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the very same libellous disguise and false re into the right application and drift of them; presentation of things and persons, blazoning what can be expected, if a company of bold, out the worthiest men and the best actions crafty, designing villains shall be incessantly under the foulest and most odious colours, and buzzing into the rabble's ears, tyranny and the vilest persons and the wickedest designs arbitrary power, pensioners, and evil counsellors, under the most popular and taking ; one of on the one hand, and pointing out themselves the most pestilent ways certainly of calling for the only patrons of their country, the good evil and evil good, that the public can only assertors of liberty and property, and suffer by. For still the prime and most effec- redressers of grievances on the other? tual engine to pull down any government, is, if the rout be still followed and plied by them to alienate the minds of the subjects from it; with such mouth granadoes as these, can any it being a never-failing observation, that when thing be expected, but that those who look a governor comes to be generally hated, he is no farther than words should take such innot many steps from being assuredly ruined : cendiaries at their word, and thereupon preby which old, long-practised, lying, diabolical sently kindle and flame out, and throw the artifice, as the worst of rebels mounted here whole frame of the government into tumult tofore into the throne of the best of princes, and confusion ? so no doubt they hope to do the same again ; And therefore I shall go over every one of and it is not long since that they bade fair these rabble-charming words, which carry for it.
so much wild-fire wrapt up in them, and lay Now those artificial words, by the misap- open the true meaning and design of them as plication and management of which, these distinctly as in so short an exercise I can. overturners of all above them have done such 1. And first, let us begin with the highest mighty execution, being much too many for and loudest, and that which leads the van in a present rehearsal, as I formerly culled out all clamours against the government, pamely, five of the chief and most venomous, by which that of arbitrary power, twin to that other great those wretches ruined and overthrew the and noted one of popery, treated of by me ecclesiastical state amongst us, so I shall now heretofore; arbitrary power being of much pitch upon four of the principal, by which the same import with reference to the state, they did, and hope to do the same feat again that popery is with relation to the church upon the monarchy and civil government; it indeed they always go hand in hand, the cry being the usual fate of that and the church, of one still accompanying the other and as to be supported and run down by the same it is hardly possible for a man to spit, but at methods.
the same time he must breathe too ; so I 1st, The first is their traducing and exposing believe hardly any foul mouth ever opened the mildest of governments and the best of against the church, in the slander of popery, monarchies by the odious name of arbitrary which did not likewise discharge itself against power.
the monarchy, in the slander of arbitrary 2dly, Their blackening and misrepresenting power. the ablest friends and assistants of their prince But since there has been so much noise in his government, with the old infamous made of it, I think it may be no less than character of evil counsellors.
requisite for us to see and state what arbitrary 3dly, Their setting off and recommending power is. And in the true sense of it, it is a the greatest enemies both of prince and people, prince's or governor's ruling his people accordunder the plausible, endearing title of public ing to his own absolute will and pleasure, spirits, patriots, and standers up for their coun either without law or against it. Such a kind try.
of power was that vested in the Roman 4thly, and lastly, Their couching the most em perors by the lex regia, that the sole will malicious, selfish, and ambitious designs, under of the emperor should in all things obtain the the glorious cover of zeal for liberty and pro- | force of a law. And such an one perty, and the rights of the subject.
