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Scripture, no purging out the heart and sense Sunday feels his influence, though it hears not of authors, no altering or bribing the voice of his voice. That master deprives not his family antiquity to speak for it; it needs none of all of their food, who orders a faithful steward to these laborious artifices of ignorance ; none of dispense it. Teaching is not a flow of words, all these cloaks and coverings. The Romish nor the draining of an hour-glass, but an faith indeed must be covered, or it cannot be effectual procuring, that a man comes to know kept warm, and their clergy deal with their something which he knew not before, or to religion as with a great crime ; if it is dis know it better. And therefore eloquence and covered, they are undone. But there is no ability of speech is to a church governor, as bishop of the Church of England, but accounts Tully said it was to a philosopher, “Si afferit his interest, as well as his duty, to comply atur, non repudianda; si absit, non magnopere with this precept of the apostle Paul to Titus, desideranda ;” and to find fault with such an “ These things teach and exhort."
one for not being a popular speaker, is to Now this teaching may be effected two blame a painter for not being a good musician. ways,
To teach indeed must be confessed his duty, (1.) Immediately by himself,
but then there is a teaching by example, by (2.) Mediately by others.
authority, by restraining seducers, and so reAnd first, immediately by himself. Where moving the hinderances of knowledge. And God gives a talent, the episcopal robe can be a bishop does his church, his prince, and no napkin to hide it in. Change of condition country, more service by ruling other men's changes not the abilities of nature, but makes tongues, than he can by employing his own. them more illustrious in their exercise; and And thus much for the first branch of the the episcopal dignity added to a good preach- great work belonging to a pastor of the church, ing faculty, is like the erecting of a stately which was to “ teach and to exhort.” fountain upon a spring, which still, for all 2. The second is to rule, expressed in these that, remains as much a spring as it was
words ; rebuke with all authority.”. By before, and flows as plentifully, only it flows which I doubt not but the apostle principally with the circumstance of greater state and intends church censures; and so the words are magnificence. Height of place is intended a metonymy of the part for the whole, giving only to stamp, the endowments of a private an instance in ecclesiastical censures, instead condition with lustre and authority : and, of all other ecclesiastical jurisdiction. A thanks be to God, neither the church's pro- | jurisdiction, which, in the essentials of it, is as fessed enemies, nor her pretended friends, old as Christianity, and even in those circumhave any cause to asperse her in this respect, stantial additions of secular encouragement, as having over her such bishops as are able to with which the piety and wisdom of Chrissilence the factious, no less by their preaching tian princes always thought necessary to than by their authority.
support it against the encroachments of the But then, on the other hand, let me add injurious world, much older and more venealso, that this is not so absolutely necessary, rable than any constitution that has divested as to be of the vital constitution of this func- | the church of it. tion. He may teach his diocese, who ceases But to speak directly to the thing before to be able to preach to it: for he may do it us; we see here the great apostle employing by appointing teachers, and by a vigilant the utmost of his authority in commanding exacting from them the care and the instruc- Titus to use his : and what he said to him, he tion of their respective flocks. He is the says to every Christian bishop after him, spiritual father of his diocese ; and a fatherrebuke with all authority;". This authority may see his children taught, though he him- is a spiritual sword put into the hands of self does not turn schoolmaster. It is not the every church ruler; and God put not this gift of every person nor of every age, to sword into his hands, with an intent that he harangue the multitude, to voice it high and should keep it there for no other purpose, but loud, et dominari in concionibus. And since only for fashion sake, as men use to wear one experience fits for government, and age usually by their sides. Government is an art above brings experience, perhaps the most governing the attainment of an ordinary genius, and years are the least preaching years.
requires a wider, a larger, and a more compre(2.) In the second place, therefore, there is hending soul than God has put into every a teaching mediately, by the subordinate body. The spirit which animates and acts the ministration of others; in which, since the universe, is a spirit of government; and that action of the instrumental agent is, upon all ruler that is possessed of it, is the substitute grounds of reason, to be ascribed to the prin- and vicegerent of Providence, whether in cipal, he who ordains and furnishes all his church or state : every bishop is God's curate, churches with nble preachers, is an universal Now the nature of government contains in it teacher ; he instructs where he cannot be these three parts, – present; he speaks in every mouth of his (1.) An exaction of duty from the persons diocese ; and every congregatiou of it every | placed under it.
