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to go and return without being re- course, he says, there can be no comcognised. Suspicion was directed munication between us; and he theretowards him. Itzig has just at- fore writes his letter to Anton. tained to the height of such pro- Sturm carries his notions of the sperity as an Itzig can contem- differences of race further than any plate. He is rich; he is on the point contemporaneous philosopher we are of being married to the blooining acquainted with. Porters have a Rosalie, the daughter of Ehrenthal ; quite peculiar constitution ; your the wedding guests are assembled; science of physiology does not apply he is talking rapidly; he is the object to porters. They live only to the of general congratulation. The door age of fifty- no genuine, thoroughopens, and a gesture from his clerk bred porter lives longer ; Sturm's tells him that he is being sought for. father and grandfather died at or He knows why. Without a pause, before that age. It is a destiny. he escapes from the room, flies into Medicine and rules of diet are very the street, and hides amongst the well for other men ---- useless for darkest avenues he can find. In this porters. Much beer, and occasionstate he is irresistibly attracted to ally mixed with olive oil-a mixture the very spot where he had com- nauseous perhaps to other men, but mitted the murder ; his imagination agreeable to porters --- is indispenis familiar with it, and it is the best sable. Above all, they are practical hiding-place he knows. Down these men, and in the word “practical" dark steps he treads—this time alone. Sturm concentrates all the wisdom Yet not alone, for the figure of the appropriate to porters. old man whom he had led down those Anton pays a visit to the honest steps a little time ago, appears so Hercules, to talk with him about the vividly before him that his limbs prospects of his son Karl. By way tremble; he is scared and bewildered, of being.“ practical,” we suppose, the loses his foothold, and falls into the porter lives in a small house, so low water. The river carries him too that“ if he had ever drawn himself away.

up to his full height, he would infalThe more lively and agreeable part libly have carried off the roof.” of the novel is chiefly sustained by

“I am delighted to see you in my Herr Von Fink, a personage a great house, sir," said Sturm, taking Anton's deal too important to be dealt with

hand in his immense grasp as gently as in a paragraph or two, and whom, he could. therefore, we must leave entirely un- “ It is rather small for you, Mr described. Among the subordinate Sturm,

' answered Antou, laughing. I parts, the most humorous is that of

never thought you so large as I do old Sturm the porter. If the humour now.' is of a somewhat lumbering character, My father was still taller,' was the it yet suits the huge figure and slow complacent reply ; ' taller and broader. movements of the man.

He was the chief of the porters, and the size and strength are brought dexter- strongest man in the place; and yet a

small barrel, not half so high as you are, ously before the imagination, and harmonise very well with the honest, said he, lifting an oaken chair, so heavy

was the death of him. Be seated, sir,' simple-minded, but exceedingly ob- that Anton could hardly move it. My scure processes of thought to which Karl has told me that he has been to see he is addicted. A man cased to the you, and that you were most kind. He is throat in stiff leather aprons, and a good boy, but he is a falling-off as to dealing with enormous hogsheads, size. His mother was a little woman, must be supposed to have a slow added Sturin mournfully, draining a movement of mind. His deductions quart of beer to the last drop. It is are not precisely those which other draught beer,” he said apologetically; men arrive at. His son Karl goes

'may I offer you a glass? It is a cus

tom amongst us to drink no other, but with Anton into Poland, and when there, loses two fingers of his right through, for our work is heating.'

certainly we drink this the whole day hand. As this prevents Karl from “"Your son wishes to become one of writing, the old porter concludes that your number,' said Anton. he cannot possibly be written to. Of “A porter!' rejoined the giant.


His great

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'No; that he never shall.' Then laying that we know nothing about. But such his hand confidentially on Antou's knee, were my wife's wishes, and so it must • It would never do; my dear departed be.'' wife besought me against it on her deathbed. And why? Our calling is respec

On another occasion, when the table, as you, sir, best know. Thereporter, having approximated to the are not many who have the requisite age of fifty, began to think he must strength, and still fewer who have the be very ill, Anton inquires,requisite

What ** Integrity,' said Anton.

says the doctor to your com

plaint ?' “You are right,' nodded Sturm. 'Al.