properly is at this day the power of the grand These four rattling words, I say, arbitrary signior, or Turkish emperor, and generally power, evil counsellors, public spirits, liberty, pro- of all eastern princes. But when was such perty, and the rights of the subject, with several a power ever claimed by, or where does the more of the like noise and nature, used and least footstep of it appear in the very worst applied by some state impostors, (as scripture of our kings who have reigned since the conwas once quoted by the Devil,) are the great quest?. And therefore it is strange that it and powerful tools by which the faction hope should be charged upon the very best. to do their business upon the government For though every statute-law is the product
For since (as I observed in of the king's will, it being the royal assent the first discourse upon this subject) the that properly enacts or stamps it a law, yet generality of mankind are wholly governed our kings have consented to such a limitation by words and names, having neither strength of the exercise of this their power, as to the of judgment to discern, nor leisure to inquire matter of all laws, that they claim not now a
power to make what laws they please ; but them. And so much was once acknowledged still the matter of them, or the thing which of King Charles I. by that very faction which is to receive that authorizing sanction from ruined him, nay even while they were the royal hand, is first to be prepared and actually ruining him ; and we know his son, tendered to it by the choice and consent of the in such acts of grace, rather outdid than came subjects themselves, acting by their represen- behind him. Indeed both of them parted tatives. So that as the king has always a
with so much of their royal power and preronegative upon the sanction, so the subject has gative, to gratify and content their people, still a negative upon the matter of the law. that many wise men have feared that the
And can there be a greater privilege enjoyed crown may have hardly enough left it in all by any subjects under heaven, than to be the cases to protect them. Which, should it be so, choosers of their own laws?' Or did any of is the chief thing that looks like a grievance our princes, especially those of the present to the subject of any that I know; and if it race, ever go about to ravish or extort it from be, they know whom they may thank for it, them? And have not those laws been as free especially when those laws were made in the and uncontrolled in the execution, as they reign of two such princes, that though they were benign and wholesome in the composi- had never been made, the very temper and tion? And lastly, have not those laws that disposition of the men had been a superabunhave made the English government so easy,
dant security to the subject against all their so equal, and so beneficial to the subject, fears ; princes who had nothing arbitrary or even to the envy of all nations round about violent either in their nature or their family; us, been the effects and issue of that princely princes of such an unparalleled clemency, goodness which induced our kings to pass that I dare confidently aver, that it was solely them into laws, and without which they and wholly owing to their surpassing mildcould never have been laws, but, after all, ness, that there was so much as one wretch would have remained an useless caput mortuum,
in all their dominions either able or willing without either life or force in them?
to do them hurt. The truth is, we have been so governed for But there cannot be a greater demonstration above these hundred years, that it is hard to
that there is no such thing as arbitrary power decide whether the government the in this kingilom, than that men have been governor bas been the milder of the two. endured so commonly and so freely to charge For as to the government itself, can any con the government with it. What a noise was stitution in nature be imagined gentler, and there of arbitrary power in the reign of the farther from the least shadow of oppression, two last kings, and scarce any at all during than that in which, as to all matters of right, the usurpation of Cromwell! Of which I the subject stands upon the same ground with know no reason in the world that can be his prince, so as to be allowed legally to con given but this : namely, that under those two cest his right with him in his own courts, princes there was no such thing, and under they being free and open, and judges appointed Cromwell there was nothing else. For where to umpire the matter in contest between arbitrary power is really and indeed used, them, and to decide where the right lies? men feel it, but dare not complain of it, for And can there be any thing arbitrary or fear their complaints should be answered, as tyrannical, where justice has so free and un the Egyptians answered those of the Israelinterrupted a course, and where the king is ites, by increasing their tasks and redoubling understood neither to do, nor so much as to their burdens. And besides all this, what a command any thing, but what he does or hideous outcry was, not many years since, commands by his laws, and those such as for raised by an insolent, impudent company of the most part are more in favour of the sub men against arbitrary, power, while they ject than of the prerogative?
themselves were practising it upon their And if so, can we imagine that any one in fellow-subjects, and that at such a rate, as his wits, who designs to fight, would first none of our kings ever so much as pretended suffer, or rather cause his own hands to be to. And yet, if ever it should so please God tied? Yet this is not a greater absurdity, as to punish the nation with an arbitrary than to suppose a prince setting up for arbi- oppression for complaining of it when there trary power, just after he himself had passed was none, surely it would be much more those laws which make the exercise of such a tolerable to groan under the arbitrary will of power in a prince ruling by law utierly im a noble, royally descended monarch, than possible. And yet this was eminently the under the lawless will and tyranny of a pack case of the two last kings, with reference to of spiteful, mean, merciless republicans ; as this slander cast upon them by the republican without question it would be a much nobler faction, after they had passed more laws to death to be torn in pieces by a lion, than to assure the right of the subject, and to the be eaten up by lice. limiting the prerogative, than all their pre And thus 'much for the first groundless, decessors since the conquest hau done before I senseless, and shameless calumny upon the
government, to wit, that of arbitrary power; secure in all these. But yet if these could a calumny which more than sufficiently con not have made him so, they had one way tradicts and confutes itself by this one irre more left, which would have followed of fragable argument, that any subject who has course, and would infallibly have done it. presumed to libel and reproach his prince Only there was indeed this difference in the with it, is seen alive and well, nay, rich and proceedings of the faction formerly against the thriving, after he has done so. Of which sort father, and lately against his son, that the of arguments this kingdom (it is well known) faction first imprisoned the father, and then affords no small plenty and variety.
