« AnteriorContinuar »
dare undertake, that if this one thing had upon an able, well principled schoolmaster, been faithfully and constantly practised, even as one of the most meritorious subjects in any but since the late restoration, (which came prince's dominions that can be ; and every upon these poor kingdoms like life from the such school, under such a master, as a semidead) the fanatics had never been so consider nary of loyalty and a nursery of allegiance. able, as to cause those terrible convulsions in Nay, I take schoolmasters to have a more church and state, and those misunderstandings powerful influence upon the spirits of men between the king and his people, which we than preachers themselves. Forasmuch as have seen and trembled at, and must expect they have to deal with younger and tenderer to see, as long as the same spirit, which go- minds, and consequently have the advantage verned in forty-one, continues still so power- of making the first and deepest impressions ful (as it does) amongst us. For I am sure upon them. It being seldom found that the no king and that can ever reign quietly pulpit mends what the school has marred, together,
any more than a fault in the first concoction But some perhaps may here very sagely is ever corrected by the second. object, - Is not this the way to sour and But now, if their power is so great, and spoil the minds of children, by keeping the their influence so strong, surely it concerns remembrance of the late rebellion always them to use it to the utmost for the benefit of fresh upon them? I answer, No; no more their country. And for this purpose, let them than to warn them against poisons, pits, and fix this as an eternal rule or principle in the precipices, is likely to endanger their lives ; or instruction of youth, that care is to be had of to tell them by what ill courses men come to their manners in the first place, and of their the gallows is the ready way to bring them learning in the next. And here, as the founthither. No, nothing can be too much hated dation and groundwork of all morality, let by children, which cannot be too much avoided youth be taught betimes to obey, and to know by men. And since vice never loses its hold that the very relation between teacher and where it keeps its reputation, the minds of learner imports superiority and subjection. youth can never be sufficiently fortified against And therefore, let masters be sure to inure villainous and base actions, but by a deep and young minds to an early awe and reverence early abhorrence, caused by a faithful repre. of government, by making the first instance sentation of them. So preposterous a method of it in themselves, and maintaining the will it be found to bring a crime out of fashion, authority of a master over them sacred and by making panegyrics upon the criminal. inviolable ; still remembering, that none is
In short, let parents prevent and seize the or can be fit to be a teacher, who understands very first notions and affections of their chil- not how to be a master. For every degree of dren, by engaging them, from the very first, obstinacy in youth is one step to rebellion. in a hatred of rebellion, and that, if possible. And the very same restive humour which as strong as nature, as irreconcileable as anti makes a young man slight his master in the pathy, and so early, that they themselves may school, and despise his tutor in the university, not remember when it began, but that, for (a thing lately much in fashion,) will make ought they know, it was even born with him fly in his prince's face in the parliament them. Let them, í say, be made almost from house. Of which, not many years since, we their very cradle to hate it, name and thing, have had some scurvy, experiments. so that their blood may rise, and their heart There is a principle of pride universally may swell at the very mention of it. In a wrapt up in the corrupt nature of man. And word, let them by a kind of preventing in- pride is naturally, refractory, and impatient stinct abhor it, even in their minority, and of rule ; and (which is most material to our they will be sure to find sufficient reason for present case) it is a vice which works and that abhorrence when they shall come to ma puts forth betimes; and consequently must turity. And so much for parents.
