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surest, and most effectual way to speak the house of her friends,” (if they may be called same things, of any other way whatsoever : so,) namely, her treacherous undermining and it is sufficiently known, that the laws of friends, and that most of the nonconformity this national church, by the liturgy it has to her, and ation from her, together with provided and prescribed, enjoins the whole a contempt of her excellent constitutions, have nation so to do. But, on the contrary, if any proceeded from nothing more than from the one be indulged in the omission of the least false, partial, half conformity of too many of thing there enjoined, they cannot be said to her ministers. The surplice sometimes worn, “speak all the same thing.” In which case, and oftener laid aside ; the liturgy so read, besides the deformity of the thing itself, so and mangled in the reading, as if they were much exploded by Saint Paul in the whole ashamed of it; the divine service so curtailed, fourteenth chapter of his first epistle to the as if the people were to have but the tenths Corinthians, namely, that where the worship of it from the priest, for the tenths he had of God was the same, the manner of perforin- received from them; the clerical habit neing it should be with so much diversity, as glected by such in orders as frequently travel the apostle there tells us it was ; I say, besides the road clothed like farmers or graziers, to the indecency of it, such a difference of prac- the unspeakable shame and scandal of their tice, even in any Christian congregation, must profession; the holy sacrament indecently and will certainly produce an irreconcileable and slovenly administered; the furniture of division of minds, since the said diversity the altar abused and embezzled ; and the table cannot be imagined to proceed from any of the Lord profaned. These and the like vile thing else but an opiniou that one man under passages have made some schismatics, and stands and does his duty after a better and confirmed others; and, in a word, have made more spiritual manner than another; and so many nonconformists to the church, by consequently has got the start of his neigh- their conforming to their minister. bour or fellow-minister, either in point of It was

an observation and saying of a judgment or devotion ; in neither of which judicious prelate, that of all the sorts of is any man apt to give precedency to another, enemies which our church harl, there was especially when it comes once to be contested: none so deadly, so pernicious, and likely to unity without uniformity being much like prove so fatal to it, as the conforming puritan. essence without existence; a mere word and It was a great truth, and not very many years a notion, and no where to be found in nature. after ratified by direful experience. For if

2. A strict adherence to the constitutions you would have the conforming puritan and orders of the church, is another way described to you, as to what he is, to settle it, by begetting in the church's He is one who lives by the altar, and turns enemies themselves an opinion of the requi- his back upon it; one who catches at the presiteness and fitness of those usages, for which ferments of the church, but hates the discipline they see the governors and ininisters of the and orders of it; one who practises conforchurch (men of unexceptionable learning and mity, as papists take oaths and tests, that is, integrity) so concerned, that they can by no with an inward abhorrence of what he does means be brought to recede from them. Let for the present, and a resolution to act quite factious biased people pretend what they will contrary when occasion serves; one who, outwardly, yet they cannot but reason the during his conformity, will be sure to be matter with themselves inwardly, that cer known by such a distinguishing badge, as shall tainly there must be something more than point him ont to, and secure his credit with, ordinary in those things, which men of parts, the dissenting brotherhood; one, who still judgment, and good lives so heartily contend declines reading the church service himself, for, and so tenaciously adhere to. "For it is leaving that work to curates or readers, therenot natural to suppose, that serious men can by to keep up a profitable interest with thrivor will be resolute for trifles, fight for straws, ing seditious tradesmen, and groaning, ignoand encounter the fiercest oppositions for such rant, but rich widows; one who, in the midst small things, as all the interests of piety, of his conformity, thinks of a turn of state order, and religion may be equally provided which may draw on one in the church too ; for, whether the church retains or parts with and accordingly is very careful to behave them. This certainly is unnatural, and himself so as not to overshoot his game, but to morally impossible. And, on the other side, stand right and fair in case a wished for change let none think that the people will have any should bring fanaticism again into fashion.; reverence for that, for which the pastors of which it is more than possible that he secretly the church themselves shew an indifference. desires, and does the utmost he can to promote

