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senses.

between a state of nature and a state of

grace, would see as plainly and clearly as the other; which some are pleased to scoff at in divinity, so, could we infuse the inclinations and prinwho think that they confute all that they ciples of a virtuous person into him that laugh at, not knowing that it may be solidly prosecutes his debauches with the greatest evinced by mere reason and philosophy. keenness of desire and sense of delight, he

These two considerations being premised, would loathe and reject them as heartily as namely, that pleasure implies a proportion he now pursues them. Diogenes, being asked and agreement to the respective states and at a feast, why he did not continue eating as conditions of men ; and that the state of men the rest did, answered him that asked him by nature is vastly different from the state with another question, Pray, why do you eat? into which grace or virtue transplants them; Why, says he, for my pleasure. Why, so, all that objection levelled against the foregoing says Diogenes, do I abstain for my pleasure. assertion is very easily resolvable.

And therefore the vain, the vicious, and For there is no doubt but a man, while he luxurious person argues at an bigb rate of resigns himself up to the brutish guidance of inconsequence, when he makes his particular sense and appetite, has no relish at all for the desires the general measure of otlier men's spiritual, refined delights of a soul clarified by delights. But the case is so plain, that I grace and virtue. The pleasures of an angel shall not upbraid any man's understanding, can never be the pleasures of a hog. But this by endeavouring to give it any farther illusis the thing that we contend for ; that a man, tration. having once advanced himself to a state of But still, after all, I must not deny, that superiority over the control of his inferior the change and passage from a state of nature appetites, finds an infinitely more solid and to a state of virtue is laborious, and consesublime pleasure in the delights proper to his quently irksome and unpleasant; and to this reason, than the same person had ever con is that all the forementioned expressions of veyed to him by the bare ministry of his our Saviour do allude. But surely the base

His taste is absolutely changed, and ness of one condition, and the generous therefore that which pleased him formerly, excellency of the other, is a sufficient argubecomes flat and insipid to his appetite, now ment to induce any one to a change. For as grown more masculine and severe.

For as

no man would think it a desirable thing to age and maturity passes a real and a marvel preserve the itch upon himself, only for the lous change upon the diet and recreations of pleasure of scratching that attends that loaththe same person, so that no man at the years some distem per ; so neither can any man, that and vigour of thirty is either fond of sugar would be faithful to his reason, yield his ear plumbs or rattles; in like manner, when to be bored through by his domineering reason, by the assistance of grace, has pre- appetites, and so choose to serve them for vailed over, and outgrown the encroachments ever, only for those poor, thin gratifications of sense, the delights of sensuality are to such of sensuality that they are able to reward him an one but as an hobby-horse would be to a with. The ascent up the hill is hard and counsellor of state, or as tasteless as a bundle tedious, but the serenity and fair prospect at of hay to a hungry lion. Every alteration of the top is sufficient to incite the labour of a man's condition infallibly infers an altera- undertaking it, and to reward it, being tion of his pleasures.

undertook. But the difference of these two The Athenians laughed the physiognomist conditions of men, as the foundation of their to scorn, who, pretending to read men's minds different pleasures, being thus made out, to in their foreheads, described Socrates for a press men with arguments to pass from one crabbed, lustful, proud, ill-natured person ; to another, is not directly in the way or design they knowing how directly contrary he was of this discourse. to that dirty character. But Socrates bid Yet before I come to declare positively the them forbear laughing at the man, for that he pleasures that are to be und in the ways of had given them a most exact account of his religion, one of the grand duties of which is nature; but what they saw in him so contrary stated upon repentance, a thing expressed to at the present, was from the conquest that us by the grim names of mortification, crucihe had got over his natural disposition by fixion, and the like ; and that I may not prophilosophy. And now, let any one consider, ceed only upon absolute negations, without whether that anger, that revenge, that wan some concessions; we will see whether this so tonness and ambition, that were the proper harsh, dismal, and affrighting duty of repenpleasures of Socrates, under his natural tem tance is so entirely gall, as to admit of no per of crabbed, lustful, and proud, could have mixture, no allay of sweetness, to reconcile it at all affected or enamoured the mind of the to the apprehensions of reason and nature. same Socrates, made gentle, chaste, and humble Now, repentance consists properly of two by philosophy.

things :Aristotle says, that were it possible to put 1. Sorrow for sin. a young man's eye into an old man's head, he 2. Change of life.

that by

A word briefly of them both.

