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is the normal condition of the “gar-. righteousness ;” and in nations as den of India” when regarded from well as in the individual heart, it the European point of view. To the takes a good battle to subdue it. Hindu, on the contrary, these are The die, however, is cast. Oude was the incidental losses of the game annexed, and is now conquered. Wawhich no one anticipates till they are jid Ali may fiddle and make verses experienced, and no one pities but without remonstrance or interruption the immediate relatives of the loser. to the end of his days. His children On the other side, there is the plea- may become “songsters," or learn a sure of robbing, plundering, and more respectable occi ation; but cheating, in such diversified ways there is an end of the Mohammedan that few can be excluded from the usurpation in Coshala, and the“twice chances of participation. There are born must bend their necks to waiting-maids, and worse than that, another master. Happily there is becoming queens,* and dying worth no danger of the aen and kanoonthousands of rupees ; men of low more terrible than robbers and taxbirth and station rising to unheard- gatherers. The “Rules and Regulof riches and power ;ť singers and ations” by which English law-making fiddlers ruling a kingdom; footpads scourges our older territories, have and highwayınen growing into barons not gained admission into the later and earls. Above all, this is the state acquisitions. As long as these are exof things most agreeable to precedent cluded, Oude may be governed like and religious tradition. It is the the Punjaub, Nagpore, and Mysore, Mahabharat in little -- the nearest through its own institutions, modified approach which this Kali Yug can and tempered by English administrasupply to the glorious days of Ram- tion, but not superseded in favour of chunder. Never believe that all this a foreign and oppressive system. is to be surrendered in exchange for The first duty, however, is to restore the merely ideal advantages of jus- order. The population must be distice, liberty, security, and order! No! armed. The strongholds of the zethe gallant Rajpoots (foul murderers mindars and talookdars must be deof their female babes), and the “mild stroyed. The protection of the suband sensible” Brahmins, who dis- ject, like the defence of the kingdom, coursed with primitive simplicity by must be left to the ruling power ; and the side of the British Resident's ele- Mussulmans, Brahmins, Rajpoots, phant-pretty panthers toying in the and Byes, be made to learn the bitter sun !-are not the men to exchange lesson, more hateful, we suspect, all they hold dear in life for Euro- than even the aen and kanoon, that pean abstractions. It is not so easy where England plants her flag each as some philanthropists imagine, to may have his own faith before God, govern men for their own good. Hu- but ALL MEN ARE EQUAL IN THE EYE man nature is


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every crime in the decalogue, and kept their caste. For these external violences there was no absolution in time or eternity! The example was so terrible that the spectators submitted to the demand of the ruffian without further resistance. This story affords a striking proof of the power of caste (so superior to that of creed) in the native mind, and may explain the late outburst of frenzy in Bengal, at the supposed uncleanness of the greased cartridge. Another curious instance of the extent to which caste has supplanted religion, is supplied in a proclamation (which appears in the papers while we write), wherein the Zemindars and Sepoys at Lucknow call upon the population to resist the English for their religion, their honour, and their property. Mussulmans and Hindus (!) “it is declared, ought to unite in this sacred cause against all Christians and Jews.

* Two or three of Nussur-u-Deen's wives were domestic servants; and his favourite styled Mulika Zamanee-" Queen of the age ” —was the wife of a low fellow, whose claims to the paternity of her children were shared by a blacksmith and an ele. phant driver. She was first introduced at court in the capacity of a wet nurse !

+ The salary of Wajid Ali's vizier was 25,000 rupees a month, with allowances to his wives and children, and perquisites amounting to £60,000 per annum !!

Printed by William Blackwood & Sons, Edinburgh.