And here let me utter a great, but sad truth; and bring about. a truth not so fit to be spoke, as to be sighed These, and the like, are the principles which out by every true son and lover of the church, act and govern the conforming puritan; who, namely, that the wounds which the church of in it word, is nothing else but ambition, England now bleeds by, she received " in the avarice, and hypocrisy, serving all the real

interests of schism and faction in the church's government of it ever since the reformation ? livery. And therefore, if there be any one Nay, and does not the same dirt light upon who has the front to own himself a minister the reforners themselves, who first pat the of ourchurch, to whom the foregoing character church into the order it is in at present, and may be justly applied, (as I fear there are died for it when they had done? Such, therebut too many,) howsoever such an one may fore, as are disposed to humour these dissenters, for some time soothe up and flatter himself in by giving up any of the constitutions of our his detestable dissimulation, yet when he shall church, should do well to consider what and hear of such and such of his neighbours, his how much is imported by such an act; and parishioners, or acquaintance, gone over from this they shall find to be no less than a tacit the church to conventicles, of several turned acknowledgment of the truth and justice of quakers, and of others fallen off to popery ; all those pleas, by which our adversaries have and lastly, when the noise of those national been contending for such a yieldance to them dangers and disturbances, which are every all along. The truth is, it will do a great day threatening us, shall ring about his ears, deal towards the removal of the charge of let him then lay his hand upon his false heart, schism from their own door to ours, by repreand with all seriousness of remorse accusing senting the grounds of their separation from himself to God and his own conscience, say, us hitherto lawful at the least. For the whole I am the person, who, by my conforming by state of the matter between us lies in a very halves, and by my treacherous prevaricating narrow compass, namely, that either the with the duty of my profession, so sacredly church of England enjoins something unlaw. promised, and so solemnly sworn to, bave ful, as the condition of her communion, and brought a reproach upon the purest and best then she is schismatical; or there is no unconstituted church in the Christian world; it lawful thing thus enjoined by her, and then is I, who, by slighting and slubbering over those who separate from her are and must be her holy service and sacraments, have scan the schismatics : and till they prove that the dalized and cast a stumbling-block before all church of England requires of such as do or the neighbourhood, to the great danger of their would communicate with her either the belief souls; I, who have been the occasion of this or profession of something false, or the pracman's faction, that man's quakerism, and tice of something impious or immoral, it will another's popery; and thereby, to the utmost be impossible to prove the unlawfulness of of my power, contributed to those dismal those things which she has made the conditions convulsions which have so terribly shook and of her communion ; and consequently to free weakened both church and state. Let such a those who separate from her from the charge mocker of God and man, I say, take his share of schism. Now so long as this is the persuaof all this liorrid guilt; for both heaven and sion of the governors of our church concerning earth will lay it at his door, as the general these things, the world cannot but look upon result of his actions: it is all absolutely his them, in their immovable adherence to them, own, and will stick faster and closer to him, as acting like men of conscience, and, which than to be thrown off and laid aside by him is next to it, like men of courage. The repuas easily as his surplice.

tation of which two great qualities in our 3. And lastly, a strict adherence to the rules bishops will do more to the daunting of the of the church, without yielding to any abate-church's enemies, than all their concessions ments in favour of our separatists, is the way can do to the gaining them ; for that is imto settle and establish it, by possessing its possible. In the mean time, courage awes an enemies with an awful esteem of the con enemy, and, backed with conscience, confounds science and constancy of the governors and him. He who, having the law on his side, ministers of it. For if the things under debate and justice too, (for they are not always the be given up to the adversary, it must be upon same,) resolves not to yield, takes the directest one of these two accounts ; either, 1. That way to be yielded to; for where an enemy the persons who thus yield them up judge sees resolution, he supposes strength, and them unfit to be retained ; or, 2. That they upon trial generally finds it ; but to yield, is find themselves unable to retain them : one to confess weakness, and consequently to or both of these must of necessity be implied imbolden opposition. And I believe it will in such a yieldance. If the first, then will be one day found, that nothing has contributed our dissenters cry out, Where has been the more to make the dissenting nonconforming conscience of our church governors for so many party considerable, than their being thought years, in imposing aud insisting upon those 80. It has been our courting them, and treatthings which they themselves now acknow. | ing with them, which has made them stand ledge and confess not fit to be insisted upon ? upon their own terms, instead of coming over And is not this at once to own all the libellous to ours. charges and invectives which our noncoufor And here I shall shut up this consideration mists have been so long pursuing our church with one remark, and it is about the council with? Is not this to ding dirt upon the of Trent; the design of calling which council,

