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It is a noble and a sure though perhaps, in his life, ten times more defiance of a great malice, backed with a great ridiculous than themselves : thus, that which interest ; which yet can have no advantage of was Cain's curse is become their religion. He a man, but from his own expectations of that thinks to expiate a sin, by going barefoot, something that is without himself. But if I does the penance of a goose, and only makes can make my duty my delight; if I can feast, one folly the atonement for another. Paul, and please, and caress my mind with the indeed, was scourged and beaten by the Jews, pleasures of worthy speculations or virtuous but we never read that he beat or scourged practices ; let greatness and malice vex and himself: and if they think that his keeping abridge me if they can : my pleasures are as under of his body imports so much, they must free as my will ; no more to be controlled than first prove that the body cannot be kept under my choice, or the unlimited range of my by a virtuous mind, and that the mind cannot thoughts and my desires.
be made virtuous but by a scourge ; and conNor is this kind of pleasure only out of the sequently, that thongs and whipcord are reach of any outward violence, but even those means of grace, and things necessary to salvathings also that make a much closer impression tion. The truth is, if men's religion lies no upon us, which are the irresistible decays of deeper than their skin, it is possible that they nature, have yet no influence at all upon this. may scourge themselves into very great imFor when age itself, which of all things in the provements. world will not be baffled or defied, shall begin But they will find that bodily exercise to arrest, seize, and remind us of our mortality, touches not the soul; and that neither pride, by pains, aches, deadness of limbs, and dulness nor lust, nor covetousness, nor any other vice, of
Senses ; yet then the pleasure of the mind was ever mortified by corporal disciplines : it shall be in its full youth, vigour, and freshness. is not the back, but the heart that must bleed A palsy may as well shake an oak, or a fever for sin : and consequently, that in this whole dry up a fountain, as either of them shake, course they are like men out of their way; dry up, or ir the delight of conscience. let them lash on never so fast, they are not at For it lies within, it centres in the heart, it all the nearer to their journey's end : and grows into the very substance of the soul, so howsoever they deceive themselves and others, that it accompanies a man to his grave; he they may as well expect to bring a cart as a never outlives it, and that for this cause only, soul to heaven by such means. because he cannot outlive himself,
ments they have to beguile poor, simple, And thus I have endeavoured to describe unstable souls with, I know not; but surely the excellency of that pleasure that is to be the practical, casuistical, that is, the principal, found in the ways of a religious wisdom, by vital part of their religion, savours very little those excellent properties that do attend it'; of spirituality. which, whether they reach the description that And now, upon the result of all, I suppose, has been given them, or no, every man may that to exhort men to be religious, is only in convince himself, by the best of demonstra- other words to exhort them to take their tions, which is his own trial.
pleasure. A pleasure, high, rational, and Now from all this discourse, this I am sure is angelical ; a pleasure embased with no appena most natural and direct consequence, that if dant sting, no consequent loathing, no remorses
of religion are ways of pleasantness, or bitter farewells : but such an one, as being then such as are not ways of pleasantness are honey in the mouth, never turns to gall or not truly and properly ways of religion. gravel in the belly. A pleasure made for the Upon which ground it is easy to see what soul, and the soul for that; suitable to its judgment is to be passed upon all those spirituality, and equal to all its capacities. affected, uncommanded, absurd austerities, so Such an one as grows fresher upon enjoyment, much prized and exercised by some of the and though continually fed upon, yet is never Romish profession. Pilgrimages, going bare- devoured. A pleasure that a man may call as foot, hair-shirts, and whips, with other such properly his own, as his soul and his congospel artillery, are their only helps to devo- science; neither liable to accident, nor exposed tion : things never enjoined, either by the to injury. It is the foretaste of heaven, and prophets under the Jewish, or by the apostles the earnest of eternity. In a word, it is such under the Christian economy; who yet surely an one, as being begun in grace, passes into understood the proper and the most efficacious glory, blessedness, and immortality, and those instruments of piety, as well as any confessor pleasures that “neither eye has seen, nor ear or friar of all the order of Saint Francis, or heard, nor has it entered into the heart of man any casuist whatsoever.
to conceive." It seems, that with them a man sometimes To which God of his mercy vouchsafe to cannot be a penitent, unless he also turns bring us all : to whom be rendered and vagabond, and foots it to Jerusalem ; or wan ascribed, as is most due, all praise, might, ders over this or that part of the world to visit majesty, and dominion, both now and for the shrine of such or such a pretended saint:
OF THE CREATION OF MAN IN THE IMAGE OF GOD.
