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all classes. Everybody must have and be wet with the dews, like the his good reason for his wanderings. old Assyrian king, to defy the influShellfish and Actiniæ justify the sea- ences of this intoxicating malaria,air and pleasure of the humblest this fragrance and sweetness of death. holiday ; and the further we extend Expansion, increase, growth, is our our travels, the more indispensable only preservation. It is better even becomes an object and “pursuit." to run into extravagances of enter

Under this impulse of fashion and prise, to waste life and time in vain popular inclination, as under all such, researches, to pile upon each other there lies, without doubt, a compul- labours as unprofitable as those of sion of use and necessity. Fashions Sisyphus, than to yield to the ease, do not come for nothing, any more the comfort, and the prosperity of than needs do. We have come to modern social existence, or give up that condition of society which, for to civilisation the noble discontent lack of a better term, we call extreme and restless power in which lies our civilisation ; everything artificial is life. It is not this idea which imat its highest bloom and perfection pels us to all our many exertions, in our old empires; the comforts of and sends our explorers barefoot life, and the accessions of luxury, through the unknown world. Few were never so generally within reach, people apprehend any dangers to or so universally enjoyed. If every- themselves from civilisation ; yet this thing about us is not beautiful, up to principle of self-defence and natural the highest reach of manufacturable compensation, running through a beauty, the fault is not ours, but hundred intermediate channels, is Nature's, who chooses sometimes to the safeguard of Providence for our balk our training by withholding protection, while it is also the secret what she alone can bestow; but we of that fashion which makes us all, have taught, invented, and con- whether pilgrims in the desert or structed to the highest pitch of our tourists on a holiday ramble, give powers. We have made it possible substance to our pleasures, and a to whisper secrets across a continent value to our fatigues, by charging and through a sea. We can travel ourselves with a real or imaginary at a rate which is all but flying. We something to do. can breakfast every morning, if we For our wants increase, and our please, upon all the news of all the necessities expand along with our world. Though idle people dispute luxuries. We not only want a great in the newspapers about the possi- many things which we had formerly bilities of marriage on three hundred no occasion for, but we long to see a-year, we are all perfectly aware other people infected with the same that three hundred a-year nowa- requirements, and as full of wants as days means a degree of personal ourselves. We cannot afford to leave comfort impossible to monarchs as corners of the world fallow, unculmany, years ago. And the superfi- tivated, unleavened by the commixcial idea is, that all this is remark- ture of our restless blood. The moably satisfactory, the real end of dern spirit of conquest stirs at the national effort, the state of social thought of miles of virgin soil, where eminence most desirable, and of the flocks might feed, or corn grow, or greatest benefit to the race. Experi- timber fit for the masts of some high ence, however, and social wisdom, admiral fall beneath the axe of the tell other tales. History knows, and pioneer ; and Trade, an insatiate dedoes not fail to testify, that of all mon, burns with lofty indignation at the dangers which beset a state, none the thought of tribes and nations is so subtle, so destructive, or full of who know none of its benefits, and all the possibilities of evil, as this who are still content with the begsame civilisation. It is like the garly elements of mere sustenance, penetrating luscious air of a skilful unaware of all they might gain by poison, the perfumes of the Borgias. the disinterested ministrations of the We must needs throw up our win- great buyer and seller of civilised dows, open our breast to the winds life. Thousands of men and women, of heaven, camp out in the fields, whose ambition aims no higher than

scanty milk and beef, or scantier him to sell his children or his depenmaize-porridge, with an ox-skin or a dants ; but it is compelled to leave yard of calico for all their wardrobe, him as it found him, a savage, and startle the commercial soul into gener- consequently a half-unreasoning and ous shame and yearnings of brother wholly impracticable being, who will hood. If we might but wrap those steal or cheat, or appropriate” the dusky forms in splendid prints of thing he covets, but is no more worthy Manchester, in muslins of Paisley ! if of the title of customer than is the we could but wreath those ebon monkey in his woods, who apprecibrows with glorious Glasgow ker ates the red handkerchiefs as much chiefs, Turkey-red! and wake the

