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tion and wants, and did so, after a ably conducted, are not of greater most elaborate investigation. And annual value than £300. It is not yet, during those thirty years, not creditable to the State that literature one single word has been uttered in and science, when enlisted in the their behalf in the House of Com- public service, should be starved ; mons; nor has any Minister found and the Royal Commissioners, whó time, or possessed patience enough to were nominated so far back as 1826, address himself to the subject. This were most strong in their recomcould not have happened had the mendation of a supplementary enScottish Universities been repre- dowment. Money can be found to sented like those of Oxford, Cam- buy ures, and to erect galleries ; bridge, and Dublin. Moreover, this but not to maintain the men who are denial of the franchise was of itself intrusted with the higher education an indignity, almost amounting to an of the country. And yet, whenever imputation that the learning of Scot- no pressing political question occuland was not sufficiently high to pies the attention of the country, entitle it to be heard in the great public men, of all parties, make council of the nation. We hope the stock of the subject of education ! time is at hand when that reproach In Scotland, at least, we have may be wiped away, being fully had quite enough of professionassured that nothing can tend more we now desiderate something tangiforcibly to promote the spread of ble. A red Indian would say, “ the education, and the standard of talk of my brother is good, but talk learning, than a distinct recognition does not make the maize to grow ; by the State.
and the red Indian's sagacity is perOne only point remains to be fect. Professors in the Universities of noticed ; and regarding it there is Scotland are, for the most part, serno difference of opinion. The smaller vants of the State; and no more is Universities of Scotland are at least asked than that the State should deal tolerably endowed, and Glasgow may with them as it does with other public be said to be wealthy. But, in servants. It deals with them now as Edinburgh, the endowments of the if the higher education of the counChairs are miserably small. Now we try was of no consequence whatever. do not advocate large endowments. We shall, however, state our views. We believe that Professors will work No man in the situation of an Edinall the better if they are made to de- burgh Professor, who really teaches pend for the greater part of their a class, should have less than £500 emoluments upon the class fees; and a-year-we do not mean of endowmoreover, we hold that the surestment, but of income from the Chair; test of the efficiency of a Professor and it would be quite easy to ascertain, is the number of students he can by taking an average for a few years, attract. But there are some Chairs what sum would be required to raise which, owing to their nature, never the emoluments to such a point. We can prove attractive, and which yet have specified £500 as the minimum, are indispensable to a university. because that, in Edinburgh, affords Such, for example, are the Chairs of but a modest livelihood, equivalent Hebrew and Civil Law, from both of perhaps to £400 at the smaller Uniwhich regular instruction is given, versities, to which point the emolubut which are not, and never can be, ments of the Professors there should self-sustaining. These Chairs cannot in like manner be raised. A very mobe competently filled except by men derate grant from Government would of great learning and industry, and accomplish all that we desire; and yet the emoluments of each from all when we remember that some of sources seldom exceed the pittance these poorer Chairs have been foundof £200 per annum. We also know ed by the Crown, and are in its gift, that there are three other Chairs— surely it is not too much to expect two belonging to the Faculty of that they should at least be decently Medicine, and one to the Faculty of supported. But the fact is, that the Arts, and included in the curriculum State is not entitled to refuse con--which, though regularly and most sideration and assistance to the Scot
tish Universities. Their maintenance ed to deal with is a very large one, in all time coming was made a spe- and hardly admits of adequate treatcial stipulation in the Treaty of ment within the compass of a single Union, and, even in the cases where article. It is possible, nay highly the Crown has parted with its direct probable, that some of the views patronage, it has done so by way of which we have expressed may be delegation, not of renunciation, and fiercely challenged, because there it still must be regarded as at least are zealots in the field whose minds parentally liable. This is a matter are already made up, and who are not affecting Scotland alone, but of obstinate against conviction. But serious importance to the learned men what we have said has at least the of England. We have received many merit of being uttered honestly, and valuable accessions to our Profes- we have made ourselves tolerably sorial staff from the sister country, well acquainted with the system beand the vacancy of a Chair in Edin- fore venturing into the discussion. burgh or Glasgow invites candidates Much more we might have advanced from every part of Great Britain. regarding the general position and But if a Chair does not afford the efficacy of our Universities, which bare means of livelihood, how can some pseudo-reformers, no doubt we expect men of real talent to offer with the best of intentions, have for it
done their utmost to decry, thereby Also, it would be most desirable if engendering the idea, amongst those some provision could be made for who know us not, that the teaching retiring allowances to Professors in in our Universities is of a poor and their old age. Nothing is more de- unsatisfactory kind. A broad denial trimental to a University than the is all that we shall give in reply to continuance in office of men whose such an utterly unfounded assertion. mental powers are exhausted, and It will be seen, by those who take who yet are compelled to go on, be- the trouble of perusing the foregoing cause their profession has been so un- pages, that we are by no means inremunerative as to preclude the possi- sensible to the deficiencies which do bility of saving. We provide retir- exist, and that we have been earnest ing allowances to Judges of all in devising a remedy ; and we now grades-why not also to Professors, dismiss the subject which we have who have spent their lives in the approached with no other intent than discharge of functions which, if pro- that of suggesting such improveperly considered, are almost as im- ments as may, if carried out, render portant to the public as the more our time-honoured institutions as prominent services of the others ? efficacious as those which any other
The subject which we have essay- country in wide Europe can display.
