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exalt the priest still higher, and bow still lower to the Church, if by any means it can raise a power that will hold the multitude in check.
"I said a moment ago that Revolution had been the latest product of society. But I am reminded that there is another later still, and a favourite of the English soil-what you call strikes of your working population. Possibly good may come out of these combinations; they teach men their power, but in their immediate effect they have all the evils, in a mitigated form, of a political revolution. Probably the enmity they occasion lasts longer, though it is less violent. "And pray tell me, Clarence, you who have studied the signs of the times, and should know your own countrymen better than I do, is it one amongst the symptoms of intellectual progress that there is a movement in England towards the
Roman Catholic Church? Is this move
ment at all connected with some political movement, some monarchical tendency Does it result from pure love of truth and the spirit of inquiry? I, who was brought up in the great Catholic Church, have my partialites towards her, and might not be the fittest judge. How do you read this matter? To me it seems not improbable that that ragged urchin who is chalking up 'No Popery' on the walls of London, may live to see High Mass performed in St Paul's Cathedral. He himself will be kneeling, an old man, bare-headed, on the pavement, to be sprinkled by the holy water as priests pass by in gorgeous procession, bearing
the immaculate Virgin on their shoulders. Half your clergy, half your aristocracy, and every idle woman, are already ours. Every infidel, who loves music better than sermonising, is already All who love pomp and sentiment better than perplexing dogmas, will welcome the change. As to the mob, we know of old how they are to be converted. The good Moslems knew and practised the art long ago. Not always is the sword necessary. The Muezzin
ascends the tower and calls to prayer; the people pelt him with stones; he ascends again, and calls still louder, and the people throw fewer stones; he still ascends, still calls, and the people drop their stones from their hands, and fall upon their knees. There is but one body in England from whom a stout resistance may be expected. The Dissenters will not convert. The descendants of the old Puritans-the republicans in religion-will stand out to the last. They will not convert, but they will burn; they are combustible. And if an age too
fastidious rejects the aid of fire even in so great an emergency, there are your colonies--they can be transported. England, purified from their presence, will again be embraced in the One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church. If I am a little too sanguine here, you must attribute it to the bias of early education."
These extracts exhibit one or two of the opinions which find eloquent expression in Mr Smith's work; but the Conflict of opinions, which constitutes the great theme, cannot be exhibited even in sample, without giving portions of the dialogue too long for extract. Any one, however, who wishes to become acquainted, on the one hand, with the best ideas for elevating and improving society and its component units, and on the other, with the grand difficulties which weigh in the other scale, will find them set forth with exquisite clearness, tangibility, and interest in Mr Smith's pages. Questions of a still higher, though less practical kind, are likewise discussed; indeed, it is difficult to say what high question of human interest has not both its sides graphically sketched in the course of the "Conflict." The book most perfectly fulfils its title, and attains its end. Indeed, this is strikingly evidenced by the feeling produced by its perusal. A great moral is stamped upon its pages; and open them where you may, you cannot read far ere the genius of the work makes itself felt. As in the scene at the Villa Scarpa, the predominating influence is commingled beauty and sadness-beauty without, sadness within. The reader walks on amidst a well-ordered profusion of emotional beauty and intellectual glory; but as he walks, a spirit of sadness steals over him, and he begins to understand that "noble sorrow" which settled on Thorndale, and the shadow of whose dark wing has been visible in the life of not a few of our modern men of mark. Absolute truth is unattainable by humanity. The short-sighted millions of the world swarm round the base of the mountain, and, ascending little hillocks, fancy they have reached the top-each sect dogmatising as if the tiny view which it has, comprises all that can be seen. Higher minds
(the few) reach higher altitudes, behold the common world below them, and, from the way the mountain trends, can speculate a little as to what is yet above them and beyond their reach. But not even the highest climber on those heights of truth can come within eyesight of the summit, or tell how the twin-peaks which the most advanced gaze still sees shooting aloft, ultimately culminate in harmonious unity. Those twin-peaks -symbolic of light and darkness, spirit and matter, and all the other polarities of which creation is full the Positivist maintains may remain separate for ever for aught he knows or cares; but the nobler Idealist, the poet-philosopher, feels assured that they do unite harmoniously at last, even though their union take place far beyond our actual ken, within the bright and inaccessible abysses of the Godhead. The highest minds are usually the most humble and the most teachable, and we do not wonder at it. It is they who know best how feeble, amidst all its nobleness, is the intellect of man. And if there be any one inclined to plume himself overmuch on the powers of his intellect, we know nothing so fitted to take the conceit out of him, and teach him the wisdom of humility, as the perusal of the Conflict of Opinions. Such a perusal is in many respects like a visit to the cave of Trophonius. It saddens and makes wiser. But the human heart cannot long bear an atmosphere of negation; and we should think that to many minds the constant check and counter-check in some portions of the conflict, producing complete neutralisation of argument and sus