PREACHED AT THE CATHEDRAL CHURCH OF SAINT PAUL'S, Nov. 9, 1662.
TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE
When I consider how impossible it is for a person of my condition to produce, and consequently how imprudent to attempt, any thing in proportion either to the ampleness of the body you represent, or of the places you bear, I should be kept from venturing so poor a piece, designed to live but an hour, in so lasting a publication ; did not what your civility calls a request, your greatness render a command. The truth is, in things not unlawful, great persons cannot be properly said to request; because, all things considered, they must not be denied. To me it was honour enough to have your audience, enjoyment enough to behold your happy change, and to see the same city, the metropolis of loyalty and of the kingdom, to behold the glory of English churches reformed, that is, delivered from the reformers; and to find, at least, the service of tbe church repaired, though not the building; to see Saint Paul's delivered from beasts here, as well as Saint Paul at Ephesus; and to view the church tbronged only with troops of auditors, not of horse. This I could fully have acquiesced in, and received a large personal reward in my particular share of the public joy; but since you are farther pleased, I will not say by your judgment to approve, but by your acceptance to encourage, the raw endeavours of a young divine, I shall take it for an opportunity, not as others in their sage prudence use to do, to quote three or four texts of Scripture, and to tell you how you are to rule the city out of a Concordance ; Do, I bring not instructions, but what much better befits both you and myself, your commendations. For I look upon your city as the great and magnificent stage of business, and by consequence the best place of improvement; for from the school we go to the university, but from the university to London. And, therefore, as in your city meetings you must be esteemed the most considerable body of the nation ; so, met in the church, I look upon you as an auditory fit to be waited on, as you are, by both universities. And when I remember how instrumental you have been to recover this universal settlement, and to retrieve the old spirit of loyalty to kings, (as an ancient testimony of which you bear not the sword in vain ;) I seem in a manner deputed from Oxford, n t $) much a preacher to supply a course, as orator to present her thanks. As for the ensuing discourse, which (lest I chance to be traduced for a plagiary by him who has played the thief) I think fit to tell the world by the way, was one of those that by a worthy hand were stolen from me in the king's chapel, and are still detained ; and to which now accidentally published by your honour's order, your patronage must give both value and protection. You will find me in it not to have pitched upon any subject, that men's guilt, and the consequent of guilt, their concernment, might render liable to exception; not to have rubbed up the memory of what some heretofore in the city did, which more and better now detest, and therefore expiate : but my subject is inoffensive, harmless, and innocent as the state of innocence itself, and, I hope, suitable to the present design and genius of this nation; which is, or should be, to return to that innocence, which it lost long since the Fall. Briefly, my business is, by describing what man was in his first estate, to upbraid him with what he is in his present : between whom, innocent and fallen, (that in a word I may suit the subject to the place of my discourse,) there is as great an unlikeness, as between Saint Paul's a cathedral, and Saint Paul's a stable. But I must not forestall myself, nor transcribe the work into the dedication. I shall now only desire you to accept the issue of your own requests; the gratification of which I have here consulted so much before my own reputation; while, like the poor widow, I endeavour to shew my officiousness by an offering, though I betray my poverty by the measure ; ant so much caring, though I appear neither preacher nor scholar, (which terms we have been taught upon good reason to distinguish,) so I may in this but shew myself your honour's very humble servant,
ROBERT SOUTH. WORCESTER House, Nov. 24, 1662.
Aristotle held, that it streamed by con“So God created man in his own image, in the image of God
natural result and emanation from God, the created he him."-GENESIS, i. 27.