THE POORBEAH *
[The following narrative has been sent us from Lahore.] The year 1857—a year rendered direction. I Yet all this indicated memorable in the annals of British some secret movement. Inquiries India for a rebellion before which the were instituted in various parts, but mutinies of Vellore in 1806, and of nothing of a definite or tangible Barrackpore in 1824, dwindle into character was elicited. It was, morepolitical insignificance — was but a over, remembered that, some fifty few weeks old when the first mutter- years before, a similar practice had ings of the approaching storm were been discovered in Central India, heard in different parts of India. and an anxious endeavour made to In the North-west Provinces it was detect the object, but in vain. And discovered that chupattees † were as nothing had apparently resulted being circulated from village to vil- from it then, the hope was enterlage in a somewhat mysterious man- tained that in the present instance it ner. One district officer, especially, might turn out to be equally meanwitnessed the arrival of a chupattee- ingless, or probably some superstiladen messenger in a village, and tious spell against disease (the cholera observed him breaking it into pieces having devastated some parts of the and distributing portions among the country during the preceding autumn), male population, assigning the largest or, at all events, might prove to be piece to the zemindar or head man devoid of any political meaning. of the village. On making inquiry How little was it thought that as to the meaning of this act, he was therein was really hidden an Eastern told that an old custom existed in symbol of portentous import! Five Hindostan, that when their malek or centuries before, the Chinese had, by chief required any service of them, he a similar plan, organised and carried allopted this mode to prepare the out a conspiracy by which the dycountry for receiving his orders, and nasty of their Mongol invaders was every one who partook of the chu- overthrown ;ll and now imported pattee was held pledged to obey the no less than the hope and attempt order whenever it might come, or
to annihilate the English race in whatever it might be. What the India, and to restore to the effete nature of the order in the present house of Timour the sovereignty of case would be, the zemindar said, Hindostan! with a suspicious smile, was not yet Nor were other indications wanting known to them. In other districts that a great struggle was impending similar circumstances were observed between the Mohammedans and their and duly notified ; but the progress Christian rulers. On the very walls of chupattees from village to village of Delhi were occasionally seen pla(each village receiving one being cards, some ambiguously hinting at bound to make and pass on a similar a general rebellion, others openly one to its neighbour village) appear- calling on the “ followers of the Proed to be without any uniform plan, phet” to exterminate the unbelievers. sometimes assuming a northerly, From without, too, it was clear that sometimes a southerly or westerly influence was being exerted. In the
* Poorbeah : native of Eastern countries—those lying on the east of the Ganges, from which the Sepoys chiefly came, and who were, therefore, popularly known in the Punjab and in Western India as “ Poorbeabs.”
+ Chupattees are a preparation of flour and water in the form of pancakes, constituting the chief food of the natives of India.
# Subsequent knowledge may enable us to explain this seeming variation, by tracing them all from the one common centre, the imperial city.
§ Kaye's Life of Sir John Malcolm.
|| Gabet and Huc's Travels in Tartary, dc., in 1844, chap. jii. The event is still celebrated among the Chinese, under the name of the “ Feast of the Moon Loaves."
captured tent of the Shahzada com- men who doubtless knew enough of mander, after the rout of the Persians the past history of their race and at Mohumrah, had been found a country to remember that the most royal proclamation, a sort of poli- ruthless tyranny and injustice had tico-religious encyclical letter from marked the days of former Mohamthe Shah - in - Shah, the recognised medan supremacy. To attain' this head of the Faithful in the East. end it was necessary to find some It was addressed " to all the people common grievance which might of Heran ;” but it also called on plausibly unite Hindoo and Moham" the Affghan tribes, and the inhabi- medan in a joint resistance to their tants of that country who are co- British rulers. Most unfortunately, religionists of the Persians, and who Government furnished them with one possess the same Quran, and Kibla, admirably suited to their purpose. and laws of the Prophet, to take part In spite of warnings from various in the Jahad ;” and it purported, quarters, from the early remonstrance moreover, to be published for the of the late Adjutant-General (Colonel information of all true believers; and H. T. Tucker, C.B.) against the imIndia and Scinde will also unite and representation made by Captain Martake vengeance on that tribe [the tineau, the Adjutant to the Umballa British) for all the injuries which the musketry depot, to the CommanderHoly Faith has suffered from them, in-chief in the end of last April-in and will not withhold any sacrifice spite of many such warnings, the in the holy cause. What form their Enfield rifle was to be introduced vengeance was to assume, and to into the native army, as well as the what extent their zeal was to be car- European portion of our troops. With ried, the Shah-in-Shah shall himself the Enfield rifle came of necessity the explain : “ Let the old and the new cartridge. Here was at once young, the small and the great, the the grievance needed. The shining wise and the ignorant, the Ryot and paper and greased end of the carthe Sepoy, all without exception, tridge were certainly open to suspiarise in defence of the orthodox