pension of belief, will be found insupportably oppressive. To such we would say, If the perusal has but taught you humility, you may shut the book as soon as you please. The very completeness of the success of this work only serves to make plainer the truth, that human life must be a feeling and acting as well as a thinking; and that when, as in exceptional cases, the intellect becomes isolated, and goes on with its processes uninfluenced by the ordinary loves and labours of the world, it loses itself in a sea of speculation to which there are no shores, and wastes in the clouds the energies which might be more happily and beneficially expended in the common life of earth. Every one, it is true, has his peculiar mission-some to work, others to think; but happy they who must do the one, and can do the other. Action is the great solvent of doubt. No one who has embarked heart and soul in an active career is ever overburdened with doubts. The other side of the question forthwith vanishes from view, nice points are forgotten, and the instincts of one's nature start up with the potency of Beliefs amidst the throng and mêlée of the battle of life. Beautiful, interesting, and instructive, as is every page of Mr Smith's book-important as are the manifold questions which it discusses the effect of its ensemble is perhaps still more remarkable. It is, as it were, a Book of Ecclesiastes addressed to this "enlightened" nineteenth century, in which the seldomuttered but everywhere-felt refrain of "vanity of vanities!" is sounded in the ears of an age superbly conceited of its intellectual acquirements.
THE POORBEAH MUTINY: THE PUNJAB.
"Forewarned is forearmed."-Old Proverb.
NOR had the Ferozepore magazine -the most extensive in Upper India -been overlooked: its safety was duly cared for in the Lahore councils -the more so that the occupation of it by the Sepoys was believed to form part of the " great plot" which had been, as we have mentioned, partially discovered. An express messenger had been despatched by Brigadier Corbett to apprise Brigadier Innes (commanding at Ferozepore) of the Meerut and Delhi massacres, and of the steps determined on at Lahore. It was not till late at night on the 12th that this messenger reached Ferozepore; and to avoid the risk of arousing suspicion or alarm, no consultation was held that night. What measures were determined on, and their melancholy results, will be better understood by a short account of the strength and form of the cantonment. The Ferozepore Brigade consisted of H.M. 61st Regiment, two companies of (European) foot artillery, with one light - horse field-battery and six field-guns attached, the 10th Light Cavalry and the 45th and 57th Regiments of Native Infantry. The relative positions of these corps in the cantonment may be thus described: taking the fort, in which is the magazine, as the centre of a square, on its west side run the lines of cantonments (north and south), containing all the officers' bungalows and public buildings; beyond these, westward, lie the Sepoys' lines of the 45th and 57th Regiments in continuation of these lines on the north are the Artillery barracks, and beyond them, nearly three-fourths of a mile further north, are the lines of the Cavalry. The barracks of the European regiment run at right angles with the south end of the cantonment, forming the south side of the square; on its north, facing the Artillery lines, is the Sudder Bazâr; and on the east stretches an open maidan (plain). Thus it will be at once seen that the
great difficulty to be overcome, by anticipation, was, that the distance between the native lines and the European barracks was so great as to render it impossible for the 61st soldiers to act with promptness if the Sepoys attempted an outbreak. That the spirit of disaffection had extended to the two N.I. regiments, there was no room to doubt. It was known that "cartridge meetings" had been held by the Sepoys-one, indeed, on that very day; and there was every reason to believe that only time and opportunity were needed to induce them to enact anew at Ferozepore the tragedy of Delhi and Meerut. The first step resolved on by Brigadier Innes was to separate the two native corps. It was determined to move the 57th N.I. out of their lines, and to encamp them on some vacant ground in the rear of the 61st European barracks, while the 45th N.I. were to occupy an open space at the north-east of the fort beyond the Sudder Bazâr, thus placing some two miles between the two corps; while the 10th Cavalry were to take up a position close to their own lines. The 61st Queen's were also to move out of their barracks and encamp on their own parade near the south wall of the fort, while one company, with the Artillery and guns, was to be thrown into the fort to strengthen its defence.