as he. slumbering soul of African woman- This same title of customer is about hood with glimpses of unbelievable the first degree in social rank which millinery, with ribbons white and our primitive kinsman can take, and red, with dazzling_beads coloured it expresses no inconsiderable adlike the rainbow ! But the commer- vance and progress. To be anybody's cial Geni pauses with all his riches in customer, a man must be a responhis lap, and all his hungry over-pro- sible and trustworthy being, able to ductive children urging him on. It is reflect upon his own wants and means, grievous to let so many half-naked and to exercise to some extent the human creatures live and die in ig- qualities of foresight and of judgment. norance of all those provisions of art A flying bargain, or a sudden burst and civilisation - harder still, and of barbarous extravagance, cannot ever harder, to lose crowds of cus- qualify the man of the desert for this tomers, whose patronage might keep first relationship of civilisation. He many a mill going, and many a town must have a steady something to employed, and accumulate many a offer-a proviso, which includes a fortune. But how to get at them? steady means of acquiring the somethere is the question. Trade, bold, thing--and certain distinct and obviready, and full of expedients, stands ous wants somewhat above the rank upon the burning sands in doubt of vanities. No one needs to be told and hesitation, and sighs its inquiry how these wants will increase and to all the winds in vain ; for Man- widen as the resources of civilisation chester cottons and Glasgow hand- open upon the uninstructed underkerchiefs nay, even

beads and standing, nor how theinevitable helptrinkets, guns of Birmingham and lessness and dependence of social life knives of Sheffield—cannot maketheir will gradually take the place of that own way through a savage continent. independence and absolute freedom They may keep up a doubtful and which belong only to the man with precarious barter along a coast-line whom a few yards of cotton and a —they may stimulate the primeval pound of beef complete the amount vanity to the length of kidnapping a of human necessities. But even at neighbour's child, or selling a poor the threshold of social habitude, the clansman ; but they are not moral change must be an important one. agents, and this amount of stimula- To be a customer, it does not require tion is about the highest they are that our client should be fashionable capable of. Trade, where it goes or a fine gentleman, but it provides alone, may create a slave-trade fatal for the beginning of that developto itself in the end, and brutalising to ment which, happy consummation ! every intermediary concerned ; but may end in both, and which at pretrade, which can cover the sea with sent advances the wandering chief to ships, and the land with factories, the dignity of a primitive patriarch, cannot with all its united forces per- and justifies the humanity of the suade an African chief to be civilised, savage by an opening of higher into be industrious, to employ the stincts—the necessities of the man. bounty of nature which lies at his But alas for commerce standing hand, to produce that he may con- vainly upon the fatal shores of that

It can teach him to appre continent, where there are millions ciate the fabrics of our loom and the of people to trade with, and untold dyes of our printing--it may teach fortunes to be made, but no access

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practicable to the tempting field. stare with contemptuous amazement, Who is to open up the closed realms or suspect with natural cunning the of savagery, with all their undevel- motives of the extraordinary madoped riches ? Is it the sportsman, man, who shares toil and fatigue in the lion-hunter, the man of sciences his own company for the glorious Is it the trader himself, whose im- chance of an elephant hunt, or an enmediate interests are concerned ? The counter with a hungry lion. He requestion is important enough to jus- spects the white man's gallantry, dartify full consideration. Conquests of ing, and powers of endurance, but arms are no longer the plain and he gazes at him with mingled doubt natural mode of extending territory and wonder. Is he a conspirator, --new discoveries of unknown Ame- plotting against the freedom of the ricas are not to be hoped for. Who barbarous soil he treads, and the baris to go forth first at the head of all barous tribes who surround him ?-or the armies of civilisation, to open is he merely a fool ? up new countries, tribes, and nations Nor has the scientific traveller a

- to bring a new race into the social much better chance. The same incommonwealth ? There are very spe- adequacy of motive deprives the pricial capabilities necessary for the mitive man of all confidence in his office. Great consequences follow as learned visitor, who comes simply to it is well or ill performed, and no track a river, or to explore a contione can glance over the first history nent. What can science do against of such efforts, without feeling how the calm imperturbable sublimity of powerful is the influence which they perfect ignorance? The one exercise over the future character restless, troublesome, unquiet spirit and tendencies of the countries intro- of its very nature—the other a produced by their means into the com- found, påssive, unyielding power, mon brotherhood of the human race. whose momentum of resistance it is