addressed to him; whereas the late managers 2dly, The next word of art and malice, of the same design against the son libelled by which the faction would undermine the him with their addresses first, hoping to be government, is evil counsellors. For some able to imprison him afterwards. And this times it is not found either so safe or so ex difference, let me tell you, was very material, pedient for popular rage and rudeness to dis- and (thanks be to God) produced a very charge itself immediately upon the person of different issue and success to the whole prothe king himself, and therefore they choose to ceeding. It being no small favour of Provimake their approaches more artificially, and dence to kings and princes, that their enemies first to attack those about him. But as in a had sometimes rather shew their anger than siege the taking of the outworks is in order to employ their wit. the taking of the main fort at last, so faction But however, you see, by reflecting upon never strikes at any of a prince's ministers, what has passed, that the clamour against evil but with a design that the blow should go counsellors was an old trusty tool, equally round, and reach him in the end. When the managed both against father and son. And I wolves intended to destroy the sheep, by way lope such as have eyes and ears, and common of parley and making peace with them, it seuse to judge by, do by this time sufficiently would have been a very impudent and a understand both the engine itself, and the senseless thing to have told them in plain persons who use to manage it ; especially since terms that they had a design to devour them; they have been so extremely kind to the and therefore they made a more dexterous world, as, by printing their politics, to inform and politic proposal, and promised to live not only this, but all future ages, how honestly peaceably and neighbourly with them, upon they designed matters, and how wisely they condition that they would deliver up, their carried them. dogs. So when the late rebel faction had Well, but if evil counsellors must needs be designed the destruction of the king and removed, what must be done next? Why, monarchy, they were not such sots as to pro- that is a needless question. For wliat should fess and declare so much at first; no, they be done, but to take in those in their stead were only for removing his evil counsellors, who were so earnest and active to remove that is, for sucking the blood of his best them? For do you think that these patriots friends, and stripping him of his faithfullest are so fierce and zealous against ministers of ministers, and such as were most able both to state, and other high officers, for any other serve and support him, and then let them reason in the world but to get into their alone to make him as great and glorious, as in places? Or that they pitch upon this course the issue (you all know) they made him. of crying out against others for any other end,
And in like manner, when the true brood but because they judge it the most likely aud and spawn of the same republican cabal was effectual to promote themselves? It would about to play the same game upon the son indeed be too gross, too fulsome, and too which their predecessors had done upon the shameless a request, for any one to come to father, this and that counsellor was to be his prince, and say, Sir, I will not be quiet, removed from his counsels, and banished from unless your majesty will make me treasurer his royal presence for ever. And then, if he or chancellor, chief justice, or secretary of would but part with his guards too, he could state, attorney general, or the like; and if you not with any reason have doubted of his will not give me such or such a great office, safety, having cast himself into those hands I will never leave troubling you, never give which had brought him so many dutiful over petitioning, addressing, and protesting, petitions. For no man questions but they never cease crying out grievances, popery, pen(good men) would have done all they could sioners, and evil counsellors, till the whole to have secured him. Nay, I dare undertake nation rings of it again ; and therefore your for them, that they would not have thought majesty will do very prudently, and consult any castle in the kingdom too good or strong both your ease and safety, by removing such to have bestowed him in. But he should a great officer, and putting me, your worthy have had all the security that Holdenby-house, petitioner, into his room; and by this you or Hampton-court, or Carisbrook, or Hurst, will also wonderfully please and gratify your or Windsor-castle, could have afforded him ; people, whom in truth I care as much for, as and it were much if he could not have been I do for the dirt under my shoes.