(2.) A protection of them in the performance | in, and consequently not to interfere with of their duty:
others, different indeed in their nature, but (3.) Coercion and animadversion upon such altogether as necessary in their use.
And as neglect it. All which are, in their propor when an insolent despiser of discipline, nurtion, ingredients of that government which tured into impudence and contempt of all we call ecclesiastical.
order by a long risk of license and rebellion, (1.) And first, it implies exaction of duty shall appear before a church governor, sevefrom the persons placed under it: for it is rity and resolution are that governor's virtues, both to be confessed and lamented, that men and justice itself is his mercy; for by making are not so ready to offer it, where it is not such an one an example, (as much as in him exacted : otherwise, what means the service lies,) he will either cure him, or at least preof the church so imperfectly and by halves serve others. read over, and that by many who profess a Were indeed the consciences of men as they conformity to the rules of the church? What should be, the censures of the church might makes them mince and mangle that in their be a sufficient coercion upon them ; but being, practice, which they could swallow whole in as most of them now-a-days are, hell and their subscriptions? Why are the public damnation proof, her bare anathemas fall but prayers curtailed and left out, prayers com like so many bruta fulmina upon the obstinate posed with sobriety, and enjoined with autho- and schismatical, who are like to think themrity, only to make the more room for a long, selves shrewdly hurt (forsooth) by being cut crude, impertinent, upstart harangue before off from that body, which they choose not to be the sermon?
of; and so being punished into a quiet enjoySuch persons seem to conform (the signifi- ment of their beloved separation. Some will cation of which word they never make good) by no means allow the church any, farther only that they may despise the church's power than only to exhort and to advise ; and injunctions under the church's wing, and con this but with a proviso too, that it extends temn authority within the protection of the not to such as think themselves too wise and laws. Duty is but another English word for too great to be advised ; according to the debt; and God knows, that it is well if men hypothesis of which persons, the authority of pay their debts when they are called upon. the church, and the obliging force of all church But if governors do not remind men of, and sanctions, can bespeak men only thus,—These call them to obedience, they will find, that it and these things it is your duty to do, and if will never come as a free-will offering, no, not you will not do them, you may as well let from many who even serve at the altar. them alone. A strict and efficacious constitu
(2.) Government imports a protection and tion indeed, which invests the church with no encouragement of the persons under it, in the power at all, but where men will be so very discharge of their duty. It is not for a magis- civil as to obey it, and so at the same time pay trate to frown upon, and browbeat those who a duty, and do it a courtesy too. are hearty and exact in the management of But when in the judgment of some men the their ministry; and with a grave insignificant spiritual function, as such, must render a nod, to call a well regulated and resolved zeal, churchman, though otherwise never so discreet want of prudence and moderation. Such dis- and qualified, yet merely because he is a couraging of men in the ways of an active churchman, unfit to be intrusted by his prince conformity to the church's rules is that which with a share of that power and jurisdiction, will crack the sinews of government; for it which in many circumstances his prince has weakens the hands and damps the spirits of judged but too necessary to secure the affairs the obedient. And if only scorn and rebuke and dignity of the church, and which every shall attend men for asserting the church's thriving grazier can think himself but ill dealt dignity, and taxing the murder of kings, and with, if within his own country he is not the like, many will choose rather to neglect mounted to: it is a sign, that such discontheir duty safely and creditably, than to get a tented persons intend not that religion shall broken pate in the church's service, only to be advise them upon any other terms, than that rewarded with that which shall break their they may ride and govern their religion. hearts too.
But surely, all our kings and our parlia(3.) The third thing implied in government ments understood well enough what they did, is coercion, and animadversion upon such as when they thought fit to prop and fortify the neglect their duty; without which coercive spiritual order with some power that was power all government is but toothless and temporal ; and such is the present state of the precarious, and does not so much command as world, in the judgment of any observing eye, beg obedience. Nothing, I confess, is more that if the bishop has no other defensatives becoming a Christian, of what degree soever, but excommunication, no other power but than meekness, candour, and condescension; that of the keys, he may, for any notable effect but they are virtues that have their proper that he is like to do upon the factious and consphere and season to act and show themselves tumacious, surrender up his pastoral staff,
shut up the church, and put those keys under long passage from one to the other. He that the door.