• The doctor !' said old Sturm ; ‘if ways to have wares of every kind in im; he were to be asked about me, be would mense quantities under our eyes, and have enough to say. But we do not ask never to touch one of them, that is not

him. Between ourselves, there is no use in everybody's line; and our earnings

in a doctor. They may know what is are very fair too. My dear departed

the matter with many men, that I don't saved a good deal of money, gold as well

deny ; but how should they kuow what as silver. But that is not in my way.

is the matter with us? Not one of them For why? If a man be practical, he

can list a barrel.' " need not plague himself about money, and Karl will be a practical man. But he must not be a porter. His mother tions we have made without noticing

No one can have read the quotawould not hear of it.' "* Your work is very laborious,' sug

the ease and fluency and idiomatic

force of the translation. Two English gested Anton. *** Laborious !' laughed Sturm ;'it may

translations of this novel have simulbe laborious for the weak, but it is not taneously appeared, both by ladies. that. It is this,

' and be filled his glass. If it be the duty of a critic to read It is the draught beer.'

the same novel twice over, we must “ Anton smiled. I know that you plead guilty here to a dereliction of and your colleagues drink a good deal of duty ; we have read only one of this thin stuif.'

these translations : we are spared at "* A good deal,' said Sturm with self

least from making any invidious comcomplacency; 'it is a custom of oursit always has been so ; porters must be parisons; we take it for granted that

both are good. The translation bestrong men, true men, and beer-drinkera ! Water would weaken us, so would

fore us, by L.C.C., is very spirited and brandy; there is nothing for it but agreeable. It has been censured, we draught beer and olive oil. Look here, understand, on account of certain sir,' said he, mixing a small glassful of abridgments and curtailments, made fine oil and beer, stirring plenty of sugar with a view of accommodating the into it, and drinking off the pauseous novel to the taste of the Euglish compound, this is a secret of ours, and reader. We are not disposed to join makes an arm like this,' and he laid his in this censure, for we really think on the table, and vainly endeavoured to

that the present version would have span it. ' But there is a drawback. Have been improved if some further curyou ever seen an old porter ? No; for there are none. Fifty is the greatest age

tailments had been made. We get they have ever reached. My father was

very tired of that Polish estate, with fifty when he died, and the one we lately all the details of its management, to buried-Mr Schröter was at the funeral which the Baron and his family are --was forty-vine. I have still two years compelled to retire; we are almost before me, however.'

as glad to quit it as Anton himself “ Anton looked at him anxiously. must have been. * But, Sturm, since you know this, why As to the general question, how not be more moderate?'

far a translator is justified in cur“ Moderate !' asked Sturm ; 'what tailing his original author, let us is moderate? It never gets into our

make what old Sturm himself would leads. Twenty quarts a-day is not much; acknowledge to be a “practical” obif you know nothing of it. However, Mr Wohlfart, it is on this account that servation. When an author has obtaininy dear departed did not choose that

ed a world-wide reputation, nothing Karl should be a porter. As for that, but a faithful and complete rendering few men do live to be much more than of his work will be tolerated. This the fifty, and they have all sorts of ailments public demand; this the translator


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sets himself to give.. If parts are these circumstances, the translator dull, if whole pages are languid, he omits and abridges, who is there to has no responsibility; his, only re- find fault? Not the English public,

, sponsibility is to be just and faithful. for its pleasure has been especially But when a translator introduces, for consulted; not the author, for his the first time, some foreign writer work, by these means, has been renvery little known to his countrymen, dered more acceptable to a foreign he has to conciliate the taste of his people. And if the work prove one own nation. No great name as yet of permanent interest, the matter overshadows the pages of the work; rights itself. The once unknown the English reader has not asked for author has become a celebrated man, any translation, is not solicitous to and the public demands, and will know what the great man has said — receive, the full and faithful translacares only to be amused. If, under tion.