These things, I confess, are very gross and country. Que involves the other, and both scandalons ; but as gross as they are, assure together make but one entire, single undiyonrselves, that whensoever you hear any one vided interest. God has joined them toclamouring against evil counsellors, this is as gether, and cursed be that man, or faction really and truly his sense and meaning, as if of men, which would disjoin, or put them he had wrote his mind upon his forehead, and asunder. used every one of the forementioned expres And therefore, friends, suffer not yourselves sions to a tittle.
to be imposed upon, but rest assured that all 3dly, The third battery which the faction who come to you with those glossing pretences plants against the government is, their re of public spirits and zeal for their country, if commending the most mortal enemies both of they do it with the least reflection upon their prince and people under the plausible, endear- prince or his government, are all that time ing title of public spirits ; that is the word, mocking and making a prey of you ; they are but private interest is the signification. But “smiting the shepherd," and that uses to be pray, what has any private man to do, to
“ to scatter the flock.” Alas! their concern himself for the public, but in his design is not to preserve their country, but to private station ? What has this extortioner prefer themselves ; nay, they are making all or that lace-seller to do, to mistake his prince this hectoring bustle for the country only to for his apprentice, and to undertake to instruct get themselves into the court. They are him? What has this or that joiner to do, to holding up their heads to see what the governJeave his shop, and to guard the parliament? ment will bid for them; and if their pretences These and the like matters belong properly are found too old and stale to be marketable, to the sovereign prince, and to those whom or worth buying, you shall find them retreat, he shall be pleased to employ under him. and sneak away with all that odium and conFor surely none can be so fit to be intrusted tempt which is justly due to baffled, diswith the public weal of the nation, as he covered cheats. And then the public spirit who gives the surest pledge of his concern for vanishes immediately, and the country, after it, by having the greatest interest and share all this high-flowu zeal for it, is left to shift in it.
for itself. And therefore he who sets up for his coun For we must know, that wlien this public try against his prince, goes about to make spirit is once raised, there are but two ways of the body thrive by the decay and ruin of the laying it again, and those the very same head. Assuredly no man shews his zeal and which we use to take to rid ourselves of restlove for his country so much, as he who does less, importunate beggars; namely, either to all he can to enable his prince both to govern give them what they desire, or resolutely to and protect it; which I am sure cannot be reject and give them nothing. Now the first done either by weakening or impoverishing of these is that which beggars and public him, by disgracing or misrepresenting him. spirits do most desire. For still you must This indeed has been the course taken by observe, that the public spirit here spoken of those great factors for sedition, who have shot has always this strange property with it, that that odious distinction like a fiery dart at the when it is most boisterous, ' furious, and government, of the court party, and the coun troublesome, it is then also most desirous to try party ; for which the country may perhaps be conjured down, provided it be done skilone day have as little cause to thank them, as fully and privately. For as Solomon says, they have at present to thank themselves. (Prov. xxi. 14.) "A gift in secret pacifietlí For I do not find that by all their noise and anger," and has a wonderful ascendant over heat they have made themselves so consider- all evil spirits, but over the public one espeable, as to be thought worthy to be taken off. cially; which though it has all the poison of But whether they succeed this way or no, (as the adder, yet has nothing of the deafness of it were much if the same cheat should always it, forasmuch as it never “stops its ear against find the same success,) they know, however, the charmer, if he does but charm wisely ;" that to be still mouthing out the interest of the that is, if he applies the forementioned charm country, the interest of the country, is a sort of liberally and privately too. This being a rule pluusible, well received cant, and a sweet always to be remembered, that the more morsel, which never fails to be readily swal- public the spirit is, the more private must lowed by the gaping rout, who always loves be the exorcism, for spirits being invisible those men best who abuse them most.