thinks a man to the ground, will quickly And thus I have endeavoured to shew the endeavour to lay him there ; for wħile he three things included in the general nature of despises him, he arraigns and condemns him government; but to prescribe the manner of in his heart; and the after-bitterness and it in particular is neither in my power nor cruelties of his practices, are but the execuinclination : only, I suppose, the common tioners of the sentence passed before upon theory and speculation of things is free and him by his judgment. Contempt, like the open to any one whom God has sent into the planet Saturn, has first an ill aspect, and then world with some ability to contemplate, and a destroying influence. by continuing him in the world, gives him By all which, I suppose, it is sufficiently also opportunity. In all that has been said, I proved how noxious it must needs be to every do not in the least pretend to advise, or chalk governor : for, can a man respect the person out rules to my superiors; for some men whom he despises ? and can there be obecannot be fools with so good acceptance as dience, where there is not so much as respect ? others. But whosoever is called to speak upon Will the knee bend, while the heart insults ? a certain occasion, may, I conceive, without and the actions submit, while the apprehenoffence, take any text suitable to that occasion, sions rebel ? And, therefore, the most expeand having taken it, may, or at least ought, rienced disturbers and underminers of governto speak suitably to that text.
ment have always laid their first train in II. I proceed now to the second thing pro contempt, endeavouring to blow it up in the posed from the words, which is the means judgment and esteem of the subject. And assigned for the discharge of the duties men was not this method observed in the late most tioned, and exhibited under this one short flourishing and successful rebellion ? For, prescription, “Let no man despise thee :" in how studiously did they lay about them, both the handling of which I shall shew,
from the pulpit and the press, to cast a slur 1. The ill effects and destructive influence upon the king's person, and to bring his that contempt has upon government.
governing abilities under a disrepute? And 2. The groundless causes upon which church then, after they had sufficiently blasted him in rulers are frequently despised.
his personal capacity, they found it easy work 3. And lastly, the just causes that would to dash and overthrow him in his political. render them, or indeed any other rulers, Reputation is power, and consequently to worthy to be despised. All which being despise is to weaken. For where there is clearly made out, and impartially laid before contempt, there can be no awe; and where our eyes, it will be easy and obvious for every there is no awe, there will be no subjection ; one, by avoiding the evil so marked out, to and if there is no subjection, it is impossible, answer and come up to the apostle's exhorta without the help of the former distinction of tion. And,
a politic capacity, to imagine how a prince can 1. We will discourse of contempt, and the be a governor. He that makes his prince malign hostile influence it has upon govern despised and undervalued, blows a trumpet ment. As for the thing itself, every man's against him in men's breasts, beats him out of experience will inform him, that there is no his subjects' hearts, and fights him out of their action in the behaviour of one man towards affections; and after this, he may easily strip another, of which human nature is more him of his other garrisons, having already impatient than of contempt, it being a thing dispossessed him of his strongest, by dismantmade up of these two ingredients, an under- ling him of his honour, and seizing his valuing of a man upon a belief of his utter reputation. uselessness and inabisity, and a spiteful endea Nor is what has been said of princes less vour to engage the rest of the world in the true of all other governors, from highest to same belief and slight esteem of him. So that lowest, from him that heads an army, to him the immediate design of contempt is the shame that is master of a family, or of one single of the person contemned; and shame is a servant : the formal reason of a thing equally banishment of him from the good opinion of extending itself to every particular of the the world, which every man most earnestly same kind. It is a proposition of eternal desires, both upon a principle of nature and verity, that none can govern while he is of interest. For it is natural to all men to despised. We may as well imagine that there affect a good name; and he that despises a may be a king without majesty, a supreme man, libels him in his thoughts, reviles and without sovereignty. It is a paradox, and a traduces him in his judgment. And there is direct contradiction in practice ; for where also interest in the case ; for a desire to be contempt takes place, the very causes and well thought of, directly resolves itself into capacities of government cease. that owned and mighty principle of self-pre Men are so far from being governed by a servation : forasmuch as thoughts are the first despised person, that they will not so much a wheels and motives of action, and there is no be taught by him. Truth itself shall lose it:
credit, if delivered by a person that has none. much the greater part of the world ; and men As, on the contrary, be but a person in vogue must persuade us that we have lost our hearand credit with the multitude, he shall be ing and our common sense, before we can able to commend and set off whatsoever believe the contrary. But surely, the bottom he says, to authorize any nonsense, and and foundation of this behaviour towards to make popular, rambling, incoherent stuff, persons set apart for the service of God, that (seasoned with twang and tautology) pass this very relation should entitle them to such a for high rhetoric and moving preaching; peculiar scorn, can be nothing else butatheism, such, indeed, as a zealous tradesman would the growing rampant sin of the times. even live and die under. And now, I sup For, call a man oppressor, griping, covetous, pose, it is no ill topic of argumentation, or over-reaching person, and the word, indeed, to shew the prevalence of contempt by the being ill befriended by custom, perhaps sounds contrary influences of respect, which thus not well, but generally, in the apprehension (as it were) dubs every little, petit, admired of the hearer, it signifies no more, than that person, lord and commander of all his ad- such an one is a wise and a thriving, or, in mirers. And certain it is, that the ecclesias the common phrase, a notable man, which tical, as well as the civil governor, has cause to will certainly procure him a respect : and say pursue the same methods of securing and con- of another, that he is an epicure, a loose, or a firming himself, the grounds and means of vicious man, and it leaves in men no other government being founded upon the same opinion of him, than that he is a merry, pleabottom of nature in both, though the circum- sant, and a genteel person, and that he that stances and relative considerations of the taxes him is but a pedant, an inexperienced persons may differ. And I have nothing to and a morose fellow, one that does not know say more upon this head, but that if church men, nor understand what it is to eatand drink men are called upon to discharge the parts of well : but call a man priest or parson, and governors, they may, with the highest reason, you set him, in some men's esteem, ten de. expect those supports and helps that are grees below his own servant. indispensably requisite thereunto; and that But let us not be discouraged or displeased. those men are but trepanned, who are called either with ourselves or our profession, upon to govern, being invested with authority, but this account. Let the virtuosos mock, insult, bereaved of power; which, according to a and despise on, yet, after all, they shall never true and plain estimate of things, is nothing be able to droll away the nature of things, to else but to mock and betray them into a trample a pearl into a pebble, nor to make splendid and magisterial way of being ridicu- sacred things contemptible, any more than lous. And thus much for the ill effects and themselves, by such speeches, honourable. destructive influence that contempt has upon (2.) Another groundless cause of some government.
men's despising the governors of our church, 2. I pass now to the second thing, which is is their loss of that former grandeur and privi. to shew the groundless causes upon which lege that they enjoyed. But it is no real dischurch rulers are frequently despised. grace to the church merely to lose her privi
Concerning which, I shall premise this ; | leges, but to forfeit them by her fault or that nothing can be a reasonable ground of misdemeanour, of which she is not conscious. despising a man, but some fault or other whatsoever she enjoyed in this kind, she chargeable upon him; and nothing can be a readily acknowledges to have streamed from fault, that is not naturally in a man's power the royal' munificence, and the favours of the to prevent; otherwise, it is a man's unhappi- civil power shining upon the spiritual ; which ness, his mischance, or calamity, but not his favours the same power may retract and fault. Nothing can justly be despised, that gather back into itself when it pleases. And cannot justly be blamed: and it is a most we envy not the greatness and lustre of the certain rule in reason and moral philosophy, Romish clergy ; neither their scarlet gowns that where there is no choice, there can be no nor their scarlet sins. If our church cannot blame.
be great ; which is better, she can be humble, This premised, we may take notice of two and content to be reformed into as low a conusual grounds of the contempt men cast upondition as men for their own private advantage the clergy, and yet for which no man ought to would have her, who wisely tell her, that it think himself at all the more worthy to be is best and safest for her to be without any contemned.