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in all the princes who were at all for the call in power, never thought it reasonable to graut
ing one, was to humble and reduce the power the same to others in the like case.
of the papacy; and great and fierce opposition 4. By our yielding or giving place to them,
was made against that power all along by we bring a pernicious, incurable schism into
the prelates and ambassadors of those princes: the church, if it be by a comprehension;
but so far were they from prevailing, that the though it is hoped that the wisdom of thé
papacy, weathered out the storm, and fixed government will prevent the equal danger
itself deeper and stronger than ever it was which some fear from an unlimited tolera-
before. But what method did it take thus tion.
to settle itself? Why, in a word, no other 5. By our yielding to these men in a way
but a positive resolution not to yield or of comprehension, we bring such men into the
part with any thing, nor to give way either church, as once destroyed and pulled it down
to the importunity or plausible exceptions, as unlawful and antichristian, and never yet
nor, which is yet more, to the power of those renounced those principles upon which they
princes. So that, as the renowned writer of did so, nor (as it is rationally to be thought)
the history of that council observes, notwith- 1. will.
standing all those violeut blusters and assaults 6. By such a comprehension we endeavour
made on every side against the papal power, to satisfy those persous, who could never yet
" yet in the end,” (I give you the very words agree amongst themselves about any one thing
of the historian,)“the patience and resolution or constitution in which they would all rest
of the legates overcame all."

satisfied.
Now what may we gather from hence ? 7. By indulging them this way, we act
Why, surely, this very naturally; that if cou- | partially in gratifying one sect, who can pre-
rage and resolution could be of such force as tend to no more favour than what others may
to support a bad cause, it cannot be of less to as justly claim, who are not comprehended :
maintain and carry on a good one; and if it and withal imprudently, by indulging one
could thus long prop up a rotten building, party who will do us no good, to the exaspe-
which has no foundation, why may it not ration of many more, who have a grcater
only strengthen, but even perpetuate that power to do us hurt.
which has so firm an one as the church of 8. By such a concession we sacrifice the
England now stands upon ?

constitutious of our church to the will and And here to sum up all : could Saint Paul humour of those whom the church has no find it necessary to take such a course with need of; neither their abilities, parts, piety, those erroneous judaizing dissenters in the interest, nor any thing else belonging to them, church of Galatia, as “not to give place to considered. them, no, not for an hour ?" and is it not 9. and lastly, By_such a course we open more necessary for us, where the pretences the mouths of the Romish party against us, for the schism are less plausible, and the who will be still reproaching us for going off persons likely to be

erverted by it much from their church to a constitution, which we more numerous ? Let us therefore, by way of ourselves now think fit to relinquish and close, briefly recapitulate and lay together the surrender up, by altering her discipline and forealleged reasons and arguments, why we the terins of her communion ; and may justly should by all means deal with our separatists ask of us, where, and in what kind of church and dissenters as Saint Paul (a most authentic constitution, we intend finally to fix ? example) did with those judaizing hybrid These, I say, amongst many more that Christians, namely, “ not give place to them might be named, are the reasons why we at all.” And that because,

contend that our dissenters are by no means 1. By our yielding or giving place to them, to be given place to in the least. And after we have no rational ground to conclude that all, may not this concluding question be likewe shall gain them, but rather encourage wise asked, namely, Whether, supposing that them to encroach upon us by farther de this yielding or giving up the things so long mands; forasmuch as the experience of all and earnestly disputed both for and against governments has found concessions so far amongst us had been done in a parliamentary from quieting dissenters, that they have only way, and seconded by the clergy's own solemn animated them to greater and fiercer conten act and deed in convocation, it would be now tions.

