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paying, both to the supreme Power, and all subordinate Magistrates, every part of that Submiffion and Respect, both in Speech and Behaviour, which is their Due; and making all those Allowances in their Favour, which the Difficulty of their Office, and the Frailty of our common Nature, demand : to love and wish well to all our Fellow-subjects, without Exception; think of them charitably, and treat them kindly: to be peaceable and quiet, each minding diligently the Duties of his own Station; not factious and turbulent, intruding into the Concerns of others : to be modest and humble, not exercising ourselves in Matters too high for usa; but leaving such Things to the Care of our Superiors, and the Providence of God: to be thankful for the Blessings and Advantages of Government, in Proportion as we enjoy them; and reafonable and patient under the Burdens and Inconveniences of it, which at any Time we may suffer.
The Duty of Princes and Magistrates, it would be of little Use to enlarge on at present. In general it is, to confine the Exercise of their Power within the Limits of those Laws, to which they are bound; and direct it to the Attainment of those Ends, for which they were appointed: to execute their proper Function with Care and Integrity, as Men fearing God, Men of Truth, hating Covetousness"; to do all Persons impartial Justice, and consult, in all Cases, the public Benest; encouraging Religion and Virtue with Zeal, especially by a good Example; punishing Crimes with Steadiness, yet with - Moderation; and studying to preserve the People committed to their Charge, in Wealth, Peace, and Godlinessc.
Another Relation, to be brought under this Commandment, is, that between spiritual Fathers, the Teachers of Religion, and such as are to be taught.
The Duty of us who have undertaken the important Work of spiritual Guides and Teachers, is, to deliver the Doctrines and Precepts of our holy Religion, in the
Pralm, cxxxi. 3,
Exod. xviii, 23.
& Communion Office.
plainest and strongest Terms that we can ; infisting on such Things chiefly, as will be most conducive to the real and inward Benefit of our Hearers; and recommending them, in the most prudent and persuasive Manner; seeking to please all Men for their Good, 10 Edification"; but fearing no Man in the Discharge of our Consciences; and neither saying nor omitting any Thing, for the Sake of Applause from the many, or the few; or of promoting either our own Wealth and Power, or that of our Order : to instruct, exhort, and comfort, all that are placed under our Care, with Sincerity, Discretion, and Tenderness, privately as well as publicly, so far as they give us Opportunity, or we discern Hope of doing Service; watching for their Souls, as they that must give Account ; to rule in the Church of God with Vigilance, Humility, and Meekness, fnewing ourselves, in all Things, Patterns of good Works.
The Duty, of you, the Christian Laity, whom we are to teach, is, to attend constantly and seriously on religious Worship and Instruction, as a sacred Ordinance appointed by Heaven for your spiritual Improvement; to consider impartially and carefully what you hear, and believe and practise what you are convinced you ought; to observe with due Regard the Rules established for decent Order and Edification in the Church; and pay such Respect, in Word and Deed, to those who minister to you in holy Things, as the Interest and Honour of Religion require; accepting and encouraging our wellmeant Services, and bearing charitably with our many Imperfections and Failings.
A third Relation is that between Masters or Mistresses of Schools and their Scholars. The Duty of the former is, diligently to instruct the Children committed to them, in all the Things which they are put to learn, suiting their Manner of Teaching, as well as they can, to the Temper and Capacity of each; and to take effectual Care that they apply themselves to what is taught
& Rom. xv. 2•
1 Cor. X. 33.
• Ifeb. xii. 17.
f Tit. ii. 7.
them, and do their best; to watch over their Behaviour, especially in the great Points of Honesty and Truth, Modesty and Good-Humour; fhew Countenance to such as are well-behaved and promising; correct the faulty, with needful, yet not with excessive Severity; and get the incorrigible removed out of the Way, before they corrupt others. And the Duty of the Scholars is, to reverence and obey their Master or Mistress, as if they were their Parents; to live friendly and lovingly with one another, as Brethren or Sisters; to be heartily thankful to all, that give or procure them so valuable a Blesling as useful Knowledge; and industrious to improve in it; considering, how greatly their Happiness, here and hereafter, depends upon it.
I come now to a fourth Relation, of great Extent and Importance, that between Heads of Families and their Servants.