WE have hitherto abstained from part in a somewhat difficult controtaking an active part in the discus- versy. Whatever we may think of sions regarding the present state of the soundness of their individual the Scottish Universities—a subject opinions, we cheerfully acknowledge which, for the last year or two, has that they have done good service to attracted no inconsiderable share of the Universities by directing the public attention. That our silence public attention to their state, prowas not the result of indifference may spects, and efficiency; nor do we, by be gathered from the fact, that in the any means, intend to convey the imMagazine the rights of these Univer- pression that we reject en masse the sities to a more generous acknow- whole of their ideas, though we ledgment on the part of the State certainly disapprove of some. We were advocated, and their utility ex- are further indebted to them for this, plained, long before there were any that their exertions have called into symptoms of the present active agita- the field men of great capacity, extion. But at the very commence- perience, and strength of judgmentment of that agitation, and still more among whom we may be allowed to during its progress, it became appa- particularise the Earl of Elgin, Lord rent to us that the men who, with Chief-Justice Campbell, Sir John the best possible intentions, were M‘Neill, and Mr Inglis, now Lord most prominent in demanding a re- Rector of the University of Aberform, reconstitution, or enlargement deen-who have not only expressed, of those venerable national institu- but are actively showing the interest tions, were either inclined to advance which they feel in the welfare of the educational theories of a Utopian Scottish Üniversities, and who are kind, or were not thoroughly conver- eminently qualified to decide what is sant with the details of the system really required in order to raise these which they professed themselves institutions to the highest point of eager to improve. We foresaw that efficiency. a great deal of crude matter, and of We propose, in this article, to offer unprofitable if not extravagant sug- a few remarks upon the present state gestion, would be poured forth in and working of the Universities as pamphlet and from platform before educational establishments, with the the general mind was ready for ra- view of explaining our ideas, derived tional consideration ; and we there- from considerable experience and fore determined to wait until the close observation, as to the internal hubbub had somewhat subsided, in the reforms which are most urgently rehope that we might then receive a quired ; and also as to the amount of patient and impartial hearing. In countenance which they receive, or saying this, we mean no disrespect to ought to receive, from the State. any of the gentlemen who have taken The latter topic seems to us of pecu

liar importance at a time when exa- Marischal College—within the bounminations have been instituted as an daries of the granitic city. Therefore indispensable requisite for obtaining we think that a description of the entrance into many branches of the system pursued in Edinburgh will be public service, more especially as very the best foundation for our commengrave objections have been taken to tary. the method in which those examina- In Scotland the words “ Univertions have hitherto been conducted. sity” and “ College” are synonymous,

But, before entering into details, it and are used indiscriminately. Colmay be necessary for the information legiate life, as it exists in the great of many of our readers to explain establishments of England, is utterly what is the course of study, and unknown. The students do not live what the mode of teaching pursued together, within bounds, but find in the Scottish Universities. They their residences, according to their are institutions radically different in means, in the towns; and as they kind from Oxford and Cambridge. are for the most part divided inThey were, all of them, founded long to “Faculties," to which separate before the union of the kingdoms; branches of study are assigned, they and although, in some respects, their have little common intercourse, unscope has been materially widened, less they are fellow-students in the no decided or violent change has been same class. There are four Faculties made in their fundamental system. —these being Arts, Divinity, Law, They were originally intended to and Medicine—the two latter being afford, and they do still offer, the ad- wholly unconnected with the others. vantages of liberal education to a nu- It is not required from the Students merous class of young men, who, in of Law or Medicine that they shall England, could never have joined a have previously passed through the University; and if, in some respects, Faculty of Arts, or even attended a they may be considered inferior in limited number of the classes of classical teaching to the great South- which that Faculty consists. Each ern establishments, they at least Faculty has the power of examining extend the benefits of instruction to for their degrees, and these examinaa far greater number in proportion to tions are separately conducted ; the the relative population of the king- degrees being nominally conferred by doms; and, moreover, it is undeni- the whole University, but in reality able that they occupy a wider field. granted by the Faculties. The FaculThis much we premise, simply to ties of Law and Medicine are thereshow that there is no common ground fore strictly professional, and exist for instituting a comparison between for the purpose of imparting to stuthe methods pursued at the Univer- dents special instruction in those sities of Oxford or Cambridge, and branches alone ; but we repeat that those of Edinburgh or Glasgow. they have no connection whatever Whatever improvement may be sug- with the Faculty of Arts, the nature of gested for either-assimilation, even which we shall presently explain. were it desirable, is plainly out of The Faculty of Divinity, however, is the question.