are the same for the obtaining of it; and so, 1. And first of sorrow for sin. Usually the keeping a due proportion between spirituals sting of sorrow is this, that it neither removes and temporals, we neither have, nor pretend nor alters the thing we sorrow for ; and so is to greater arguments for repentance. but a kind of reproach to our reason, which will be sure to accost us with this dilemma, way of objection can lie against the truth — Either the thing we sorrow for is to be asserted, by shewing the proper qualification remedied, or it is not; if it is, why then do of the subject, to whom only the ways of we spend the time in mourning, which should wisdom can be ways of pleasantness ; for the be spent in an active applying of remedies ? farther prosecution of the matter in hand, I but if it is not, then is our sorrow vain and shall shew what are those properties that so superfluous, as tending to no real effect ; for peculiarly set off and enhance the excellency no man can weep his father or his friend ont of this pleasure. of the grave, or mourn himself out of a bank I. The first is, That it is the proper pleasure rupt condition. But this spiritual sorrow is of that part of man, which is the largest and effectual to one of the greatest and higliest most comprehensive of pleasure, and that is purposes that mankind can be concerned in. his mind : a substance of a boundless comIt is a means to avert an impendent wrath, to prehension. The mind of man is an image, disarm an offended omnipotence, and even to not only of God's spirituality, but of his infifetch a soul out of the very jaws of hell. So nity. It is not like any of the senses, limited that the end and consequence of this sorrow to this or that kind of object : as the sight sweetens the sorrow itself: and as Solomon intermeddles not with that which affects the says, “In the midst of laughter, the heart is smell; but, with an universal superintendence, sorrowful,” so in the midst of sorrow here, the it arbitrates upon and takes them in all. It heart may rejoice ; for while it mourns, it is (as I may so say) an ocean, into which reads, that “those that mourn shall be com all the little rivulets of sensation, both exterforted;" and so while the penitent weeps with nal and internal, discharge themselves. It is one eye, he views his deliverance with the framed by God to receive all, and more than other. But then for the external expressions, nature can afford it ; and so to be its own and vent of sorrow; we know that there is a motive to seek for something above nature. certain pleasure in weeping; it is the dis- Now this is that part of man to which the charge of a big and a swelling grief; of a full pleasures of religion properly belong: and that and a strangling discontent; and therefore, he in a double respect, that never had such a burden upon his heart, 1. In reference to speculation, as it sustains as to give him opportunity thus to ease it, has the name of understanding. one pleasure in this world yet to come.

2. In reference to practice, as it sustains 2. As for the other part of repentance, the name of conscience. which is change of life, this, indeed, may be 1. And first for speculation : the pleasures troublesome in the entrance; yet it is but the of which have been sometimes so great, so first bold onset, the first resolute violence and intense, so engrossing of all the powers of the invasion upon a vicious habit, that is so sharp soul, that there has been no room left for any and afflicting. Every impression of the lancet other pleasure. It has so called together all cuts, but it is the first only that smarts. Be the spirits to that one work, that there has sides, it is an argument hugely unreasonable, been no supply to carry on the inferior opeto plead the pain of passing from a vicious rations of nature. Contemplation feels no estate, unless it were proved, that there was hunger, nor' is sensible of any thirst, but of none in the continuance under it: but surely, that after knowledge. How frequent and when we read of the service, the bondage, and exalted a pleasure did David find from his the captivity of sinners, we are not entertained meditation in the divine law! “All the day only with the air of words and metaphors, long it was the theme of his thoughts.” The and, instead of truth, put off with similitudes affairs of state, the government of his kingdom, Let' him that says it is a trouble to refrain might indeed employ, but it was this only from a debauch, convince us, that it is not a that refreshed his mind. greater to undergo one; and that the confessor How short of this are the delights of the did not impose a shrewd penance upon the epicure ! How vastly disproportionate are the drunken man, by bidding him go and be pleasures of the eating and of the thinking drunk again ; and that lisping, raging, redness man! Indeed as different as the silence of au of eyes, and what is not fit to be named in Archimedes in the study of a problem, and such an audience, is not more toilsome, than the stillness of a sow at her wash. Nothing to be clean, and quiet, and discreet, and re is comparable to the pleasure of an active and spected for being so. All the trouble that is a prevailing thought: a thought prevailing in it, is the trouble of being sound, being cured, over the difficulty and obscurity of the object, and being recovered. But if there be great and refreshing the soul with new discoveries arguments for health, then certainly there and images of things; and thereby extending

the bounds of apprehension, and (as it were) great and noble ; forasmuch as they afford enlarging the territories of reason.

