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respective Governments as to the “ social for England and Wales, 28,694.” And yet evil” in their several cities, and that these this is not one half, not one tithe, of the official and Governmental returns de- blunders—for charity forbids my applying monstrate beyond doubt or question the a stronger term-of this writer. He prountruthfulness of this strange assump- ceeds to detail the number of houses contion.
nected with the social evil. He states that in The last returns for the metropolitan 1864 there were in Liverpool, 1,578—the district, that is, for a radius of fifteen official return is 906 ; in Birmingham, miles round Charing Cross, give the pro- 966—the official return is 183 ; in Manportion of unhappy women to the popula- chester, 1,111-the official return is 410; tion as one in every 579 persons; the last in Leeds, 318—the official return is 63 ; returns for Dublin, as one in every 301 in Sheffield, 433—the official return is 84. persons; and the last returns for Paris These five towns are all he particularizes, are the worst of all. I have now before and he has made the evils about three me the returns of the police of that city times as great as the official returns. for forty-two years; and, taking the last But there is something less excusable four that have been published, and striking than blundering. There is such a thing an average, they give one in every 245 as an inventive imagination when the eripersons ! Or, to place this matter in gencies of an argument require it. He another form, there are in each ten states that the illegitimate births of Engthousand of the populatious of these three land and Wales are six per cent., that those cities,- In Roman-Catholic Paris, 40 un- of Scotland are ten per cent., and that happy women; in Roman-Catholic Dublin, those of Ireland are only three per cent. ; 33; in Protestant London, 17.
and he argues triumphantly that it is Are not these figures eloquent as show. owing to the holy influence of the coning the fruits of the confessional ? They fessional that Ireland is more pure than demonstrate that the “social evil” in England, or Scotland, or Wales. Now the Dublin is nearly double, and in Paris more writer of all this is “ learned in the law,” than double, that of London. While, at and knows that there is an Act of Parliathe same time, the illegitimacy of Paris is ment requiring a return of the illegitimate eight times as great as that of London. births of England and Wales, and also that So much for this argument.
there is another Act of Parliament requiring As to his statistics, it may perhaps similar returns from Scotland. But he be a warning to himself never again also knows, being "learned in the law,” that to accept second-hand information, when there is no Act of Parliament requiring a the originals are within the reach similar return from Ireland. The Romish of every one. And certainly it may priests, for their own objects, and I do not be a caution to every man never to pretend to divine their motives, have depend on any figures under the mani. always and successfully resisted every law pulation of the theological school of “The requiring a return of the number of illo. Church and the World.” He states that gitimate births in Ireland. Accordingly the metropolitan police, in their report we have official and Governmental returns for 1864, return the “social evil" at from England, and from Wales, and from the figure of 28,000; whereas, on look- Scotland, but there are no official and ing at their report for that year, it was Governmental returns from Ireland. But only 5,619! (Page 2, table 6.) We may the argument of our author required them, well stare at such a discrepancy as this ; and therefore he makes them. Here is but the solution is simple enough, for he something worse than blundering. has only mistaken one figure for another. But afterwards he casts aside everything He has seen the figure indicating the that could pretend to official and Govern"social evil” of not only London, but mental authority, and gives us the sensaLiverpool, and Manchester, and Birming- tional exaggerations of anonymous perham, and Sheffield, and Leeds, and Bristol, sons. He tells of some one who thinks and Plymonth, and Brighton, &c., and has there are twenty thousand of these mistaken it for the figure referring to the wretched characters in the metropolis, metropolis alone! It is at least an easy and of some one else who believes there way of taking away the moral character of are sixty thousand, and then states his own London to heap on her the vice of all the opinion that there are forty thousand. On other cities of England beside her own; this announcement he proceeds to argue and yet be does this while at the foot of the terrible depravity of London, arising page 8, table 2, in the official returus for from the absence of the confessional. But that year, 1804, it is thus given, -"Total he has been very careful to keep back
from view the similar statements that are mixing the innocent and the guilty together, made as to the condition of Paris, where and pronouncing them all to be convicted the confessional is in all its glory. It was criminals. He has neither the Christian only last year that there was a public meet- nor manly candour to add, that 144,935 ing in Paris on this very subject of the were acquitted of all crime, nor that no less "social evil ;” and it was then stated by than 100,067 were mere charges of being an ecclesiastic that the number in that drunk,-a charge so lightly thought of by city was fifty thousand. And if such the French tribunals, that it is excluded loose statements are to be accepted as from their calendar as not being a crime at against London, they must also be accepted all. The actual result is, that the number as against Paris. And recollecting the of convictions, of all and every sort, difference in the populations of the two merely excluding those for being drunk, cities, these statements would give to was only 246,576, about one-half the London about thirteen thonsand to each number of convicted criminals as stated million, and to Paris thirty-three thousand by this writer! He states the number to to each million of the population. This be 491,971.-So far for the caudoar and process of argument certainly will not fairness of this writer. commend the confessional.