be encountered so too, or it will quickly carry 2. The second sort of persons intrusted with too high an head, or too stiff a neck to be the training up of youth are Schoolmasters. controlled. It is the certain companion of I know not how it comes to pass, that this folly; and both of them the proper qualifihonourable employment should find so little cations of youth; it being the inseparable prorespect (as experience shews it does) from too perty of that age to be proud and ignorant, many in the world. For there is no profes- and to despise instruction the more it needs it. sion which has, or can have, a greater influence But both of them are nuisances which educaon the public. Schoolmasters have a nega tion must remove, or the person is lost. tive upon the peace and welfare of the king And it were to be wished, I confess, that the dom. They are indeed the great depositaries constitution of man's nature were such that and trustees of the peace of it, as having the this might be done only by the mild addresses growing hopes and fears of the nation in their of reason and the gentle arts of persuasion, hands. For generally, subjects are and will and that the studies of humanity might be be such as they breed them. So that I look carried on only by the ways of humanity;
but unless youth were all made up of goods which two qualities, in conjunction, do above ness and ingenuity, this is a felicity not to be all others fit a man both for business and hoped for. And therefore it is certain, that arldress. But for want of this art, some in some cases, and with some natures, auste schools have ruined more good wits than they rity must be used ; there being too frequently have improved ; and even those which they such a mixture in the composition of youth, have sent away with soine tolerable improvethat while the man is to be instructed, there ment, like men escaped from a shipwreck, is something of the brute also to be chastised. / carry off only the remainder of those natural
But how to do this discreetly, and to the advantages, which in much greater plenty benefit of him who is so unhappy as to need they first brought with them. it, requires, in my poor opinion, a greater 3. Let not the chastisement of the body be skill, judgment, and experience, than the managed so as to make a wound which shall world generally imagines, and than, I am sure, rankle and fester in the very soul. That is, most masters of schools can truly pretend to let not children, whom nature itself would be masters of. I mean those plagosi orbilii, bear up by an innate, generous principle of those executioners, rather than instructors of emulation, be exposed, cowed, and depressed youth ; persons fitter to lay about them in a with scoffs and contumelies, (founded perhaps coach or cart, or to discipline boys before a upon the master's own guilt,) to the scorn and Spartan altar, or rather upon it, than to have contempt of their equals and emulators. For any thing to do in a Christian school. I this is, instead of rods, to chastise them with would give those pedagogical Jehus, those scorpions; and is the most direct way to furious schooldrivers, the same advice which, stupify and besot, and make them utterly the poet says, Phæbus gave his son Phaeton, regardless of themselves, and of all that is he should parcere stimulis, (the stimulus in leave in their minds such inward regrets, as driving being of the same use formerly that are never to be qualified or worn off. It is the lash is now.) Stripes and blows are the very indecent for a master to jest or play last and basest remedy, and scarce ever fit to with his scholars; but not only indecent, but be used, but upon such as carry their brains very dangerous too, in such a way to play in their backs; and have souls so dull and upon them. stupid, as to serve for little else but to keep 4. And lastly, Let it appear in all acts of their bodies from putrefaction.
penal animadversion, that the person is loved Nevertheless, since (as I have shewn) there while his fault is punished ; nay, that one is are some cases and tempers which make these punished only out of love to the other. And boisterous applications necessary, give me (believe it) there is hardly any one so much leave, for once, to step out of my profession child, but has sagacity enough to perceive so far, (though still keeping strictly within this. Let not melancholy fumes and spites, my subject,) as to lay before the educators of and secret animosities pass for discipline. Let youth these few following considerations ; for the master be as augry for the boy's fault as I shall not, in modesty, call them instruc reason will allow him; but let not the boy be tions.
in fault only because the master has a mind 1. As first, let them remember that excel- to be angry. In a word, let not the master lent and never to be forgotten advice, “that have the spleen, and the scholars be troubled boys will be men;" and that the memory of with it. But above all, let not the sins, or all base usage will sink so deep into, and grow faults, or wants of the parents be punished up so inseparably with them, that it will not upon the children ; for that is a prerogative be so much as in their own power ever to for- which God has reserved to himself. get it. For though indeed schoolmasters are These things I thought fit to remark about à sort of kings, yet they cannot always pass the education and educators of youth in such acts of oblivion as shall operate upon general, not that I have any thoughts cr their scholars, or perhaps, in all things, in- desires of invading their province; but pasa demnify themselves.