cion ; and it needed little persuasion faith of the Prophet; and having on the part of crafty designing men girt up the waist of valour, adorn to make the ignorant, superstitious, their persons with arms and wea- caste-ridden Sepoy believe that some pons; and let the Ullema and forbidden fat was used in its manupreachers call on the people in the facture. The cow, sacred to the mosques and public assemblies, and Hindoo, and the pig, unclean and in the pulpits, to join in a Jahôd, in loathsome to the Mohammedan, the cause of God, and thus shall the must both, it was insinuated, have Ghazis (martyrs) in the cause of the contributed their share to the grease faith have a just title to the promises used in the obnoxious paper. Thus, contained in the words of the Pro- under the idea that an attack was phet, ' Verily we are of those who being meditated on their religious fought in the cause of God.'” prejudices, the great mass of the
But in the Bengal army were men Hindoo Sepoys were caught in the of other creeds. In the regular in- trap laid for them by the wily Mofantry regiments the Mohammedans hammedan, who himself also could formed a very small minority, and in find, or pretend to find, in the same the cavalry even were scarcely more cartridge with its fancied odour of numerous than the Hindoos. Yet forbidden pig's fat, a religious mothe Hindoo Sepoy had also to be tive for rebellion, under which the won over to insure success to the real political motive was cunningly conspiracy. Yet its real ulterior ob- kept out of sight* ject could not be safely confided to The cry
thus once raised soon be
Among the hundreds of Sepoys' letters intercepted in the post-offices of the Punjab, the greased cartridge was almost universally the burden of their tale. Here and there some writer, more deeply versed in the character of the conspiracy, hinted at the real motive--the downfall of British power ; but it is probable that
came general : the greased cartridge now faction. I Although the recent was to be bitten, and thereby caste elevation of his family, as nominees broken, as a step towards a compul- of the British Government, would sory wholesale conversion to Chris- obtain for him a questionable weltianity. Such was the lever by which come, and give him but little weight the great mass of the native army in the counsels of the representative were so successfully set in motion. of the Great Mogul, still his influence,
Can there be any longer a doubt as the king of that tract of country that such was the real history of the from which the great body of our mutiny? The greased cartridge was Sepoys come, would doubtless make in reality only a trap to catch the him worth attaching to the cause, Hindoo, and a pretext for the Mo- with the hope that, on its success, hammedan : it no more originated his pension and state of surveillance this mutiny than the new head-dress should be exchanged for the revived with the leather peak, and the pro- Soubah of Oude under the re-estabhibition of caste-mark on parade, had lished empire of Hindostan. instigated that of Vellore in 1806. It is not improbable that a similar The restoration of the house of Tip- bribe drew into the conspiracy the poo Sultan to the throne of Mysore other richly-pensioned representative was the real object then-as it now of a fallen house, the Nawab of Benwas to revive the grandeur of the gal, the descendant of Surajah DowMogul empire in the person of the lah, who has been immortalised by the Roi Fainéant, whom we had “allow- pen of Macaulay as the hero of the ed to play at being a sovereign in Black Hole and the Victim of Plassey. Delhi.* There was, however, this dif- Such is believed to have been, notference : the Vellore prisoners were withstanding the greater prominence of a race but of yesterday, the grand- given to the Cartridge Question," sons of an unscrupulous freebooter, the real origin and character of a --for such was Hyder Ali, whose rebellion which has shaken India to father had been a naikt in the ranks its centre, and for a time imperilled of a petty Mysore chief ; whereas the very existence of British rule in around the head of the sensual im- the East. becile puppet, who in pensioned pomp, was permitted to occupy the Musnut The first tidings of the mutiny of at Delhi, centred the glory of ages, the troops at Meerut, and their adthe traditional splendour of Timour, vance on Delhi, reached Lahore on and Baber, and Akbar.
the morning of the 11th of May, in so How far the King of Oude was hurried and vague a form, however, originally involved in this mutiny is that there was still reason to hope probably known only to the Supreme they might prove an exaggeration. Government; and until the public But a telegraphic message on the folare in possession of the necessary lowing morning shut out all such documents for elucidating that State hope ; it more than confirmed the rumystery, it would be idle to offer mour of the day before : its purport any conjectures. That he became was that mutiny had indeed broken party to it in its matured form there out, followed by a fiendish massacre can be no doubt. His arrest, and at Meerut, only to be exceeded in that of his chief personal attendants, atrocity by the subsequent proceedproves that grave suspicions, at least ings at Delhi, where it was believed of complicity, attached to the Luck- that every Christian-every indivi
the correspondence of the leaders in the rebellion was not intrusted to the public post, but conveyed by private hands, such as faqueers and pretended beggars, who were really disguised traitors.
* Macaulay's speech on the government of India, 10th July 1833.
+ A naik is the lowest non-commissioned native officer in an infantry regiment, equivalent to our rank of “ corporal.”
# The speech of one Major Bird, a pensioner of the Indian Government, and a paid agent of the Oude family, so freely commented on by the public press, removes all doubt on that head.