things, must be dealt with after an invisible But for all this, I would have those state manner. So then this is one way of exorcisvermin know, that king and country are hardly ing or conjuring down a public spirit, and terms of distinction, (in the forementioned recovering those that are possessed with it, kings I am sure they were not,) and much which some of late years have called a taking Jess of opposition, since no man can serve his them off. Though some governments have country without assisting his king, nor love another way of taking such off, which they his king without being concerned for his find much more effectual. For as in the case
of beggars before hinted, so here also we must some to our public peace; the fatal and observe, that though this way of gratification, malign influence of which, I think, cannot be or giving, may rid the government of the better expressed than by telling you, that importunity of the public spirit for the present, this pretence of a public spirit has been as yet the same spirit will be sure to return hurtful and mischievous to government, as upon it again, and perhaps with seven more that of the private spirit has been to religion. in its company worse than itself, that they 4thly, The fourth and last mighty misapalso may be exorcised and taken off the same plied word which I shall mention, with which way. As the very same relief which stops a the faction has of a long time been fighting beggar's mouth, and sends him away, at one against the government, is, liberty, property, time, will certainly bring him and many and the rights of the subject. And so loud and more with him, to the same house at auother; tragical has the outcry about these been, that it being not to be imagined that such cus a man unacquainted with this sort of people tomers will forsake a door only because they could imagine no less, by what lie had heard, use to be fed at it. And therefore governors than that almost all the houses in the nation will never find this way of laying the public were emptied into the gaols, and that there spirit successful ; but just like a man's drink were scarce a foot of land in the kingdom but ing in a fever, which may be some refreshment what was seized on by the crown. at present, but an increase of torment in re after all this noise, there is not a freer and a version.
richer people upon the face of the earth than From whence it follows, that the other way the English ; nor were they themselves ever for the government to dispossess and cast out so free and so rich before, as they have been these public spirits is certainly the wisest and in the reigns of those two excellent princes most effectual, which is, to give them nothing, whom they were perpetually baiting with but to defy their rage, and to despise their complaints about their liberties and properpretences, and to answer them, as a man in ties; princes so far from wronging the subject place and power would answer the craving upon either of these accounts, that, as to the and clamour of a restless beggar, with au point of liberty, the crown has almost parted thority and correction. For if men with its power of imprisoning the subject; once to find, that nothing is to be gut by and as for property, it has been so far from being troublesome to the government, they encroaching upon the subjects' lands, that it will quickly alter their way of traffick, and has very near the matter parted with all its come to fawn upon it, instead of barking at own. But I hope by this time the crown it; which, though it be not of much worth, I perceives, that such sturdy beggars are not to confess is yet the better worthless thing of be dealt with this way, and that it is neither the two. Let a governor take up such as wisdon, mercy, nor charity, to feed a bottomtrouble him and his people with rigour and resolution, and make them know, if he can, But, to adjust the true and proper measures that he neither fears nor needs them, and I of liberty, there is no people so free as those dare undertake that he shall not be long who live under a just monarchy : there being troubled with them. If a horse grows resty, no slavery in the world comparable to that headstrong, and apt to throw his rider, of having many masters. And those state surely to pamper him cannot be the way mountebanks who would persuade people to tame him ; but the discipline of the whip that there is no such thing as freedom of the and spur will bring him to hand much sooner subject under a monarchy, let them go seek and surer than the plenties of the rack and for it in Holland and Venice, and other remanger.
publics, and there they shall find a free But now, after all, what is the thing which people indeed ; that is, free to undergo any really lies under the disguise of this plausible penalty which their governors shall be pleased word, public spirit? Why, if you would have to inflict, and free to pay any tax which they the whole truth of it, name and thing together, shall think fit to impose ; and that without it is faction and sedition rampant: it is a either remedy or redress, be it never so grievcombination of some insolent, unruly minds And as for any other kind of freedom, to snatch the sceptre out of their prince's you must look for it elsewhere, if you would hand ; it is their thrusting themselves into his find it ; for it is not a commodity of the peculiar business, and so, in effect, into his growth of those countries. throne; it is their confounding the essential And to shew farther, how falsely, how bounds and limits of sovereignty and subjec partially, and unjustly this reproach has been tion, and consequently a dissolution of all cast upon monarchical government, that of government. For where such upstart, aspir England especially, I have heard of a certain ing mushrooms assume a right to govern, I sort of inen not far off, who, when they had am sure it can be no man s duty to obey. tied up their prince from detaining any dan
And thus much for this sham pretence of gerous or seditious subject in prison, thought public spirits, which has proved so trouble it yet very reasonable for themselves to im