sibly a stander-by may sometimes look as far 2. Where they find a youth of spirit, let into the game as he who plays it ; and perthem endeavour to govern that spirit without haps with no less judgment, because with extinguishing it; to bend it, without break- much less concern. ing it; for when it comes once to be extin 3. The third and last sort of persons conguished, and broken, and lost, it is not in the cerned in the great charge of instructing youth power or art of man to recover it: and then are the Clergy. For as parents deliver their (believe it) no knowledge of nouns and pro- children to the schoolmaster, so the schoolnouns, syntaxis and prosodia, can ever com master delivers them to the minister. And pensate or make amends for such a loss. The for my own part, I never thought a pulpit, a French, they say, are extremely happy at cushion, and an hourglass, such necessary this, who will instruct a youth of spirit to a means of salvation, but that much of the time decent boldness, tempered with a due modesty; and labour which is spent about them might
be much more profitably bestowed in cate be brought to the bishop of the diocese to be chising youth from the desk; preaching being confirmed by him, since none else, no not all a kind of spiritual diet, upon which people the presbyters of a diocese, (nor Presbyterians are always feeding, but never full; and many neither,) can perform this apostolical act and poor souls, God knows, too, too like Pharaoh's office upon them. For though indeed a sean kine, much the leaner for their full feed. bishop may be installed, and visit, and receive
And how, for God's sake, should it be his revenues too, by deputation or proxy; yet otherwise? For to preach to people without I am sure he can no more confirm than ordain principles, is to build where there is no foun- by proxy : these being acts purely and incomdation, or rather where there is not so much municably episcopal. as ground to build upon. But people are not The church of Rome makes confirmation a to be harangued, but catechised into prin- sacrament; and though the church of England ciples; and this is not the proper work of the does not affirm it to be such, yet it owns it of pulpit, any more than threshing can pass for divine and apostolical institution. And as to sowing. Young minds are to be leisurely the necessity of it, I look upon it as no less formed and fashioned with the first plain, than a completion of baptism in such as outsimple, and substantial rudiments of religion. live their childhood; and for that cause called And to expect that this should be done by by the ancients temelwors. It is indeed a man's preaching, or force of lungs, is just as if á owning that debt in person, which passed smith, or artist who works in metal, should upon him in his baptism by representation ; think to frame and shape out his work only and his ratifying the promises of his sureties, with his bellows.
by bis personal acknowledgment of the It is want of catechising which has been obligation. the true cause of those numerous sects, schisms, It is also expressly instituted for the collaand wild opinions, which have so disturbed tion of those peculiar assistances and gifts of the peace, and bid fair to destroy the religion the Spirit, by the imposition of episcopal of the nation. For the consciences of men hands, which the rubric represents as requisite have been filled with wind and noise, empty to bear him through his Christian course and notions and pulpit-tattle. So that amongst conflict with comfort and success. For till a the most seraphical illuminati and the person be confirmed, he cannot regularly and highest Puritan perfectionists, you shall find ordinarily partake of that high and soul-suppeople of fifty, threescore, or fourscore years porting ordinance, the sacrameut of the Lord's old, not able to give that account of their faith, supper. And these are the considerations which you might have had heretofore from a which render the confirmation of children boy of nine or ten. Thus far had the pulpit, necessary, and the neglect of it scandalous, by accident, disordered the church, and the unchristian, and utterly unjustifiable upon desk must restore it. For you know the any account whatsoever. For is there so main business of the pulpit in the late times much as the least shadow of excuse allegeable (which we are not thoroughly recovered from for parents not bringing their children to the yet, and perhaps never shall) was to please bishop to be confirmed by him? or for the and pamper a proud, senseless humour, or bishop not to confirm them when duly rather a kind of spiritual itch, which had then brought? The chief and general failure in seized the greatest part of the nation, and this duty is no doubt chargeable upon the worked chiefly about their ears; and none former ; the grand rebellion of forty-one, and were so overrun with it, as the holy sister the dissolution of all church-order thereupon, hood, the daughters of Sion, and the matrons absolutely unhinging the minds of most of of the new Jerusalem, (as they called them- | the nation, as to all concern about religion ; selves.). These brought with them ignorance nevertheless, if, on the other side also, both and itching ears in abudance; and Holderforth the high importance of the ordinance itself, equalled them in one, and gratified them in and the vast numbers of the persons whom it the other. So that whatsoever the doctrine ought pass upon, be duly pondered, it will was, the application still ran on the surest be found next, at least, to a necessity, (if at side; for to give those doctrine and use-men, all short of it,) that there should be episcopal those pulpit-engineers, their due, they under visitations more than once in three years, if stood how to plant their batteries and to it were only for the sake of confirmations ; make their attacks perfectly well; and knew especially since the judges of the land think that, by pleasing the wife, they should not it not too much for them to go two circuits fail to preach the husband in their pocket. yearly. And some are apt to think that no And therefore, to prevent the success of such less care and labour ought to be employed in pious frauds for the future, let children be carrying on the discipline of the gospel
, than well principled, and, in order to that, let in dispensing the benefits of the law. For them be carefully catechised.