perpetual matter and employment to the Now this pleasure of the speculation of inquisitiveness of human reason ; and so are divine things is advanced upon a double large enough for it to take its full scope and account,

range in : which, when it has sucked and (1.) The greatness.

drained the utmost of an object, naturally (2.) The newness of the object.

lays it aside, and neglects it as a dry and (1.) And first for the greatness of it. It is empty thing. no less than the great God himself, and that (2.) As the things belonging to religion both in his nature and his works. For the entertain our speculation with great objects, eye of reason, like that of the eagle, directs so they entertain it also with new : and itself chiefly to the sun, to a glory that neither novelty, we know, is the great parent of admits of a superior nor an equal. Religion pleasure; upon which account it is that men carries the soul to the study of every divine are so much pleased with variety, and variety attribute.

is nothing else but a continued novelty. The It possesses it with the amazing thoughts Athenians, who were the professed and most of omnipotence; of a power able to fetch up diligent improvers of their reason, made it such a glorions fabric, as this of the world, their whole business to hear or to tell some out of the abyss of vanity and nothing, and new thing: for the truth is, newness, especially able to throw it back into the same original in great matters, was a worthy entertainment nothing again. It drowns us in the specula for a searching mind; it was (as I may so tion of the divine omniscience; that can say) an high taste, fit for the relish of an maintain a steady infallible comprehension of Athenian reason. And thereupon the mere all events in themselves contingent and acci- unheard of strangeness of Jesus and the resurdental ; and certainly know that which does rection, made them desirous to hear it disnot certainly exist. It confounds the greatest coursed of to them again, (Acts, xvii. 23.) But subtilties of speculation with the riddles of how would it have employed their searching God's omnipresence, that can spread a single faculties, had the mystery of the Trinity, and individual substance through all spaces; and the incarnation of the Son of God, and the yet without any commensuration of parts to whole economy of man's redemption, been any, or circunscription within any, though explained to them! For how could it ever totally in every one. And then for his eter enter into the thoughts of reason, that a satisnity; which nonpluses the strongest and faction could be paid to an infinite justice ? clearest conception, to comprehend how ono Or that two natures, so inconceivably difsingle act of duration should measure all ferent as the human and divine, could unite periods and portions of time, without any of into one person? The knowledge of these the distinguishing parts of succession. Like things could derive from nothing else but wise for his justice; which shall prey upon pure revelation, and consequently must be the sinner for ever, satisfying itself by a per purely new to the highest discourses of mere petual miracle, rendering the creature im nature. Now that the newness of an object mortal in the midst of the flames; always so exceedingly pleases and strikes the mind, consuming, but never consumed. With the appears from this one consideration, that like wonders we may entertain our specula every thing pleases more in expectation than tions from his mercy; his beloved, his trium fruition ; and expectation supposes a thing as phant attribute; an attribute, if it were yet new, the hoped for discovery of which is possible, something more than infinite; for the pleasure that entertains the expecting and even his justice is so, and his mercy transcends inquiring mind : whereas actual discovery (as that. Lastly, we may contemplate upon his it were) rifles and deflowers the newness and supernatural, astonishing works : particularly freshness of the object, and so, for the most in the resurrection, and reparation of the same part, makes it cheap, familiar, and contempnumerical body, by a reunion of all the scat tible. tered parts, to be at length disposed of into It is clear, therefore, that, if there be any an estate of eternal wo or bliss; as also the pleasure to the mind from speculation, and if greatness and strangeness of the beatific this pleasure of speculation be advanced by vision ; how a created eye should be so forti the greatness and newness of the things confied, as to bear all those glories that stream templated upon, all this is to be found in the from the fountain of uncreated light, the ways of religion. meanest expression of which light is, that it 2. In the next place, religion is a pleasure is inexpressible. Now what great and high to the mind, as it respects practice, and so objects are these for a rational contemplation sustains the name of conscience. And conto busy itself upon! Heights that scorn the science undoubtedly is the great repository reach of our prospect ; and depths in which and magazine of all those pleasures that can the tallest reason will never touch the bottom : afford any solid refreshment to the soul. For yet surely the plcasure arising from thence is when this is calm, and serene, and absolving