closely connected with the Faculty of We shall, for the sake of illustra- Arts; for it is required that all stution, select the University of Edin- dents, before passing into the former burgh, both on account of its metro- Faculty, must have attended certain politan importance, and because, in so classes belonging to the latter—a wise far as the State is concerned, it has provision, in so far as it goes,

because received the smallest share of sup- it insures that every clergyman shall port in the way of endowment. The have received the advantages of a cry for reform, indeed, is confined liberal education, though there may almost exclusively to Edinburgh, still be room for improvement. And Glasgow and St Andrews appear here it is proper to explain that the quiescent; and what agitation pre- rules enforced by the Free and United vails in Aberdeen is chiefly owing to Presbyterian Churches for securing the circumstance that there are two the education of their probationers, Universities King's College and are very nearly the same with those

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laid down by the Established Church; then attend any class he pleases, by and that, notwithstanding the various applying to the Professor for a ticket, schisms which have afflicted Presby- which, in the Faculty of Arts, is literian Scotland, the Universities, ow- mited to three guineas. Thus, suping to their unsectarian character, posing that he attends three classes have retained the public confidence. during a winter session, reaching No religious test was ever required from the beginning of November to from students; and none is now exact the end of April, his whole direct ed from Professors, with the excep- College fees do not exceed ten tion of those who are appointed to guineas; but more frequently, stuchairs of Theology.

dents restrict themselves to two It is not so easy to define the cha- classes in each session, in which case racter of the Faculty of Arts as it ex- the expenses are diminished to seven. ists in the University of Edinburgh. The number of those who graduate Nominally it is held to comprehend in arts is very small—for this reason, all the Professors who are not attach- that such a degree confers no privied to Law, Medicine; or Divinity; but lege whatever ; it is a mere barren as an operative Faculty for determin- title. So soon as the student has ing degrees in Arts, it is inuch more passed through the curriculum, his limited. Thus, in order to quality connection with the University closes; himself for the degree of B.A., the and this is perhaps the most discourstudent must have attended the aging feature of Scottish collegiate classes of Humanity (that is, Latin), education. Greek, Mathematics, Logic and Me- Until very recently, no entrance taphysics, and Moral Philosophy. Be- examination was made compulsory fore he can present himself for the de- before matriculation or enrolment in gree of M.A., he must also undergo an any class; but three years ago the examination in Natural Philosophy, patrons of the University (that is, the and in Rhetoric and Belles Lettres. Town-Council) laid down a rule that Hence, practically, the power of exam- there should be an entrance examinaining for degrees in arts is vested in tion in the department of Greek, in so seven Professors; although there are far as regarded the junior class. The five others, those of Astronomy, His- immediate effect of that rule was to tory, Agriculture, Music, and Tech- decrease the attendance ; and it is nology, who are held to belong to understood to be now abandoned, if the Faculty of Arts, and who all have not formally rescinded; option being votes in the Senate. But there is given to the students to take their another remarkable peculiarity, that examination after an attendance of attendance upon one class in the cur- three months. This absence of enriculum-that of Rhetoric-is not trance examination is a point deservcompulsory upon students who passing of much attention, and one which from Arts to Divinity, unless they offer is not generally understood in all its themselves for the degree of M.A. bearings. We shall have occasion to As the Rhetoric class is the only one revert to it hereafter. in which the arts of vernacular com- The annual number of literary stuposition and delivery are systemati- dents, matriculated as such in the Unically taught, this omission, which has versity of Edinburgh, is between five the sanction of the Church, may and six hundred, of whom but a small appear a strange one; but the ex- proportion go through the entire curplanation probably is, that in the riculum. Except for divinity students, other Universities of Scotland the and those who intend to become canchair of Rhetoric is combined with didates for degrees, strict entrance to that of Logic. None of the Presby- the classes, according to the form of terian Churches require that those the curriculum, is unnecessary ; and, presenting themselves for ordination in consequence, a very large number shall be Graduates in Arts.

of young men take two or three Any one may become a member of classes, as may suit their convenience the University by simply enrolling his orinclination, without proceeding any name in the matriculation books, on farther. Also it is a common practice payment of a trifling fee. He may for gentlemen of fortune, officers of

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