infinite and eternal mind, as the light issues
from the sun ; so that there was no instant of How hard it is for natural reason to discover duration assignable of God's eternal existence, a creation before revealed, or being revealed in which the world did not also coexist. to believe it, the strange opinions of the old Others held a fortuitous concourse of atoms; philosophers, and the infidelity of modern but all seem jointly to explode a creation; atheists, is too sad a demonstration. To run still beating upon this gro that to produce the world back to its first original and infancy, something out of nothing is impossible and and (as it were) to view nature in its cradle, incomprehensible : incomprehensible, indeed, and trace the outgoings of the Ancient of days I grant, but not therefore impossible. There is in the first instance and specimen of his not the least transaction of sense and motion creative power, is a research too great for any in the whole man, but philosophers are at a mortal inquiry : and we might continue our loss to comprehend ; I am sure they are to exscrutiny to the end of the world, before natural plain it. Wherefore it is not always rational reason would be able to find out when it began. to measure the truth of an assertion by the
Epicurus's discourse concerning the original standard of our apprehension. of the world is so fabulous and ridiculously, But to bring things even to the bare percepmerry, that we may well judge the design of tions of reason, I appeal to any one, who shal his philosophy to have been pleasure, and not impartially reflect upon the ideas and concepinstruction,
tions of his own mind, whether he doth not
find it as easy and suitable to his natural did this image of God consist ? Why, in that notions, to conceive that an infinite almighty power and dominion that God gave Adain power might produce a thing out of nothing, over the creatures : in that he was vouched and make that to exist de novo, which did not his immediate deputy upon earth, the viceroy exist before ; as to conceive the world to have of the creation, and lord-lieutenant of the had no beginning, but to have existed from world. But that this power and dominion is eternity : which, were it so proper for this not adequately and formally the image of place and exercise, I could easily demonstrate God, but only a part of it, is clear from hence; to be attended with no small train of absurdi because then he that had most of this, would ties. But then, besides that the acknowledging have most of God's image : and consequently of a creation is safe, and the denial of it dan- Nimrod had more of it than Noah, Saul than gerous and irreligious, and yet not more (per- Samuel, the persecutors than the martyrs, and haps much less) demonstrable than the affir Cæsar than Christ himself, which to assert is mative; so, over and above, it gives me this a blasphemous paradox. And if the image of advantage, that, let it seem never so strange, God is only grandeur, power, and sovereignty, uncouth, and impossible, the nonplus of my certainly we have been hitherto much misreason will yield a fairer opportunity to my taken in our duty: and hereafter are by all faith.
means to beware
making ourselves unlike In this chapter, we have God surveying the God, by too much self-denial and humility. works of the creation, and leaving this general | I am not ignorant that some may distinguish impress or character upon them, that they | between covoia and dúvapis, between a lawful were exceeding good. What an omnipotence authority and actual power : and affirm, wrought, we have an omniscience to approve. that God's image consists only in the former; But as it is reasonable to imagine that there which wicked princes, such as Saul and Nimis more of design, and consequently more of rod, have not, though they possess the latter. perfection in the last work, we have God here But to this I answer,giving his last stroke, and summing up all 1. That the Scripture neither makes nor into man, the whole into a part, the universe owns such a distinction; nor any where asserts, into an individual ; so that, whereas in other that when princes begin to be wicked, they creatures we have but the trace of his foot cease of right to be governors. Add to this, steps, in man we have the draught of his that when God renewed this charter of man's, hand. In him were united all the scattered sovereignty over the creatures to Noah and perfections of the creature ; all the graces and his family, we find no exception at all, but ornaments, all the airs and features of being, that Cham stood as fully invested with this were abridged into this small, yet full system right as any of his brethren. of nature and divinity ; as we might well 2. But, secondly, this savours of something imagine that the great artificer would be more ranker than Socinianism, even the tenets of than ordinarily exact in drawing his own the fifth monarchy, and of sovereignty founded picture.
only upon saintship; and therefore fitter to be The work that I shall undertake from these answered by the judge, than by the divine ; words, shall be to shew what this image of and to receive its confutation at the bar of God in man is, and wherein it doth consist. justice, than from the pulpit. Which I shall do these two ways, – 1. Nega Having now made our way through this tively, by shewing wherein it does not consist. false opinion, we are in the next place to lay 2. Positively, by shewing wherein it does. down positively what this image of God in
For the first of these, we are to remove the man is. It is, in short, that universal rectierroneous opinion of the Socinians. They tude of all the faculties of the soul, by which deny that the image of God consisted in any they stand apt and disposed to their respective habitual perfections that adorned the soul of offices and operations: which will be more fully Adam; but, as to his understanding, bring him set forth, by taking a distinct survey of it, in in void of all notion, a rude unwritten blank; the several faculties belonging to the soul. making him to be created as much an infant I. In the understanding. as others are born ; sent into the world only II. In the will. to read and to spell out a God in the works of III. In the passions or affections. creation, to learn by degrees, till at length his I. And first for its noblest faculty, the understanding grew up to the stature of his understanding : it was then sublime, clear, body. Also without any inherent habits of and aspiring, and, as it were, the soul's upper virtue in his will; thus divesting him of all, region, lofty and serene, free from the vapours and stripping him to his bare essence ; so that and disturbances of the inferior affections. all the perfection they allowed his under- It was the leading, controlling faculty; all standing was aptness and docility; and all the passions wore the colours of reason
it that they attributed to his will was a possi- did not so much persuade, as command; it bility to be virtuous.