then properly a man enjoys all things, and which, what pleasure it can be, is hard to what is more, himself; for that he must do, conceive; all that is of it, dwells upon the before he can enjoy any thing else. But it is tip of his tongue, and within the compass of only a pious life, led exactly by the rules of his palate : a worthy prize for a man to pur. a severe religion, that can authorize a man's chase with the loss of his time, his

reason, and conscience to speak comfortably to him : it is himself. this that must word the sentence, before the Nor is that man less deceived, that thinks conscience can pronounce it, and then it will to maintain a constant tenure of pleasure, by do it with majesty and authority: it will not a continual pursuit of sports and recreations: whisper, but proclaim a jubilee to the mind ; for it is most certainly true of all these things, it will not drop, but pour in oil upon the that as they refresh a man when he is weary, so wounded heart. And is there any pleasure they weary him when he is refreshed; which comparable to that which springs from hence ? is an evident demonstration that God never The pleasure of conscience is not only greater designed the use of them to be continual ; by than all other pleasures, but may also serve putting such an emptiness in them, as should instead of them : for they only please and so quickly fail and Iurch the expectation. affect the mind in transitu, in the pitiful nar The most voluptuous and loose person row compass of actual fruition; whereas that breathing, were he but tied to follow his of conscience entertains and feeds it a long hawks and his hounds, his dice and his courttime after with durable, lasting reflections. ships every day, would find it the greatest

And thus much for the first ennobling pro- torment and calamity that could befall him ; perty of the pleasure belonging to religion, he would fly to the mines and the galleys for namely, That it is the pleasure of the mind, his recreation, and to the spade and the and that both as it relates to speculation, and mattock for a diversion from the misery of is called the understanding, and as it relates a continual unintermitted pleasure. to practice, and is called the conscience.

But, on the contrary, the providence of God II. The second ennobling property of it is, has so ordered the course of things, that there That it is such a pleasure as never satiates or is no action, the usefulness of which has made wearies : for it properly affects the spirit, and it the matter of duty, and of a profession, but a spirit feels no weariness, as being privileged a man may bear the continual pursuit of it, from the causes of it. But can the epicure without loathing or satiety. The same shop say so of any of the pleasures that he so and trade that employs a man in his youth, much dotes upon? Do they not expire, employs him also in his age. Every morning while they satisfy? And after a few minutes' he rises fresh to his hammer and his an vil; refreshment, determine in loathing and un- he passes the day singing ; custom has natuquietness ? How short is the interval between ralized his labour to him : his shop is his a pleasure and a burden? How undiscernible element, and he cannot with any enjoyment the transition from one to the other ? Pleasure of himself live out of it. Whereas no custom dwells no longer upon the appetite, than the can make the painfulness of a debauch easy necessities of nature, which are quickly and or pleasing to a man ; since nothing can be easily provided for; and then all that follows pleasant that is unnatural. But now, if God is a load and an oppression. Every morsel to has interwoven such a pleasure with the works a satisfied hunger, is only a new labour to a of our ordinary calling ; how much superior tired digestion. Every draught to him that and more refined must that be, that arises has quenched his thirst, is but a farther from the survey of a pious and well governed quenching of nature ; a provision for rheum life ! Surely, as much as Christianity is nobler and diseases, a drowning of the quickness and than a trade. activity of the spirits.

And then, for the constant freshness of it; He that prolongs his meals, and sacrifices it is such a pleasure as can never cloy or overhis time, as well as his other conveniences, to work the mind : for surely no man was ever his luxury, how quickly does he out-sit bis weary of thinking, much less of thinking that pleasure ! And then, how is all the following he had done well or virtuously, that he had time bestowed upon ceremony and surfeit! conquered such and such a temptation, or till at length, after a long fatigue of eating, offered violence to any of his 'exorbitant and drinking, and babbling, he concludes the desires. This is a delight that grows and great work of dining genteelly, and so makes improves under thought and reflection : and à shift to rise from table, that he may lie while it exercises, does also endear itself to down upon his bed : where, after he has slept the mind ; at the same time employing and himself into some use of himself, by much ado inflaming the meditations. All pleasures that he staggers to his table again, and there acts affect the body, must needs weary, because over the same brutish scene; so that he they transport; and all transportation is a passes his whole life in a dozed condition violence; and no violence can be lasting, but between sleeping and waking, with a kind of determines upon the falling of the spirits, drowsiness and confusion upon his senses ; which are not able to keep up that height of

man.

