osborn, letters have been received from the missionaries at the Sandwich Islands of as late a date as September 14th, bringing down the history of the mission more than eleven months later than the last published accounts. It is also learned by this arrival, that the Rev. Messrs. Baldwin, Tinker, and Dibble, and Mr. Johnstone, with their wives, who embarked at New Bedford, on the 28th of December, 1830, in the ship New England, Capt. Parker, reached the Islands on the 7th of June following, after a very comfortable passage of 161 days; during which they experienced kind treatment from Capt. Parker and the officers of the ship. At the general meeting of the missionaries which occurred soon after the arrival of the New
England, the location of the several members of the reinforcement was agreed upon. Mr. Johnstone is to reside at Honolulu to aid in the secular labors of that station. Mr. Baldwin is to reside at Waimea, the new station for invalids, on the island of Hawaii, with reference to the medical wants of that station. Mr. Dibble is to reside at Hilo, to which station Mr. Green is also to remove, while Mr. Goodrich is to take charge of the press at Honolulu, during the ill health of Mr. Shepard. Mr. Tinker is to remain for the present at Honolulu, with reference to his proceeding to the Washington Islands, should Providence open the way for the establishment of a mission there. The general state of the mission, as well as its progress in the several departments of preaching, education, printing, and the preparation of books, will be exhibited in the extracts which are subjoined. The general letter from which they are taken was written immediately after the annual meeting of the missionaries for consultation and the transaction of business; which was held at Honolulu, beginning on the 15th and ending on the 28th of June.
Health of the Mission Families.
Having been brought by a merciful hand to another general annual meeting of our mission, we are in a special manner called upon to unite our thanksgivings to the great Lord of the plenteous harvest for the gracious smiles and undeserved favors he has been pleased to bestow upon us since our last general letter, of January 1830, was addressed to you. It is with gratitude we desire to say, that ou may join your thank-offering with ours, that, though every department of labor in our mission has been prosecuted with as much vigor as at any former period, yet the general health of the missionaries has been, with one or two exceptions, wonderfully sustained. The strength of some has been increased, and the constitution of but one appears to have been materially impaired. or a little season the mind of Mrs. Goodrich was slightly affected by disease, but by a visit from her station to Lahaina she derived much benefit, and is now mercifully restored. Mr. Shepard has, with little interruption, continued his labors through the year, and though we hope, he is not laid aside from usefulness, yet his health has so far declined, as to have induced his brethren to release him entirely from the responsibility of taking charge of the printing-office, and to encourage him to seek rest and refreshment at some of the other stations. Yet his attachment to his work and the importance of his services seem to render it difficult for him entirely to remit attention to it, until his place can be well supplied; at least so long as he is able to leave his
couch, and walk about, and spend an hour or two each day in the office.
Preaching and .4dmissions to the Churches.
You will rejoice that at all the permanent stations preaching has been maintained, and listened to as usual, and that for a considerable part of the year 1~30, it was maintained at Wailuku on Maui, and at Waimea on
| Hawaii, where there appears the same en
couragement to preach the word, to be instant in season and out of season, as in every other place where the doctrines of the cross have been faithfully exhibited in the isles of the Pacific. While your missionaries have been holding forth the words of truth, we trust the Spirit of God has in not a few cases made it the means of sanctifying the sinner and edifying his people. All the churches have received considera. bie additions during the period in question, amounting to 236. Good attention has been given by the people to inquiry and prayer meetings and other means of improvement.
matter and 10,000,000 pages of printing. Since that period we have added more than 400 pages of matter, and printed 7,398,000 pages; making an aggregate of 1,100 pages of matter and 17,398,000 printed at the Islands. During the period under review, the New Testament from 1 Corinthians to the end of Revelation has been translated, and the printing of it carried on in successive portions from Romans to 1 Thessalonians; and it is in progress still. The history of Joseph, or the last thirteen chapters of Genesis, have been re-translated and printed. The first eleven and last four chapters of Joshua have also been translated and printed. A tract from Numbers and Deuteronomy has been translated. Some advance has been made in a tract on arithmetic. A tract on geography has been written; a work on Scripture sistory of 192 }. 18mo. has been finished and printed.
or this we shall need an ample set of cuts for a second edition. The geography, arithmetic, and the remainder of the New Testament, and the whole book of Psalms we hope to see through the press during
the present year. For the i. we al
hope you will send us cuts,
so, as soon as they can be procured.