II. And now as to France. I have But the most saddening and painful already stated that, instead of selecting the part of my task is to exhibit the manipu- same year for France as he selected for lation of figures which characterizes almost England, as would be only fair, and just, every part of this remarkable article; and and equal, he seems to have scanned the I have undertaken it that it may be a French returns for a qnarter of a century, warning to every one who loves truth and they are now before me,-and then fairness never to trust the statements of selected the year with the lowest returns for men of the theological school from which the whole period. He carefully ayoided this article has emanated.
the same year, 1864. And he had good This writer professes to compare the reasons for avoiding it; for the official amount of crime in France with that in figures would have annihilated his whole England. Writing in 1867, he selects the argument. The official returns of that year 1864 for England. And then he selects year give no less than 653,954 convicnot the same year, but goes so far back tions, and in this figure there is not a as 1842 for France. Instead of comparing single case of suspicion only, or mere aceithe crime of the two countries in one and dent, or discharge, or acquittal, or even the same year, which would be only fair being drunk, but solely the number of and equal, he selects 1864, the highest ever absolute convictions. There were 653,954 kuown in England; and, as if running his convicted criminals in France in !864. eye down the returns for twenty-five years, The result is that the convictions of France he selects 1842, the lowest known in are 653,954, and of England, 246,576; France for the last quarter of a century ! that is, there is one convicted criminal
But let us see how he treats them. in every 56 persons in France, and only
I. As to England he says :-"In Eng. one in every 85 persons in England, land and Wales in 1864, when the popu. al ways excepting from both countries the lation was in round numbers 20,100,000, cases of being drunk. Such cases have the indictable offences amounted to 51,058, no place before the French tribunals, the summary convictions to 440,913 ; although they extend so fearfully among together 491,971. So that on the whole their manufacturing districts, that last 1 person in every 392 was a first-class year there were 491 deaths from intoxicacriminal, and 1 in every 45 a criminal tion in France, while there were 373 ia offender in a minor degree.” He omits, Englaud. however, to state that these figures include I conclude, therefore, with the hope all cases of suspicion only, all of mere that this letter may lead all who read it accidents, all cases dismissed as frivolous, to be very guarded before accepting the all persons who were discharged, and statistics of that school from which all who were acquitted, as well as all who “The Church and the World" has were convicted. He has collected all these proceeded. together to make this enormous number,
(The extracts which appear in our pages under the head of "General Religious Intelligence" are carefully taken from the most trustworthy sources at our command. We cannot undertake, how. ever, to answer for the propriety, in all cases, of their literary style; to guarantee, in every instance, the accuracy of dates, or of the naines of persons and places; or to endorse all the views which, on particular subjects connected with evangelical enterprise, agents of the various Religious Societies and Committees may advance.]