At 4 P.M. on that day (the 13th of May) all the regiments were formed on their respective parades, to be marched to the camping - grounds assigned to them. The 57th N.I. proceeded quietly to their destination; but the 45th had no sooner entered the Sudder Bazâr, through which they had to pass to reach their allotted ground, than, incited doubtless by the fanatic Moulvies and disaffected Bunnias (tradesmen) of the Bazâr, a large portion of them halted-refused to advance--and began to load! While the rest proceeded peaceably with their officers to their
ground, this body of mutineers made for the fort. The whole of the outer defences were in so dilapidated a state that they found no difficulty in mounting the ramparts and effecting an entrance within the intrenchment; some of the natives employed at the magazine assisting them, and the guard of the 57th N.I. offering no resistance. The magazine, however, which occupies the enceinte of the fort, was happily in a better condition to withstand them. A high nine-foot wall separates the magazine from the rest of the intrenchment; and at the only gate by which ingress is obtained there was, day and night, a guard of the 61st. When, therefore, the Sepoys attacked this gate (another party of them proceed ing to scale the wall), they found some six files of the 61st under Major Redmond ready for them; a single volley from these gallant fellows brought down several of the foremost mutineers, and the rest fell back and were soon in quick retreat. The scalingparty, seeing their comrades driven back from the gate, also retired, and either dispersed or attempted to rejoin the remainder of the regiment, which had proceeded to the ground assigned to them. As soon as the 45th were repulsed, the traitors of the 57th N.I., who were on guard, and did not resist the mutineers, were disposed of: under the influence of a light field-gun, which had been brought into the fort only a few moments before the attack, they were disarmed and made prison
Thus was the fort of Ferozepore, under the prompt measures of Captain Lewis, the magazine officer, and Major Redmond of the 61st (who was in command of the company of the 61st), saved from the hands of the rebels.
But the cantonment was left to their mercy! In fact, the very precautions that had been taken proved fatal to the station. The position into which the corps had been brought rendered the 61st powerless. With the 45th in open mutiny in front, and the 57th only less openly mutinous in their rear, to have advanced on the former would have been to abandon their own barracks to the latter.
Hampered before and behind, they could not stir from their position. Thus were the soldiers of the 61st compelled to look on in inglorious inactivity while the work of destruction was going on in their officers' lines. They saw the flames arise from one house after another, involving mess-houses and hospitals, and even the "Memorial Church," with many private bungalows, in one common ruin-while the defiant shouts of the rebels as they looted and destroyed, without any effort being made to check them, maddened the brave fellows, who were eager to be "up and at them." There were not above 200 of the 45th altogether (and, it is believed, not one of the 57th) engaged in this work of destruction; and so cowardly were they, that they dared not go into the compounds lest some occupant should defend his property with fowlingpiece or revolver; but they were seen skulking along under the walls of the enclosure with mussals (flambeaus) fastened on to long bamboos, setting fire to the thatched roofs without exposing themselves to danger. And although an offer was made to clear the cantonment of the cowardly wretches with a single company of the 61st, the cantonment was sacrificed, private property destroyed, and regimental messes ruined, without any effort being permitted in their defence!