When the New Testament was written, the Generality of Servants were, as in many Places they are still, mere Slaves; and the Persons to whom they belonged, had a Right to their Labour, and that of their Posterity, for ever, without giving them any other Wages than their Maintenance; and with a Power to inflict on them what Punishments they pleased; for the most Part, even Death itself, if they would. God be thanked, Service amongst us, is a much happier Thing; the Conditions of it being usually no other, than the Servants themselves voluntarily enter into, for their own Benefit. But then, for that Reason, they ought to perform whatever is due from them, both more conscientiously, and more cheerfully.
Now from Servants is due, in the first Place, Obedience. Indeed if they are commanded what is plainly unlawful, they ought to obey God rather than Mans; but Atill must excuse themselves decently, though resolutely. And even lawful Things, which they have not bargained to do, they are not obliged to do; nor any
Acts Vo 29
Thing indeed, which is clearly and greatly unsuitable to their Place and Station, and improper to be required of them. But whatever they engaged, or knew they were expected, to do; or what, though they did not know of it beforehand, is usual and reasonable, or even not very unreasonable, they must submit to. For if they may, on every small Pretence, refuse to do this, and question whether that belong to their Place, it is most evident, that all Authority and Order in Families muit be at an End; and they themselves will have much more Trouble in difputing about their Business, than they would have in performing it.
Servants therefore should obey; and they should do it respectfully and readily; not murmuring, behaving gloomily and fullenly, as if their work were not due for their Wages;. but, as the Apostle exhorts, with Good-will doing Serviceh; not answering again', and contradicting, as if thore, whom they serve, were their Equals; but paying all fit Honour to their Master or Mistress, and to every one in the Family.
They are also to obey with Diligence: To spend as much Time in Work, and follow it as closely all that Time, as can be fairly expected from them ; not with Eye-Service, as Men-Neajers, (these are the Words of Scripture, twice repeated there, but in Singleness of Heart, fearing Godk. Whatever Industry therefore a reasonable Mafter would require, when his Eye is upon them; the same, in the main, honest Servants will use, when his Eye is not upon them: For his Presence or Absence can make no Difference in their Duty. He hath agreed with them for their Time and Pains; and he must not be defrauded of them.
With Diligence must always be joined Care, that no Business be neglected, or delayed beyond its proper Season; Nothing mismanaged for Want of thinking about it; Nothing heedlesly, much less designedly, wasted and squandered; but all reasonable Frugality and good Eph. vi. 7.
* Ephi vi, 6. Col. iii. 22.
i Tit. ii. 9.
Contrivance shewn; and all fair Advantages taken, yet no other, for the Benefit of those who employ them. Every Servant would think this but common Justice in his own Case; and therefore should do it as common Justice in his Master's Cafe. Some perhaps may imagine, that their Master's Estate or Income is well able to afford them to be careless or extravagant. But the Truth is, few or no Incomes can afford this. For if it be practised in one Thing, why not in another? And what must follow, if it be practised in all? That certainly which we daily see, that Persons of the greatest Estates are distressed and ruined by it. Or though it would not distress them at all, yet a Master's Wealth is no more a Justification of Servants wasting what belongs to him, than of their stealing it: And if one be dishonest, the other must.
Now Dishonesty every Body owns to be a Crime: but every Body doth not consider fufficiently how many Sorts of it there are. Observe then, that, besides the Instances already mentioned, and the gross ones that are punishable by Law, it is dishonest in a Servant, either to take to himself, or give to another, or consent to the taking or giving, whatever he knows he is not allowed, and durst not do with his Master's Knowledge. There are, to be sure, various Degrees of this Fault; some not near so bad as others : but it is the same Kind of Fault in all of them: besides that the smaller Degrees lead to the greater. And all Dishonesty, bad as it is in other Persons, is yet worse in those who are intrusted, as Servants are; and Things put in their Power upon that Trust, which if they break, they are unfaithful, as well as unjutt.
Another Sort of Dishonesty is speaking Falsehoods : Against which I have already, in the Course of these Lectures, given 'ome Cautions, and shall give more: therefore ai present I fhall only say, that
whether Servants are gunty of it amongst themselves, or to their Masters or M stielles, whether against or in Favour of one another, or even in their own Favour, there are few