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THE first thought of the Chief message received by Mr Forsyth, then Commissioner had been to insure officiating as Deputy Commissioner the safety of the Punjab; the second at Umballa, on the 13th, bringing to was to recover Delhi. The whole him the welcome assurance that in European strength of the Punjab the prompt energetic measures which north of the Sutlej, being absorbed he had already initiated during the in the several stations, or in form- absence of Mr Barnes (the commising the Movable Column, the hill sioner of that division) at Kussowsanataria of Kussowlie, Subathoo, lie, he had only been anticipating Sir and Dugshai, each with its European J. Lawrence's wishes. regiment, alone remained available. In order to understand fully the On the morning of the 13th, a tele- condition of Umballa itself, and the graphic message came from Sir John steps which had been taken there, it Lawrence to the authorities at Um- is necessary to notice its position, and balla, urging that all these regiments, to take a brief review of the events viz., her Majesty's 75th, and the 1st which had occurred in that station and 2d Bengal Fusiliers, should be during the two preceding months. concentrated at Umballa, and with Umballa had been selected for a them the Nusseeree battalion (Goor- military cantonment, when Kurnal, khas), from Jutogh near Simla. From for so many years our frontier station, these a picked brigade should be push- was condemned for its unhealthied down viâ Kurnal to Delhi; while ness, and when the suspicious attia large portion of the European force tude assumed by the Sikh Governfrom Meerut should also move on ment, after the death of Runjeet Singh, Delhi from the eastward, so that” rendered it necessary to support our (to use the words of the Chief Com- advanced positions of Loodiana and missioner himself) “our troops can Ferozepore on the banks of the Sutlej. operate simultaneously from both The importance of this station is at sides of the Jumna. The city of Delhi once apparent. Lying on the edge and the Magazine must be recovered of the vast plain of Sirhind, that at once. The Puttiala Rajah should battle-field where the supremacy of send one regiment to Thaneysur, and Northern India had been more than another to Loodiana.” Such was the once contested, it became the centre


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: The Punjab.– No. IV. [June, of administration, and acted as a salu- latter part of his tour of inspection tary check over the various indepen- through the North-west Provinces, dent states around, who had, in 1809, and were en route for Jullundhur. thrown themselves under our protec- The Commander-in-Chief, with the tion to escape from the rapacious 36th Native Infantry as escort, argrasp of the "Lion of the Punjab.” rived at Umballa in the middle of Here were several Sikh states, Put- March. Two non-commissioned offitiala, Jheend, and Nabba, still re- cers of the regiment, who were under maining, while many others had gra- instruction at the depot, immediately dually disappeared-some by failure hastened out to the camp to meet in succession, others by confiscation their old comrades ; but instead of for treachery—and had been either the looked - for welcome, they were annexed to our own territory, or greeted with taunts and reproaches assigned as rewards to states that as having lost their caste by using had remained true during the Sutlej the obnoxious cartridge. These two and Punjab campaigns. Besides men, by name Kassee Ram Tewaree, these were the two small Mohamme- a Havildar, and Jeeololl Doobee, á dan states of Jhujjur and Kurnal, Naik, were both Brahmins ; the inalso under our protection. Umballa dignity, therefore, was tenfold greater was consequently regarded, in a mili- in their case ; and, full of indignation tary point of view, as a station of and alarm, they returned to the depot great importance, and had been and reported what had passed. It originally designed to hold a large was at once looked on by all their European force; but from certain brethren there as an earnest of what natural disadvantages, such as want was in store for each and all of them of water, and consequent scarcity of on returning to their respective regiforage, it has lately been somewhat ments; the insult was regarded as a curtailed of its original proportions.* general one, and the affair at once

The force at Umballa now con- became serious. The Havildar and sisted of her Majesty's 9th Lancers, Naik proceeded to the house of Capunder Colonel Hope Grant; two tain Martineau, the “ Instructor” at troops of horse-artillery under Cap- the depot, and, with bursting hearts tains Turner and Money; the 4th and tears in their eyes, told their tale Native Cavalry (Lancers), under of grief. That officer, from an expeColonel Clayton ; the 5th Native In- rience of some fifteen years with his fantry under Major Maitland; and regiment, the 10th Native Infantry, the 60th Native Infantry under of which he was for many years inColonel Drought; Sir H. Barnard terpreter, saw, from the turn that was General of the division, and Colo- matters had taken, what might be nel Halifax commanded the brigade. the issue of it; and the very next