certainly the importance of the former, with Well ; but when they are thus catechised, those who think' men's souls ought to be rewhat is to be done next? Why then let them garded in the first place, is no ways inferior to
that of the latter ; at least many wise and undermines it, as odious, ridiculous, and mgood men of the clergy, as well as others excusable, as with truth he can; and by (who hope they may lawfully wish what they exposing those villainous tricks and intrigues pretend not to prescribe,) have thought the by which they supplanted and overturned the proposal not unreasonable. For confirmation monarchy under King Charles I. and would being, as we hinted before, the only proper, have done the saine again under King Charles regular inlet, or rather authentic ticket of ad II. though he had obliged them by a mercy mission to the Lord's supper, and yet withal not to be paralleled, and an oblivion never to the sole act of the bishop; if people who be forgot. desire to obtain it should find that they can Let every faithful minister, therefore, of the not, would they not be apt to think themselves church of England, in a conscientious obserhardly dealt with, that, when Christ has vance of the laws laid upon him by the said frankly invited them to his table, they should, church make it his business to undeceive and for want of confirmation, find the door shut disabuse the people committed to his charge, against them when they come ?
by giving them to understand, that most of Besides that nothing can be imagined more that noise which they have so often heard for the episcopal dignity and preeminence, ringing in their ears, about grievances and than that after Christ has thus prepared this arbitrary power, popery and tyranny, perseheavenly feast for us, he yet leaves it to his cution, and oppression of tender consciences, bishops (by lodging this confirming power in court pensioners, and the like, has been their hands) to qualify, and put us into a generally nothing else but mere fam and regular capacity of appearing at that divine romance, and that there is no kingdom or banquet, and of being welcome when we are government in Christendom less chargeable there. And therefore, in short, since the with any of these odious things and practices power of confirming, no less than that of than the English government, under his ordaining itself, is, as we have shewn, so present majesty, both is and ever has been ; peculiar to the episcopal character, as to be and consequently, that all these clamours are also personal and incommunicable; all well- only the artifices of some malecontents and wishers to the happy estate of the chureh ambitious demagogues, to fright their prince must needs wish, that as the laws of it have to compound with them, by taking them off put a considerable restraint upon unlimited (as the word is) with great and gainful places; ordinations, so they would equally enforce the and therefore, that they bark so loud, and frequency of confirmations; since a defect or open their mouths so wide, for no other cause desuetude of these latter must no less starve than that some preferment may stop them; the altar, than a superfluity of the former the common method, I own, by which weak overstock the church : both of them, I am governors and governments use to deal with sure, likely to prove fatal to it.
such as oppose them; till in the issue, by But to proceed ; as the minister, having strengthening their enemies, they come to sufficiently catechised the youth of his parish, ruin themselves, and to be laughed at for ought to tender them to the bishop, to be their pains. For that governor, whosoever he confirmed by him; and the bishop, for his is, who prefers his enemy, makes him therepart, to give his clergy as frequent oppor- by not at all the less an enemy, but much tunities of doing so as possibly he can ; so more formidably so, than he was before. after they are thus confirmed, he is to take And whereas yet farther, there have been them into the farther instructions of his such vehement invectives against court penministry, and acquaint them with what they sioners ; let the people who have been so have been confirmed in. And here, the bet- warmly plied with this stuff, be carefully inter to acquit himself in this important trust, formed, that those very men, who raise and let him take a measure of what good the spread these invectives, do not indeed (as they pulpit may do, by the mischief which it has pretend,) hate pensioners so much, but that already done. For in the late times of con- they love pensions more ; and have no other fusion, it was the pulpit which supplied the quarrel to them, but that any should be thought field with sword-men, and the parliament worthy to receive them but themselves. house with incendiaries. And let every
And then, as for the next clamour, about churchman consider, that it is one of the the persecution and oppression of tender principal duties of the clergy to make the consciences. Let every conscientious preacher king's government easy to him, and to pre- thoroughly and impartially instruct hiscongrepare bin a willing and obedient people. For gation that there is no such thing; that from which purpose, the canons of our church the very restoration of the king, they have enjoin every minister of it to preach obedience, been all along allowed (and that by a law and subjection to the government, four times made for that purpose) to worship God after a-year at least. And this I am sure cannot their own way in their own families with be better and more effectually done, than by five more persons besides ; so that all the representing the faction, which troubles and oppression and persecution of these men