was not consul, but dictator. Discourse was But wherein, then, according to their opinion, then almost as quick as intuition ; it was
nimble in proposing, firm in concluding; it He came into the world a philosopher, which could sooner determine than now it can dis sufficiently appeared by his writing the nature pute. Like the sun, it had both light and of things upon their names ; he could view agility; it knew no rest, but in motion; no essences in themselves, and read forms withquiet, but in activity. It did not so properly
out the comment of their respective properapprehend, as irradiate the object; not so ties : he could see consequents yet dormant in much find, as make things intelligible. It did their principles, and effects yet unborn, and arbitrate upon the several reports of sense, and in the womb of their causes : his understandall the varieties of imagination; not like a ing could almost pierce into future contingents, drowsy judge, only hearing, but also directing his conjectures improving even to prophecy, or their verdict. In sum, it was vegete, quick, the certainties of prediction; till his fall, he was and lively; open as the day, untainted as thé ignorant of nothing but of sin ; or at least it morning, full of the innocence and sprightli- rested in the notion, without the smart of the ness of youth; it gave the soul a bright and a experiment. Couldany difficulty have been profull view into all things; and was not only a posed, the resolution would have been as early window, but itself the prospect. Briefly, there as the proposal ; it could not have had time to is as much difference between the clear repre- settle into doubt. Like a better Archimedes, sentations of the understanding then, and the the issue of all his inquiries was an ev pnxa, an obscure discoveries that it makes now, as there súpnnce, the offspring of his brain without the is between the prospect of a casement and of a sweat of his brow. Study was not then a key-hole.
duty, night-watchings were needless; the light Now, as there are two great functions of the of reason wanted not the assistance of a candle. soul, contemplation and practice, according to This is the doom of fallen man, to labour in that general division of objects, some of which the fire, to seek truth in profundo, to exhaust only entertain our speculation, others also his time and impair his health, and perhaps employ our actions ; so the understanding to spin out his days, and himself, into one with relation to these, not becanse of any dis- pitiful, controverted conclusion. There was tinction in the faculty itself, is accordingly then no poring, no struggling with memory, divided into speculative and practick; in both no straining for invention ; his faculties were of which the image of God was then apparent. quick and expedite; they answered without
1. For the understanding speculative. There knocking, they were ready upon the first are some general maxims and notions in the summons, there was freedom and firmness in mind of man, which are the rules of discourse all their operations. I confess, it is as difficult and the basis of all philosophy. As, that the for us, who date our ignorance from our first same thing cannot at the same time be, and being, and were still bred up with the same not be; that the whole is bigger than a part; infirmities about us with which we were that two dimensions, severally equal to á born, to raise our thonghts and imaginations to third, must also be equal to one another. those intellectual perfections that attended our Aristotle, indeed, affirms the mind to be at nature in the time of innocence, as it is for a first a mere rasa tabula ; and that these notions peasant bred up in the obscurities of a cottage, are not ingenite, and imprinted by the finger to fancy in his mind the unseen splendours of nature, but by the later and more languid of a court. But by rating positives by their impressions of sense ; being only the reports privatives, and other arts of reason, by which of observation, and the result of so many discourse supplies the want of the reports of repeated experiments.
sense, we may collect the excellency of the But to this I answer two things,
understanding then, by the glorious remain(1.) That these notions are universal; and ders of it now, and guess at the stateliness of what is universal must needs proceed from the building, by the magnificence of its ruins. some universal, constant principle, the same All those arts, rarities, and inventions, which in all particulars, which here can be nothing vulgar minds gaze at, the ingenious pursue, else but human nature.
and all admire, are but the reliques of an (2.) These cannot be infused by observation, intellect defaced with sin and time. We adbecause they are the rules by which men take mire it now, only as antiquaries do a piece of their first apprehensions and observations of old coin, for the stamp it once bore, and not things, and therefore in order of nature must for those vanishing lineaments and disappearneeds precede them: as the being of the rule ing draughts that rernain upon it at present. must be before its application to the thing And certainly that must needs have been very directed by it. From whence it follows, that glorious, the decays of which are so admirable. these were notions, not descending from us, He that is comely when old and decrepit, but born with us ; not our offspring, but our surely was very beautiful when he was young. brethren : and (as I may so say) such as we An Aristotle was but the rubbish of an Adam, were taught without the help of a teacher. and Athens but the rudiments of Paradise.