What a little decision and energy might have effected may be conjectured from the success which attended the exercise of these qualities by those who had the opportunity of showing, in their independence of authority, that they possessed them. A mere boy of seventeen, the son of Mr Hughes, a merchant, saved the Roman Catholic Chapel from the flames by boldly firing at the Sepoys who were in the act of setting fire to it. Other instances of individual courage might doubtless be adduced, for Englishmen will be Englishmen still, even under an Indian sky. One must not be omitted. The chaplain, the Rev. R. B. Maltby, who occupied the extreme bungalow on the south of cantonments, was among the last to quit
It was in this attack that Major Redmond was wounded in the thigh.
his house; nor did he leave it until he had been three times shot at through the windows-the third shot passing ominously near his head; and on his way to the fort, passing the church, he found that the hand of the incendiary had been already there. Remembering that the Ecclesiastical Register and Records were in the vestry, he rushed boldly into the burning pile and secured the books; an occasional shot from the Sepoys followed him as he made for the fort, but he escaped untouched, and brought off his cumbrous prize in safety.
In the new magazine which was in the course of erection beyond the Cavalry lines, a large quantity of powder (above 350,000 lb.) had been stowed away, and was only protected by a native guard of the 57th N. I. So little of preconcerted plan was there in this outbreak, or else so entirely was it counteracted by the precautionary measures that had been taken, that this store was wholly overlooked by the mutineers. No attempt was made upon this magazine, and by the night of the 15th the whole contents had been safely transferred, under the energetic guidance of Captain Lewis, into the old fort, and stowed away in the powder-pits. Had this once fallen into the hands of the Sepoys, and been destroyed or lost to us, Delhi could scarcely have fallen under four times four months.
By the following morning nearly all the Sepoys of the 45th N. I., even those who had quietly accompanied their officers to the camping-ground, had deserted; not more than 100 remained behind in the 57th N. I. also desertions had been very numerous, and scarcely as many were left. The few that did remain were required to lay down their arms; and these soon disappeared. A second attempt at looting and plunder was made by the mutineers, but soon stopped by a company of the 61st, who quickly cleared the station. The regimental magazines of the two native infantry corps were now blown up, by the Brigadier's orders, to prevent the ammunition falling into the hands of the Sepoys. The 10th Cavalry (which had in the meanwhile been brought in from their lines, and posted on the left flank of
the 61st Queen's, between the barracks and the fort) accompanied the detachment of the Europeans in clearing the station, but rendered no real assistance; the highest praise that can be given to them is, that they remained neutral.
Large bodies of fugitive mutineers were captured in the Puttiala district, and given up to the Ferozepore authorities; but unfortunately, what with delays, references, and conflicting orders, nearly all contrived to escape punishment. It cannot be denied that the impunity with which the mutineers and deserters of the 45th and 57th N. I. escaped, emboldened the Sepoys of the other corps, such as the 36th and 61st at Jullundhur, the 14th N. I. at Jhelum, and the 46th at Sealkote. The moral effect was most damaging throughout the Punjab; its consequences were only counteracted by the wiser and more decisive measures which saved Lahore and Umritsur.
We now pass on to the next station, Jullundhur, which was the centre of operations scarcely less prompt and vigorous than those already recorded at Lahore.
Late in the evening of that eventful Monday (May 11th), the tidings of the massacre at Delhi were telegraphed from Umballa. The signaller at Jullundhur (which is a "repeating station") having passed it on to Lahore, conceived the message to be of so grave import, that on his own responsibility he communicated it to Colonel Hartley of H.M.'s 8th Regiment, who, as the senior officer present, commanded the brigade during the temporary absence of BrigadierGeneral Johnstone. The purport of it was immediately conveyed to Captain Farrington, the deputycommissioner of the district,--Major E. Lake, the Commissioner of the Trans-Sutlej or Jullundhur division, being at the time absent on a tour through the out-stations.
The following day brought the fuller details, and then a consultation of all the local authorities was decided on, and held without delay; it was attended by Colonel Hartley, with his brigade-staff, Captain Farrington, and the officers commanding the several corps. All thoughts were