Total, 7,398,580 Adding to this 387,000 copies and 10,287,800 pages previously printed at the Islands, and the 3,345,000 of pages printed in this country, consisting of a large edition of the gospels of Matthew, Mark, and John, and two or three practs; the whole number of pages printed for the people of the Sandwich Islands is raised to 21,031,380 Pages. Reckoning all the works printed in a continuous series, the number of pages in the series would be about 1,280. From the statements made here, viewed in connection with those made at p. 316 of vol. xxiv. and at p. 115 of the last volume, and with the arrangements for translation contained in the summary given below, it will be seen that nearly the whole New Testament has already been translated and printed in the Hawaiian language; that the five books of Moses, and the
book of Joshua, with twenty-three Psalms, have been translated and printed entire, or that copious tracts have been composed from them, presenting a full view of the history and the instructions o contain; and that all the other historical books of the Old Testament and the remainder of the Psalms are in the course of translation, and may be expected soon to be published. A large portion of these are already in extensive circulation among the people. The following plan for translating and preparing books, during the current year, was adopted by the missionaries at the general meeting, and the various parts of it assigned to the several members of the mission to be executed.
1. That the assignments of the last year, remaining unfinished, and now in the hands of the translators, be continued as before. 2. That Messrs. Richards and Andrews be requested to translate the books of Judges and Ruth, and the last 70 Psalms, beginning at the 81st. 3. That the book of 1 Samuel be assigned to Mr. Thurston for translation. 4. That the book of 2 Samuel be assign|ed to Mr. Bishop for translation. 5. That the Psalms from the 23d to the 81st, and the first book of Kings, be assigned to Messrs. Bingham and Clark for translation. 6. That Mr. Bingham be requested to prepare a grammar of the Hawaiian language. 7. That a committee of three be appointed to devise a plan for making a Hawaiian vocabulary, and assigning the dif. ferent parts of its execution to different individuals, and then of revising the work for the press. 8. That Mr. Richards be requested to collect and prepare for the press a volume of practical and doctrinal sermons in the Hawaiian language. 9. That Wi. Whitney and Gulick be requested to prepare a tract on civil history, and Mr. Green a tract on ecclesiastical history. 10. That the above works be revised in the same manner as were the translations of the last year. 11. A work on book-keeping to Mr. Chamberlain. 12. A Sunday school tract to Mr. Ruggles. g 13. A tract on marriage to Mr. Clark. 14. The committee would further recommend, that the four gospels already published be revised preparatory to the entire republication of the New Testament, in the following manner; viz. That the gospel of Matthew be assigned to Mr. | Bishop; that the gospel of Mark be assignled to Mr. Richards; that the gospel of | Luke be assigned to Mr. Bingham, and the
ton; and that each gospel after passing from the hands of the revisor, shall be submitted to the review of the other three before it be transcribed for the press.
the Prudential Committee to the members of the new reinforcement were read, and they were united with their predecessors in the duties, labors, and responsibility of the
Messrs. Richards, Andrews, and Bishop mission. were chosen the committee recommended
in the above report. Communion Season at Oahu.
On the 19th the chapel at Oahu present|ed a specially interesting scene, when - - - || thirty native candidates, before propounded, The great change in the domestic habits and were baptized and admitted to the native relations of the islanders which has been effect-ji church at this place, consisting now of cd by the introduction of Christianity has often || about 125 members, who now joined with been mentioned. Five or six years ago the seventeen of the brethren and several of Christian form of marriage was unknown on the the oster. of the mission in celebrating the islands, Nor was there any other form that Lord's supper. The principal chiefs of the 1s y | different islands, who are members of the could not be sundered at any moment by the native churches, and others from the other will of the parties. The breaking of the mar-, stations were present, and a stranger from riage contract, such as it was, was a thing of the | Liverpool took his seat with the communimost common occurrence, leading to great mise- cants in this joint celebration of the dying ry and great moral pollution. Now, probably few love of him who gave his blood to redeem
- - us out of every kindred and tongue and persons who would be called respectable on the people and nation. You might have seen,
islands, residing within a day's journey of any of had you been present, Christian brethren the stations, can be found living together as met at the table of our common Lord, from heads of families, who have not been solemnly England, Scotland, the United States of married in the Christian manner. Instances are Aiderica, from the Society Islands, and
Precalence of the Christian form of Marriage.