Now it was Adam's happiness in the state 2. The image of God was no less resplenof innocence to have these clear and unsullied. I dent in that which we call man's practical
understanding; namely, that storehouse of and advice, counsel and command, between a the soul, in which are treasured up the rules companion and a governor. of action and the seeds of morality. Where, And thus much for the image of God, as it we must observe, that many who deny all shone in man's understanding. connate notions in the speculative intellect, do II. Let us in the next place take a view of yet admit them in this. Now of this sort are it, as it was stamped upon the will. It is much these maxims; that God is to be worshipped ; disputed by divines concerning the power of that parents are to be honoured ; that a man's man's will to good and evil in the state of word is to be kept, and the like : which, being innocence; and upon very nice and dangerous of universal influence as to the regulation of precipices stand their determinations on either the behaviour and converse of mankind, are side. Some hold, that God invested him with the ground of all virtue and civility, and the a power to stand, so that in the strength of foundation of religion.
that power received, he might, without the It was the privilege of Adam innocent, to auxiliaries of any farther influence, have dehave these notions also firm and untainted, to termined his will to a full choice of good. carry his monitor in his bosom, his law in his Others hold, that notwithstanding this power, heart, and to have such a conscience as might yet it was impossible for him to exert it in be its own casuist : and certainly those actions any good action, without a superadded assismust needs be regular, where there is an identity tance of grace, actually determining that power between the rule and the faculty. His own to the certain production of such an act. So mind taught him a due dependence upon God, that, whereas some distinguish between suffiand chalked out to him the just proportions cient and effectual grace; they order the matand measures of behaviour to his fellow-crea ter, so as to acknowledge none sufficient, but tures. He had no catechism but the creation, what is indeed effectual, and actually producneeded no study but reflection, read no book, tive of a good action. I shall not presume to but the volume of the world, and that, too, interpose dogmatically in a controversy, which not for rules to work by, but for objects to I look never to see decided. But concerning work upon. Reason was his tutor, and first the latter of these opinions, I shall only give principles his magna moralia. The decalogue these two remarks, of Moses was but a transcript, not an original. 1. That it seems contrary to the common All the laws of nations, and wise decrees of and natural conceptions of all mankind, who states, the statutes of Solon, and the twelve acknowledge themselves able and sufficient tables, were but a paraphrase upon this stand to do many things, which actually they never ing rectitude of nature, this fruitful principle do. of justice, that was ready to run out, and 2. That to assert, that God looked upon enlarge itself into suitable determinations, Adam's fall as a sin, and punished it as such, upon all emergent objects and occasions. when, without any antecedent sin of his, hé Justice then was neither blind to discern, nor withdrew that actual grace from him, upon the lame to execute. It was not subject to be withdrawing of which it was impossible for imposed upon by a deluded fancy, nor yet to him not to fall, seems a thing that highly be bribed by a glozing appetite, for an utile or reproaches the essential equity and goodness jucundum to turn the balance to a false or of the divine nature. dishonest sentence. In all its directions of Wherefore, doubtless the will of man in the inferior faculties, it conveyed its sugges the state of innocence had an entire freedom, tions with clearness, and enjoined them with a perfect equipendency and indifference to power ; it had the passions in perfect subjec- either part of the contradiction, to stand, or tion; and though its command over them was not to stand ; to accept, or not accept the but suasive and political, yet it had the force temptation. I will grant the will of man now of coaction, and despotical. It was not then, to be as much a slave as any one will have as it is now, where the conscience has only it, and be only free to sin; that is, instead of power to disapprove, and to protest against a liberty, to have only a licentiousness; yet certhe exorbitances of the passions; and rather tainly this is not nature, but chance. We were to wish, than make them otherwise. The not born crooked; we learnt these windings voice of conscience now is low and weak, and turnings of the serpent: and therefore it chastising the passions, as old Eli did his lust cannot but be a blasphemous piece of ingraful domineering sons; “Not so, my sons, not titude to ascribe them to God, and to make so;" but the voice of conscience then was not, the plague of our nature the condition of our This should, or this ought to be done ; but, creation. This must, this shall be done. It spoke like a The will was then ductile, and pliant to legislator; the thing spoke was a law; and all the motions of right reason; it met the the manner of speaking it a new obligation. dictates of a clarified understanding half way. In short, there was as great a disparity be And the active informations of the intellect, tween the practical dictates of the understand-filling the passive reception of the will, like ing then and now, as there is between empire / form closing with matter, grew actuate into a