This station had also been selected day (March 20th) made a demi-offifor one of the “depots of instruction cial representation of the case, stating in the use of the Enfield rifle ;” and his own opinion on the general quesSepoys of all ranks, picked for general tion, to Captain S. Becher, Assistant intelligence and effectiveness, were Adjutant-General of the army. collected here from all the native The affair,” he said, “is lamentinfantry regiments around-among able, as it discloses the actual feelothers were some of the 36th native ings of the whole of the native army ; infantry, which regiment had formed and I hasten to put you in possession the escort of the Commander - in- of the information I have subseChief, General Anson, during the quently received on the subject, as


One European infantry regiment had always been quartered here, but, from the insecure condition of the barracks, had been removed about two years ago, and the new barracks had not yet been commenced.

+ To show the utter falseness of such a charge, it is only necessary to state, that from the first the greased cartridges had only been given out to the Officers and European soldiers ; they had been supplied to the Sepoys in an ungreased state, to avoid any suspicion, as a general concession made by Government from the first complaint against their composition.

it is no longer possible to close our view, as affecting their caste, was aleyes to the present state of our Hin- together false. He also gave instrucdoostanee regiments.

tions that the practice of the native “The rumour has been indus- details should be suspended in that triously propagated (how it first origi- depot until further orders. Captain nated no native knows), that the rifle Martineau was further requested by cartridges were purposely smeared General Anson to ascertain and rewith the mixture of cow's and pig's port officially the effect which his fat, with the express object of destroy. address produced on the minds of the ing caste ; in fact, the weapon itself men. is nothing more or less than a Go- We refrain, for the present, from vernment missionary to convert the presenting to the public this most whole army to Christianity.

full and lucid statement prepared by “That so absurd a rumour should Captain Martineau, which, after exmeet with ready credence, indicates pressing the feelings of the men, and anything but a sound state of feeling stating his own views, winds up by on the part of our native soldiers. It earnestly soliciting the Commanderis, however, generally credited, and in-Chief to appoint a European court

Punchayuts have been formed in of inquiry to investigate the parevery corps, who have placed them- ticular charge of the Havildar Kassee selves in communication from Cal- Ram Tewaree against the Subahdar, cutta to Peshawur ; and the army at as, “if substantiated, it would afford large has come to the determination a very sure index to the real sentito regard as outcasts, and to expel ments of the native mind.” from all communion, any men who, Nothing could be more clear, nor, at any of the depots, use the car- one would have thought, more contridges at all. I find, also, that in vincing, than the reasoning, or more many of the detachments here all judicious than the suggestion offered intercourse with their corps is sus- by Captain Martineau. It was doompended; the men write from this, but ed, however, to be disregarded ; the receive no answers ; their comrades use of the cartridge by the natives won't deign to notice them. They was further suspended until the final justly remark, with evident alarm, decision of the Commander-in-Chief

If a subahdar in the Commander-in- on the whole case. Chief's camp, and on duty as his per- That decision was not given until sonal escort, can taunt us with loss the 16th of April. The Havildar

and of caste, what kind of reception shall Naik, who had been the subjects of we meet on our return to our own that insult, because they saw in it but corps ? No reward that Government too clearly the reception which awaitcan offer us is any equivalent to being ed them, and all their brethren of regarded as outcasts by our the depot, on returning to their regirades.””

ments, and because, in the freshness Thus strongly did Captain Mar- of their indignation and wounded tineau represent the danger which Brahminical pride at their imagined he foresaw, from suffering this spirit loss, they had reported the insult to of mistrust and disaffection to gain their comrades, and to the officer of head,

the depot-these men were told pubThe immediate result was, that on licly, on a brigade parade, specially the morning of the 23d March, the assembled, that their conduct in creatCommander-in-Chief inspected the ing so much excitement at the depot, musketry depot, and had an address and inducing the men of other regi(prepared by himself the day before) ments to entertain apprehensions of translated and read to the men by being similarly taunted upon returnCaptain Martineau, assuring them ing to their corps, was very reprethat the rumour that the use of the hensible," and they were to be secartridge had any ulterior object in verely censure 1.*


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The conduct of the Subalidar and Sepoys who had insulted the Havildar, hard, in the meanwhile, been investigated and disposed of by the regimental commanding officer, Captain Garstin ; and therefore the Commander-in-Chief contented himself with reprobating the Subabdar's conduct as “unbecoming and un-officerlike.”