imagined by any one of solid sense, reason, 2. By our yielding or giving place to them, and experience, that the church of England we make the established laws, in which these should ever have seen the same rites, rules, men can neither prove injustice nor inexpe- and constitutions restored to it again ; nay, dience, submit to them, wlio, in duty, reason, even at that grand and glorious restoration of and conscience, ought to obey and submit to King Charles II. and of the whole nation those laws.

with him, in the year sixteen hundred and 3. By our yielding or giving place to them, sixty? No certainly, no; and I, for my own we grant that to those, who, being themselves part, veither do nor cąu believe it; and let

any one else (of a faith less than “able to and order, that neither “the gates of hell,” remove mountains") believe it, if he can. nor all the arts of those within them, may

And therefore what remains now, but that ever “ prevail against her.” we implore the continued protection of the Which he, the most sovereign Lord and Almighty upon a church by such a miracle ! Patron of our church, and Defender of our restored to us, and (all things considered) by | faith, of his infinite goodness effect. Το no less a miracle hitherto preserved amongst whom be rendered and ascribed, as is most us, powerfully to defeat her enemies and in- due, all praise, might, inajesty, and dominion, crease her friends, and so settle her upon the both now and for evermore. Amen. best and surest foundations of purity, peace,

TO THE RIGHT REVEREND FATHER IN GOD,

GEORGE,

BY DIVINE PROVIDENCE, LORD BISHOP OF BATH AND WELLS.

MY LORD,

SHOULD I but so much as think of any other countenance or patronage to these following papers (as poor and mean as they are) from one either of other or lower principles than your Lordship, it would, instead of a becoming and due address, prove a direct affront to your honour.

My Lord, your Lordship was bred in two of the most eminent seminaries for loyalty and learning perhaps in Europe, namely, in the king's school at Westininster, and in that noble college of Christ Church in Oxford ; in each of which you grew up not barely as in a school or college, but as in your proper, genuine, and connatural element, and accordingly took and drank in thoroughly frm thence all that they were remarkable and great for; and they, my Lord, in requital, have made your Lordship what you now 30 deservedly are, and what all so unanimously accounted your Lordship to be.

But, my Lord, it is time for me in modesty (and that to spare your Lordship’s, as well as to shew my own) to withdrar, and calmly and silently contenting myself with the naked contemplation and admiration of your Lordship's superlative worth and virtues, (being utterly unable to reach the very lowest pitch of them by the best and highest of my expressions,) I must with the utmost deference (the only height which I would aspire to) sincerely own, avow, and (both with hand and heart) subscribe myself, my Lord, your Honour's ever faithful, bumble, and obedient servant,

ROBERT SOUTH.

. This dedieation refers to the twelve sermons next following.

IN THE LATE SUBVERSION OF THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND

STITION.

First, To give some general account of the

nature of good and evil, and of the reason SERMON LXI.

upon which they are founded.

Secondly, To shew that the way by which
THE FIRST GRAND INSTANCE OF THE good and evil commonly operate upon the

FATAL INFLUENCE OF WORDS AND mind of man, is by those respective names
NAMES FALSELY APPLIED,

and appellations by which they are notified
and conveyed to the mind.

Thirdly, To shew the mischief which
BY THE MALICIOUS CALUMNIES OF THE PANATIC directly, naturally, and unavoidably follows
PARTY, CHARGING HER WITH POPERY AND SUPER- from the misapplication and confusion of

these names. PART II. *

These three things, I say, I prosecuted and

despatched in my first and general discourse “Wo unto them that call evil good and good evil," &c. upon this text and subject : and in this my

ISAIAH, v. 20. second and following discourses upon the

same, I shall endeavour to assign the several I FORMERLY made an entrance upon this instances, in which the mischievous effects text in a discourse by itself; and after some then mentioned do actually shew themselves, short explication of the terms, and something and by sad experience are but too commonly premised by way of introduction to the main found and felt in most of the affairs of human design and farther drift of the words, I cast life. And here we are to strike out into a the whole prosecution of them under these very large field indeed ; for could all of them three heads :

be recounted in their utmost compass and * For Part L Bee Sermon XXI.