By the same merciful hand which has rotected and sustained your missionaries and their families during the period under review, has been brought to our waiting and expecting shores the third reinforcement of the mission, kindly and seasonably sent forth under your auspices, and received with gladness by their predecessors, and with a hearty welcome by the rulers and the people of the land. After a safe and comfortable passage of 161 days, made pleasant by the smiles of Providence, and the kindness of Capt. Parker and his offcers, they arrived on the 7th of June instant, landed on the oth, and were presented to the king and chiefs, and took up their lodgings with the families at this place. n the 15th, at the opening of the general meeting of the mission, the instructions of
from the different churches at Tauai, Hon. olulu, Lahaina, Kailua, Kaawaloa, and | Hilo all bowing at the same altar, all acknowledging their need of being washed in the atoning blood of Christ, and of being fed with that bread which came down from heaven to give life to the world. You would have been ready to exclaim with sweet and grateful emphasis, The Lord hath done great things for us whereof we are glad, and blessed be his holy name for ever. We would thank God and take courage; and we would again humbly ask that the friends of the mission would by no means suspend their earnest prayers, nor remit their best exertions to help on this work, “for there remaineth yet much land to be possessed,”—not only on these shores, where the 400 converts admitted into our churches scarcely diminish the ranks of those that are without, but still more among many of the nations where the Savior is not known at all.
Political Changes on Oahu.
The expedition of Boki and Manuia in search of sandal wood, among the islands of the South Pacific, and the supposed unhappy result of it, were noticed at p. 121 of the last volume. Some remarks were also made, in connection with that account, on the character of Boki, and on his influence as a ruler, and his feelings in respect to the mission. John Adams, or in the language of the islands, Kuakini, who now succeeds Boki in the government of Oahu, joined the mission church nearly two years ago. He has ever been a steady friend of the mission, and done much to aid the stations at Kailua, Hilo, and Waimea.
sailed with him, seemed to make it necessary to contemplate some new arrangement for the government of Oahu, which was left in the hands of madam Boki. Such an apprehended change was followed by some warlike preparations by the governess, during the tour of the king and chiefs through the windward islands, and produced no small excitement and concern throughout the whole group; partly because it was feared that the foreign residents would be disposed to join in a resistance to the wishes of the older chiefs, who claimed the right of directing their own affairs. As it turned out at length, the governess was removed, and the control of Oahu publicly committed to Kaahumanu, under whom Kuakini was appointed governor. He immediately proscribed the grog-shops, gambling, and amusements on the Sabbath.
In a private letter written by one of the missionaries in September it is added—
The king committed the government of this island publicly into the hands of Kaahumanu; and Adams, (Kuakini.) formerly governor of Hawaii, was appointed governor. He immediately gave out orders for the suppression of grog-shops, gaming
houses, &c.; and followed up his orders by
keeping an armed guard in the streets. Riding on the Sabbath for amusement was also strictly forbidden, and several horses of foreigners were seized in the act of violating the law. They were afterwards given up. All these in: put together, as you may well suppose, produced no little excitement. The salutary laws of the chiefs, designed particularly to restrain the foreigners, met at first with strong opposition; and were afterwards evaded, or not carried fully into effect. Riding on the Sabbath for amusement is, however, entirely prevented, and other vices have received a great check. About the same time the chiefs, being assembled from the different islands at this Place, and others favorably disposed, formed themselves into a temperance society, on the general principle of entire abstinence from the use of ardent spirits for pleasure * civility, and from engaging in distilling
Ch.ARACTER or Tih E TRANSLATIONS INTO
The MO in ERN GREEk LANGUAGE. PERsons visiting the Levant probably hear a variety of opinions with respect to the style of the translations, printed at the mission presses in Malta. It is presumed that the earlier translations were less perfect than those of recent date, especially in the modern Greek; and that all the recent translations printed at the several mission presses are not equally good. With respect to the translations of Mr. Petrokokino, however, who has been for some years the modern Greek translator for the American mission press at Malta, there is the best proof of their excellence, aside from their popularity in the schools of Greece—the favorable opinion of the excellent and learned professor Bambas, principal of the Greek theological seminary in Corfu. This opinion is given in the following extract of a letter addressed to Mr. Petrokokino, in acknowledgment of a number of copies of the translations sent to him from Malta.
The books you recently forwarded to me, as well as those formerly sent, have been duly received. With regard to your translations, dear sir, all that I have had the honor of seeing have in general pleased me, on account of the purity and perspicuity and sweetness of the style. You have taken the right course, that which our national language pursues in its progress, and there is no doubt but that, with practice and the observation which attends it, you will be making continual advances towards greater o Every language, whatever may
ave been its original form, as it is an expression of thoughts, naturally follows their state; so that when authors or translators adopt the present state of mental culture in the nation as the standard of their style, as well as of their matter, they cannot fail to become both useful and agreeable. By this general principle, if it be correct, imitation should also, in my opinion, be regulated, in order to be reasonable. I rejoice, therefore, my dear sir, to see that you are one of this number, and pray that the Lord may