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What might not a little considera- Grâmees could never have lighted tion and sympathy at that moment them without detection; and the have effected! It might have won question then became general, “Who the confidence of many a well-dis- but the Sepoys could be the culposed Sepoy, and have thus elicited prits ?” disclosures tending to avert or miti- In the end of April an important gate the impending crisis ; but their clue to the origin of these fires was mouths were stopped by this public discovered by means of a Sikh Sepoy, rebuke of the first comrade who had named Sham Singh, of the 5th Regiventured to speak out ; and all were

ment, Native Infantry. He disclosed driven to make common cause with to Mr Forsyth that the great body of the disaffected, or, at least, to be pas- the Sepoys were in a highly indignant sive and silent spectators of the ap- and excited state, under the appreproaching storm.

hension that they were all to be comNor was this all : it was resolved pelled to use the offensive cartridges, that, coute que coute, the Sepoys to the peril of their caste ; and that should be compelled to fire the car- they had resolved that, whenever tridges in defiance of their preju- such an order should be issued, every dices and their fears.* Accordingly, bungalow in the station should be in on the morning of April 17th, the Se- flames ! The Bazar Kotwal (or head poys used the cartridge, and that bailiff) also reported that a Pundit

ght some thirty thousand rupees' had told him that, according to Hinworth of Government property was doo astrological calculations, it was destroyed by fire !

certain "blood would be shed" withThis was but the prelude to many in a week, either in Delhi, Meerut, more. Fires became an almost nightly or Umballa. The details of the conoccurrence ; suddenly, in the dead of spiracy were further discovered—that night, flames would burst out in the 4th Light Cavalry were to seize various parts of cantonments—here the guns, and the heel-ropes of her an officer's bungalow, there a portion Majesty's 9th Lancers were to be cut, of the native lines, at one time a ;

and the horses let loose. Government godown (warehouse), at These disclosures were reported to another a regimental hospital, was the local authorities and to the Comdiscovered to be on fire. Courts of mander-in-Chief, but were discreditinquiry were now instituted, but ed, and no notice was taken of them. with no result. Grâmees (thatchers) To Sir J. Lawrence, however, to whom were by some believed to be the sin- they were also reported, they appearners, indulging in a more than ordi- ed in a very different light ; he atnary degree their propensity of mak- tached much importance to them, ing work for themselves by burning and promised that the faithful Sikh thatched roofs, which would require should have promotion. To his mind to be re-thatched; others—these were, the disaffection of the Sepoys already of course, cried down by the authori- appeared a grave reality, to be

“croakers and alarmists”- watched, and, if possible, guarded regarded these nightly fires as a against. Thus closed the month of ‘running accompaniment” to the April at Umballa. resumed target-practice, and recog- With the month of May the aspect nised in them signs of increasing dis- of affairs did not brighten. The reaffection among the Sepoys. Suspi- ports from Lucknow were not withcion gradually gained strength. Pick- out effect on the minds of the Sepoys. ets of Sepoys were placed over their The arrest of the eighty-five troopers own lines and public buildings ; and of the 3d Cavalry at Meerut added yet fires would break out where to the general excitement. On the

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Not only were the malcontent Sepoys denounced as “black rascals,” who should rue the day they refused to use the cartridge; but the representations made by the officers of the depots, and others competent to judge, were condemned in most unmeasured terms. “ They only want to break up the depots that they may get off to their messes, or their homes, or slip up to the hills.” Such were the sentiments current in the cool, comfortable retreats of Chota Simla.

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