Who, then, is the natural pioneer ? scarcely possible to over-estimate. It is not the sportsman-adventurer, A man who will come over seas and though no one should depreciate through storms, who will go barethe uses of that modern Nimrod, foot and half-naked, who will run a or his class. The sportsman, frank, hundred risks of his life, and sepafriendly, liberal, and honourable— rate himself from all his friends, in the civilised man who magnifies all order to find out where a lake lies, the savage virtues in the sight of how a stream runs, what weeds grow those who know no better, and adds on the sandy plain, and what trees to these a revelation of the more ex- shade the rivers, is, if possible, a conalted courtesies and honesties of life ception still more ridiculous and un- is an auxiliary to be held in hon-believable than the sportsman. To our; but he is not the man for this the primitive intelligence his alleged office-partly because his very sport motive is a farce and pretence too puts so serious a vocation out of his absurd to do more than smile at. way, and partly because the savage The salvage man knows better. He understanding cannot and will not can believe that the geographer has comprehend him, let it try ever so come to put spells upon his land, to hard. Why he should be there in divert the waters of his stream, to the first place, is a standing enigma dry him up with droughts, and waste to those sons of the desert. They his substance with arts magic, to ask, “ Have these hunters, who come pinch and cramp him like Prospero. so far and work so hard, no meat at All this is reasonable, and within the home ?” and laugh with a savage reach of comprehension,; but to persuperiority of wisdom at thought of suade him of such an insane fiction being deceived by the pretence that as the other, is a mere scoff upon his this is for pleasure. These volun- supposed credulity, which he laughs teer labours and hardships, which are and finds out with supreme cona privilege of wealth and leisure to tempt. The heroism of science is the English gentleman, are the most out of the range of things explainable incomprehensible of follies to the to the sceptic of the deserts. It wandering African. He can only would be almost as easy to make it


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apparent to the brutes themselves nor appreciates : both these unknown

to the nobler but scarce less powers his savage self-esteem could ignorant animal who reigns over laugh to scorn ; but there is still them, and yet flies before them. To and always a certain conscious huhim the highest mission of that in- manity in him, able to respond to the quisitive and restless spirit is worse perfect reasonableness of listening to than foolishness—a childish and in

a message from God. comprehensible play with the priva- We have thus an office and a mestions of his own hard life, or more senger fit for the purpose-a primilikely the wiles of a deceiver more tive and comprehensible ambassador cunning than he, who thinks to blind to the primitive intelligence. Let us his eyes by this pretence ; and we pot ignore nor depreciate a personage doubt whether it is possible, spite of whose uses are so manifold and imtheir magnificent exertions, that the portant. With us, in our mode and Barths and the Vogels, any more stage of existence, secondary influthan the sportsmen, can, however ences are all-powerful. So far as important their contributions to superficial life is concerned, we are science, and however heroic their altogether ruled by them. Those labours, be really effectual instru- periods of our individual history into ments for the opening of a new world which a great primitive love or sorto commerce, law, education, and all row has leaped like a fiery angel takthe influences of civilised life. ing possession, are but the crises and

But there still are motives and in- turning points. They do not make ducements beyond mere personal up the common current, which is filled profit, which even the mind of a up by trivial interests and half pursavage, being human, is capable of poses. But to a primitive existence comprehending : he is still a man, the primary principles of nature still however degraded his existence may must be applied. To teach civilisation be, and however limited his hori- while we generously refrain from all

