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HUNGER is one of the beneficent money we all labour to gain is nothing and terrible instincts. It is, indeed, but food, and the surplus of food, the very fire of life, underlying all which will buy other men’s labour. impulses to labour, and moving man If in this sense Hunger is seen to to poble activities by its imperious be a beneficent instinct, in another demands. Look where we may, we sense it is terrible, for when its prosee it as the motive power which sets gress is unchecked it becomes a dethe vast array of human machinery vouring flame, destroying all that is in action. It is Hunger which brings noble in man, subjugating his huthese stalwart navvies together in manity, and making the brute domiorderly gangs to cut paths through nant in him, till finally life itself is mountains, to throw bridges across extinguished. Beside the picture of rivers, to intersect the land with the the activities it inspires, we might great iron-ways which bring city into also place a picture of the ferocities daily communication with city. Hun- it evokes. Many an appalling story ger is the overseer of those men erect- might be cited, from that of Ugolino ing palaces, prison-houses, barracks, in the famine - tower, to those of and yillas. Hunger sits at the loom, wretched shipwrecked men and wowhich with stealthy power is weaving men who have been impelled by the the wondrous fabrics of cotton and madness of starvation to murder silk. Hunger labours at the furnace their companions that they might and the plough, coercing the native feed upon their flesh. indolence of man into strenuous and What is this Hunger-what its incessant activity. Let food be abun- causes and effects? In one sense we dant and easy of access, and civilisa- may all
be said to know what Hunger tion becomes impossible ; for our is ; in another sense no man can enhigher efforts are dependent on our lighten us ; we have all felt it, but lower impulses in an indissoluble Science as yet has been unable to manner. Nothing but the necessities furnish any sufficient explanation. of food will force man to labour, Between
the gentle and agreeable which he hates, and will always avoid stimulus known as Appetite, and
the when possible. And although this agony of Starvation, there are infiseems obvious only when applied to
nite gradations. The early stages the labouring classes, it is equally are familiar even to the wealthy; though less obviously true when but only the very poor, or those who applied to all other classes, for the have undergone exceptional calami
VOL. LXXXIII.-NO, DVII.