inotion that the pleasure of the senses raises hate as heartily, and ten times more eagerly them to; and, therefore, how inevitably than ever he loved ? And then to be an does an immoderate laughter end in a sigh? | enemy, and once to have been a friend, does which is only nature's recovering itself after it not imbitter the rupture, and aggravate the a force done to it. But the religious pleasure calamity? But admitting that my friend of a well disposed mind moves gently, and continues so to the end ; yet in the meantime, therefore constantly ; it does not affect by is he all perfection, all virtue, and discretion { rapture and ecstasy ; but is like the pleasure Has he not humours to be endured, as well as of health, which is still and sober, yet greater kindnesses to be enjoyed? And am I sure to and stronger, than those that call up the smell the rose, without sometimes feeling the senses with grosser and more affecting impres- thorn ? sions. God has given no man a body as And then, lastly, for company; though it strong as his appetites ; but has corrected the may reprieve a man from his melancholy, boundlessness of his voluptuous desires, by yet it cannot secure him from, his conscience, stinting his strength, and contracting his nor from sometimes being alone. And what capacities.

is all that a man enjoys, from a week's, a But to look upon those pleasures also that month's, or a year's converse, comparable to have an higher object than the body; as those what he feels for one hour, when his conthat spring from honour and grandeur of con science shall take him aside, and rate him by dition; yet we shall find, that even these are himself? not so fresh and constant, but the mind can In short, run over the whole circle of all nauseate them, and quickly feel the thinness earthly pleasures, and I dare affirm, that had of a popular breath. Those that are so fond not God secured a man a solid pleasure from of applause while they pursue it, how little do his own actions, after he had rolled from one they taste it when they have it! Like light- to another, and enjoyed them all, he would bo ning, it only flashes upon the face, and is forced to complain, that either they were not gone; and it is well if it does not hurt the indeed pleasures, or that pleasure was not

But for greatness of place, though it is satisfaction. fit and necessary that some persons in the III. The third ennobling property of the world should be in love with a splendid servi- pleasure that accrues to a man from religion, tude; yet certainly they must be much be is, that it is such an one as is in nobody's holden to their own fancy, that they can be power, but only in his that has it; so that he pleased at it. For he that rises up early, and who has the property may be also sure of the goes to bed late, only to receive addresses, to perpetuity. And tell me so of any outward read and answer petitions, is really as much enjoyment that mortality is capable of. We tied and abridged in his freedom, as he that are generally at the mercy of men's rapine, waits all that time to present one. And what avarice, and violence, whether we shall be pleasure can it be to be encumbered with happy or no. For if I build my felicity upon dependencies, thronged and surrounded with niy estate or reputation, I am happy as long petitioners ? And those perhaps sometimes as the tyrant or the railer will give me leave all suitors for the same thing: whereupon all to be so. But when my concernment takes but one will be sure to depart grumbling, up no more room or compass than myself ; because they miss of what they think their then so long as I know where to breathe and due : and even that one scarce thankful, to exist, I know also where to be happy : for because he thinks he has no more than his I know I may be so in my own breast, in the due. In a word, if it is a pleasure to be court of my own conscience; where; if I can envied and shot at, to be maligned standing, but prevail with myself to be innocent, I need and to be despised falling, to endeavour that bribe neither judge nor officer to be pronounced which is impossible, which is to please all, so. The pleasure of the religious man is an and to suffer for not doing it; then is it a easy and a portable pleasure, such an one as pleasure to be great, and to be able to dispose he carries about in his bosom, without alarming of men's fortunes and preferments.

either the eye or envy of the world. A man But farther, to proceed from hence to yet putting all his pleasures into this one, is like an higher degree of pleasure, indeed the à traveller's putting all his goods into one highest on this side that of religion; which is jewel ; the value is the same, and the conthe pleasure of friendship and conversation. venience greater. Friendship must confessedly be allowed the There is nothing that can raise a man to top, the flower, and crown of all temporal that generous absoluteness of condition, as enjoyments. Yet has not this also its Haws neither to cringe, to fawn, or to depend and its dark side? For is not my friend a meanly; but that which gives him that hapman; and is not friendship subject to the piness within himself, for which men depend same mortality and change that men are ? upon others. For surely I need salute no great And in case à man loves, and is not loved man's threshold, sneak to none of his friends again, does he not think that he has cause to or servants, to speak a good word for me to

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