coinprehension, they would spread as far and

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wide as even the world itself, and grasp in the same when the quality that should direct the
concerns of all mankind put together. For is operation is changed : as a man may have as
it not the first and most universal voice of strong an arm and as sharp a sword to fight
human nature, “Who will shew us any with in a bad cause as in a good. And surely
good ?" and the next to it, “ Who shall sadder consideration can hardly enter into the
deliver us from evil ?" Is it not the sole pro- heart of man, than that religion, the great
ject and business of all the powers and facul means appointed by God himself for the saving
ties both of soul and body, how to procure of souls, should be so often made by men as
us those things that may help, and to ward efficacious an instrument of their destruction.
off those that may hurt us? Is it not the Now the direful and mischievous effects of
great end of a rational being to compass and calling good evil, and evil good, both with
acquire to itself the happiness of this world respect to the general interest of religion, and
by what it enjoys, and to secure to itself the to the particular state of it amongst ourselves,
enjoyment of the next world by what it will appear from these following instances :
does? And is there any third thing allege 1. Some men's villainous and malicious
able in which a man can be concerned, bc- calling of the religion of the church of Eng-
sides what he is to do, and what he is to land, Popery.
enjoy ? and must not the adequate object of 2. Their calling such as have schismatically
both these be good ?

deserted its communion, True Protestants.
But then, as the shadow still attends the 3. Their calling the late subversion of the
body, so there is no one thing, relating either church, and the whole governmeut of it Re-
to the actions or enjoyments of man, in which formation.
he is not liable to deception; no good, but 4. Their calling the execution of the laws in
what, looking upon its dark side, he may behalf of the church, Persecution. And,
misjudge to be evil; and no evil, but wnat, 5th and lastly, Their calling a betraying
by a false light, he may imagine to be good of the constitutions of the church by base com-
the consequence of which will be sure to reach pliances and half conformity, Moderation.
him by an effect as good or evil as its cause. In all which you have the shallow, brutish,
So that the subject here before us is as large unthinking multitude worded out of their
as good and evil, as comprehensive as right religion by the worst and most detested appel-
judgment and mistake, and the effects of both | lations fastened upon the best of things, and
are as infinite, numberless, and inconceivable, the best and most plausible names applied to
as all the particular ways and means, by the very worst.
which a man is capable of being deceived and And this I shall demonstrate, by going
maile miserable.

over every one of these as distinctly and as But since to rest here, and to take up only briefly as I can. in universals, would be useless and uupro 1. And first for that masterpiece of falsefitable ; as, on the other side, to reckon up all hood and impudence, their calling and traparticulars would be endless and impossible, ducing the reformed, primitive, and aposwe will endeavour to reduce the forementioned tolical religion of the church of England by fatal effects of the misapplication of those great the name of popery, an application of the governing names of good and evil to certain word popery more irrational and absurd, if heads, and those such as shall take in the prin- possible, than the thing itself? But what cipal things which the happiness or misery do I talk of the thing itself? when scarce of human societies depends upon ; which I one in five thousand of the loudest and conceive to be these three :

fiercest exclaimers against popery knows so 1st, Religion. 2dly, Civil goverument. And much as what popery means. Only that it 3dly, The private interests of particular persons. is a certain word made up of six letters ; that

Iu all which, if we find the scene of these has been ringing in their ears ever since their uuhappy effects no where so full and lively infancy, and that strangely inflames, and set forth as here amongst ourselves, I hope transports, and sets them a madding they as the truth will be altogether as great, as know not why nor wherefore. A word that if drawn from all the kingdonus and nations sounds big and high in the mouths of carmen, round about us; so the edification will be broommen, scavengers, and watermen, on a greater, by how much the concern is nearer, 5th or 17th of November, when extortion and and the application more particular.

perjury, in place and power, think fit to autho1. And first for religion. Religion is cer rize and let loose the rabble to try what metal taivly in itself the best thing in the world ; the government is niade of, under a plausible and it is as certain, that, as it has been pretence of burning the pope, together with managed by some, it has had the worst effects : à fair intimation of what they long to be such being the nature, or rather the fate of doing to some others, whom they hate much the best things, to be transcendently the worse. Concerning which, by the way, I worst upon corruption. Forasmuch as the think that there never was so great a complioperative strength of a thing may continue the ment passed upon the pope in this kingdom,

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