power or temporal advantage ; like the good (1.) The first is their very profession itself ; physician, who, out of tenderness to his patient, concerning which it is a sad, but an experi- lest he should hurt himself by drinking, was mental truth, that the names derived from it, so kind as to rob him of his silver cup. The in the refined language of the present age, are Church of England glories in nothing more, made but the appellatives of scorn,
This is than that she is the truest friend to kings and not charged universally upon all, but expe to kingly government of any other church in rience will affirm, or rather proclaim it of the world; that they were the same hands and
principles that took the crown from the king's (2.) A second thing that makes a governor head, and the mitre from the bishops. It is, justly despised, is viciousness and ill morals. indeed, the happiness of some professions and Virtue is that which must tip the preacher's callings, that they can equally square them- tongue and the ruler's sceptre with authority. selves to, and thrive under, all revolutions of And, therefore, with what a controlling overgovernment; but the clergy of England nei- | powering force did our Saviour tax the sins of ther know nor affect that happiness, and are the Jews, when he ushered in his rebukes of willing to be despised for not doing so. And them with that high assertion of himself, so far is our church from encroaching upon “Who is there amongst you that convinces the civil power, as some, who are back-friends me of sin ?" Otherwise we may easily guess to both, would maliciously insinuate, that, with what impatience the world would have were it stripped of the very remainder of its heard an incestuous Herod discoursing of chasprivileges, and made as like the primitive tity, a Judas condemning covetousness, or a church for its bareness, as it is already for its Pharisee preaching against hypocrisy ; every purity, it could cheerfully, and, what is more, word must have recoiled upon the speaker. loyally, want all such privileges; and in the Guilt is that which quells the courage of the want of them pray heartily that the civil bold, ties the tongue of the eloquent, and power may flourish as much, and stand as makes greatness itself sneak and lurk, and secure from the assaults of fanatic, antimo behave itself poorly. For, let a vicious
person narchical principles, (grown to such a dreadful be in never so high command, yet still he height during the church's late confusions,) as will be looked upon but as one great vice it stood while the church enjoyed those privi- empowered to correct and chastise others. A leges. And thus much for the two groundless corrupt governor is nothing else but a reigning causes, upon which church rulers are fre- sin; and a sin in office may command any quently despised. I descend now to the thing but respect. No man can be credited
3. And last thing, which is to shew those by his place or power, who by his virtue does just causes, that would render them, or indeed not first credit that. any other rulers, worthy to be despised. Many 3. A third thing that makes a governoi might be assigned, but I shall pitch only upon justly despised, is fearfulness of, and mean four; in discoursing of which, rather the time compliances with, bold, popular offenders. than the subject will force me to be very brief. Some, indeed, account it the very spirit of
(1.) And the first is ignorance. We know policy and prudence, where men refuse to how great an absurdity our Saviour accounted come up to a law, to make the law come down it, “ for the blind to lead the blind;" and to to them. And for their so doing, have this put him that cannot so much as see, to dis infallible recompense, that they are not at all charge the office of a watch. Nothing more the more loved, but much the less feared ; exposes to contempt than ignorance. When and, which is a sure consequent of it, accorSampson's eyes were out, of a public magis- dingly respected. But believe it, it is a resotrate he was made a public sport. And when lute, tenacious adherence to well chosen prinEli was blind, we know how well he governed ciples, that adds glory to greatness, and makes his sons, and how well they governed the the face of a governor shine in the eyes of those church under him. But now the blindness that see and examine his actions. Disobeof the understanding is greater and more dience, if complied with, is infinitely encroachscandalous, especially in such a seeing age as ing, and having gained one degree of liberty ours, in which the very knowledge of former upon indulgence, will demand another upon times passes but for ignorance in a better claim. Every vice interprets a connivance dress : an age that flies at all learning, and an approbation. inquires into every thing, but especially Which being so, is it not an enormous ininto faults and defects. Ignorance, indeed, so decency, as well as a gross impiety, that any far as it may be resolved into natural inability, one who owns the name of a divine, hearing is, as to men at least, inculpable, and conse a great sinner brave it against Heaven, talk sequently, not the object of scorn, but pity; atheistically, and scoff profanely at that relibut in a governor, it cannot be without the gion, by which he owns an expectation to conjunction of the highest impudence; for be saved, if he cares to be saved at all, who bid such an one aspire to teach and to should, instead of vindicating the truth to govern? A blind man sitting in the chimney the blasphemer's teeth, think it discretion corner is pardonable enough, but sitting at the and moderation (forsooth) with a complying helm he is intolerable. If men will be igno- silence, and perhaps a smile to boot, tacitly to rant and illiterate, let them be so in private approve and strike in with the scoffer, and and to themselves, and not set their defects so go sharer both in the mirth and guilt of in an high place, to make them visible and his profane jests ? conspicuous. If owls will not be hooted at, But let such an one be assured, that even let them keep close within the tree, and not that blasphemer himself would inwardly perch upon the upper boughs.
reverence him, if rebuked by him, as, on the