It is in him to comprehend in attempts to "bias" the heathen mind some far-off and dim degree what in favour of Christianity, is a princithe missionary does in that parched ple as false to nature as it is perfectly and sunburnt land of his. It may incomprehensible to the heathen himbe the merest waste of effort to teach self, for whom we make this disintehis ignorance ; yet, by right of his rested abnegation of faith. But we humanity, he is able to understand are bold to affirm that there is not a and believe somehow that it is rea- pagan in the world-widerthan that, sonable the teacher should come, there is not a savage, the wildest of all though from the end of the world. the hordes of the desert, who is not The motive is sufficient even to his at the bottom of his heart man enough blunted and dim capacity. It is not to comprehend one disinterested erto shoot, nor to observe, nor to tra- rand, and one alone—the errand of vel; it is to bring certain unbe- the man who brings him, not the lievable wonders to his own ears, to refinements of an unknown society, teach him something which he did not or the gifts of an unappreciated eduknow before, which possibly he will cation, but the first primitive disnot receive now, but which his visi- tinction of his manhood and nature tor believes and comes to tell. The —that revelation from heaven, in message may rouse his most power- the possibility of which every human ful prejudices, his strongest impulse creature has an instinctive and inof opposition. It is foreign to his herent belief. customs, antagonistic to his germs of This is the first and grand qualibelief, condemnatory of his life; but fication of the missionary, as the the reasonableness of the errand ap- pioneer of all practicable intercourse proves itself beyond question to his with the savage. The most barbarjudgment. He can comprehend it ous of his clients is able to come to without explanation. It is not a some comprehension of why he is there, matter of that artificial learning and to recognise in a less or greater which is a blank to him, or of that degree the sufficiency and reasonablecivilisation which he neither knows ness of the motive which brings him.


It is in this that his great advantage cature him when it happens to be lies over allother philanthropic travel- worth their while, and pass him with lers. The people among whom he goes the indifference of contempt when it may, indeed, wonder at the disinte- is not. Nobody sees in his person rested character of his enterprise ; the old mission of the apostles going but they do not wonder that, having forward to the end of all things. Noreally a communication from God to body sees the foundation of new emmake, his country or his chief should pires—the lowest round and groundsend him to the ends of the earth to work of national reconstruction in make it. It is, if it is true, a piece that little house in the desert, which of news more marvellous and impor- the civilised Christian builds among tant that those which they them- the savages with his own hands. selves commission embassies to dis- Before the value of his work can be close to their neighbours. Their appreciated, generations must grow wonder is rather how the more en- and blossom out of it, and through lightened race should have been so it, to discover at last that their germ long of sending this startling infor- of life was there. Perhaps, a thoumation into their deserts. “ Your sand years hence, failing walls in the forefathers knew of these things, yet African plains will be sacred to the they suffered my forefathers to go far - off children of an emancipated away into the darkness without hear- race, who have found out that these ing of them,” says Dr Livingstone's homely ruins cradled a new existconverted chief ; and the complaint ence for their continent; it, in the is as touching as it is natural. "This mean time, we who profess to be of is not by any means to presuppose a the superior classes smile a little, if ready or eager adoption of the new we do nothing more decided, at all the religion, or a quick perception of all blowing of trumpets in Exeter Hall. its Divine excellences. The spiritual When a London May calls together view of the matter is not one which crowded meetings in those favourite we feel called upon to enter into; assembly-rooms of the “religious but we repeat, that the motive of the world,” we do not contrast this“ rcmissionary is the only disinterested ligious dissipation” over-favourably motive-the only inducement per- with the other kind of dissipation, fectly distinct from personal profit not religious, which throngs the saand aggrandisement-which is com- lons of Belgravia and Mayfair. We prehensible to the intellect of the give the palm not only of elegance savage; and that this possibility of and refinement, which might be understanding on their part gives natural, but of importance and into the religious teacher à vantage- terest, to the crowded meetings of ground and footing amongst them society where statesmen are to be which nothing else can possibly be- found among the fine ladies--where stow.

the fine ladies themselves are personYet it is strange enough to add ages of national importance, and though few will be so bold as to denywhere, under a show of social enjoythese special advantages and privi- ment, a lively fancy can imagine in leges of the office of missionary—that secret action the great diplomacies the missionary is not an interesting which sway the world ; and in sight nor an attractive personage to the of these brilliant crowds, the other general eye of the world. He is the crowds of pious fashion are quite dishero of a limited religious circle, countenanced, and thrown into the who chronicle his doings and his say- shade. Civilisation and the Geographiings in a missionary magazine---who cal Society, which two, between them, applaud his name in Exeter Hall- will have their fair share of martyrs, who can tell his converts off by roll, but will not win new kingdoms out and are familiar with all the special of chaos, are on the sunny side, and signs of grace which accompany his may get credit for liberal views and ministrations. But the common world enlightened principles; but the mistakes little note of the exiled preacher sionary societies cluster in a coterie

-the voice in the wilderness : as of small details and narrow intenlikely as not, the clever people cari- tions, in a flutter of white neckcloths


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