amounts but to this, that the government not, but in a short time, have unpoisoned will not suffer them to meet in troops, regi- their perverted minds, and rectified their false ments, and brigades; and so form themselves notions, to such a degree, as would in all into an army, and under colour of worshipping likelihood have prevented those high animoGod, to muster their forces, and shew the sities, those divisions and discontents, which government how ready they are, when occa- have given such terrible shocks both to church sion serves, for a battle : 'so that, in truth, and state, since the late happy, but never yet it is not so much liberty of conscience, as duly improved restoration. liberty from conscience, which these men con And now I must draw towards a close, tend for. Likewise, let the faithful minister though I have not despatched the tenth part teach his people, that as the main body of of what I had to say upon this useful, copious, the nation hates and abhors popery with the and indeed inexhaustible subject. And thereutmost aversion; so that old stale pretence of fore for a conclusion, I have only two things the danger of its being every day ready to re more to add, and by way of request to you, turn and break in upon us, while this general great men ; you who are persons of honour, aversion to it continues, and the laws against it power, and interest in the government; and, stand in full force, (as at present they cer I hope, will shew to what great and good purtainly do,) is all of it, from top to bottom, poses you are so. nothing else but an arrant trick and term of 1. And the first is, that you would employ art, and a republican engine to rob the church, the utmost of this your power and interest, and run down the clergy, (the surest bulwark both with the king and parliament, to supagainst popery ;) as the very same plea had press, utterly to suppress and extinguish, those effectually served them for the same purpose private, blind, conventicling schools or acadeonce before. And lastly, let the youth of the mies of grammar and philosophy, set up and nation be made to know, that all the bustle taught secretly by fanatics, here and there all and stir raised by schismatics and dissenters the kingdom over. A practice which, I will against the rites and ceremonies of the church undertake to prove, looks with a more threatof England, (which after so much noise areening aspect upon the government, than any but three in number, and those not only very one fanatical or republican encroachment innocent, but very rational too,) has been in- made upon it besides. For this is the direct tended only for a blind and a cheat upon and certain way to bring up and perpetuate those lamentable tools, the unthinking rabble, a race of mortal enemies both to church and whom these leading impostors are still manag- state. To derive, propagate, and immortalize ing and despising at the same time. For can the principles and practices of forty-one to any man of sense imagine, that those whose posterity, is schism and sedition for ever, conscience could serve them to murder their faction and rebellion in sæcula sæculorum; king, (and him the most innocent and pious which I am sure no honest English heart will of kings,) do or can really scruple the use of ever say Amen to. We have, I own, laws the surplice, the cross in baptism, or kneeling against conventicles ; but, believe it, it would at the sacrament? Alas! they have a cor be but labour in vain to go about to suppress morant in their conscience, which can swallow them, while these nurseries of disobedience all this, and a great deal more. But the thing are suffered to continue. For those first and they drive at by this noisy, restless cant, is to early aversions to the government, which these get the power and revenues of the church into shalí infuse into the minds of children, will their comprehensive clutches ; and, according be too strong for the clearest after-convictions to a neighbouring pattern, haviug first pos- which can pass upon them when they are sessed themselves of the church, to make their men. So that what these underground next inroads upon the state. I say, it is power workers have once planted a briar, let no and wealth, and nothing else, which these governor think, that, by all the arts of clepretenders design, and push so hard for; mency and condescension, or any other cultiand when they have once compassed it, you vation whatsoever, he shall be able to change shall quickly see, how effectually these men into a rose. Our ancestors, to their great of mortification will mortify all who differ honour, rid the nation of wolves, and it were from them; and how little favour and indul- well, if (notwithstanding their sheep's clothgence they will shew those who had shewed ing) the church could be rid of them too; but them so much before. Such is the cruelty that neither will nor can ever be, so long as and ingratitude of the party.
they shall be suffered to breed up their litters All which and the like important heads amongst us. Good God! can all history of discourse, so nearly affecting not only the shew us any church or state since the creation common interest, but the very vitals of the that has been able to settle or support itself government, had the parochial clergy fre- by such methods ? I can, I thank God, (lookquently and warmly insisted upon to their ing both him and my conscience in the face,) respective congregations, and to the younger solemnly and seriously affirm, that I abhor part of them especially ; such a course could every thing like cruelty to men's persons, as