A SABBATH Warsaw.—After the whole assembly. The third gallery, searching in vain, says the Rev. Dr. into which I found access, was not seated, Prime, in the “New-York Observer," and the few persons in it stood at the to find the English service, which was front. It was a sublime spectacle, this said to be performed in an evangelical crowded sanctuary, perhaps three thousand chapel by a clergyman of the Church of people worshipping in a strauge tongue, England, we went to the Lutheran and all animated with the spirit of the Church. Its dome, rising from an open hour. Behind the pulpit was a life-size square, is a promineut object in the city. statue of the Saviour on the cross. The building itself is a rotunda and very In front of it four immense candles, each large. The yard was filled with all sorts four feet high, were burning. These of carriages, waggons, droskeys, and carts, candles and statue would lead us to suppose with horses of various grades, by which the that the Lutheran church was not wholly people had come in from the surrounding reformed, and that some relics of Romancouatry. Some of these vehicles were the ism still lingered in it. The minister read rndest kind of rustic waggons, and being a hymn, and around the organ a large covered with mud, and filled with straw as choir of young men and boys, no females the only seat, having no springs, and long, in it, stood up and sang—the whole asand narrow, indicated that the roads were sembly, men and women, with the organ, bad, and that the people had encountered singing with a mighty noise. The sermon some difficulties in getting to the house of followed ......... The clear, rich tones of God. It is rare to see such a show of the preacher's voice fell upon attentive teams about a city church. It was all the ears; and the earnestness of his manner more interesting in Warsaw, in the heart spoke well for him, though I could not of the old kingdom of Poland.
understand a word. At the door, as I I entered the porch, and it was crowded came out, there was a row of mendicants, by people unable to get into the thronged not asking alms, but willing and expecting church. Looking over their heads, I saw to receive the charities of those who three successive galleries rising above passed; and they were remembered by cach other. Following the
winding many. staircase in the vestibule, we reached the The principal streets of the city had first, and unable to get admission there, as many people in them, going to and we mounted to the second, which was also from church, as you would see in New full, and then to the third, where there York; and so widely do the fashions of was plenty of room. A singularly-impos- Paris prevail in the west, and east, and ing spectacle was presented. The vast north, that the fashionable people of Warandience-room was a perfect circle ; the saw, riding or walking, looked to be the three galleries sweeping completely around same sort of people that one meets in to the pulpit and organ behind it. The cities with which he is more familiar. pews on the ground-floor were occupied I walked into the Jewish quarter of by a class of persons, by their dress and the town. Their Sabbath was yesterday, inanner, more elevated in rank than the
but to-day is one of their feast-days, and others. The pew-doors were kept locked they were all out of doors. The men until the sermon was to be commenced, wore long frock-coats reaching to the when they were opened, and the crowd in ground; their dwellings were mostly the porch were permited to take those mean and low; but we saw women going not occupied by their owners. The first in and out of them dressed in rich silks gallery pews were filled with plainer with splendid velvet mantillas ; and they people. The second gallery had a set of were doubtless as well off for this world, as worshippers whose coarse and humble their people seem to be in all countries attire indicated the harder worked and where they have an opportunity to live and poorer people; but their dress
trade. They have the best hospital in cleanly, and an air of comfort pervaded Warsaw. They retain their nationality;
the expression of countenance, the curve India; and individuals of them are met with of the nose, the faculty of making and in all parts of the world. Seattered in this keeping money, wherever they go. Of way, large numbers of them lose the the five or six millions of people in Armenian language, and are bound toze. Poland, nearly one million are Jews. ther, as a nation, by nothing except the This is a large proportion, perhaps larger form of Christianity which they always than in any other country in Europe. carry with them, clothed in their own
There are only about three hundred ancient tongne. Their numbers are varithousand Protestants in Poland; and ously estimated, from three to seven when you learn that of the Russian or millions; probably five millions is nearly Greek Church there are but five or six correct. thousand, out of the five or six millions of The Gospel is said to have been presched people, you will see one grand reason why among the Armenians by the apostles Poland will never (?) be submissive to the Bartholomew and Thaddæus, and some of rule of Russia. Their religions are at the immediate disciples of Christ. All of war; Poland is intensely bigoted in its them suffered bitter persecution, and Bar. Romanism. In the street, in a public tholomew is said to have been flayed alive. square in Warsaw, we see a statue of the Many of the Armenians were converted to Virgin Mary, with an iron railing around Christianity at that time, and the aposit; flowers in pots are kept before it, tolical succession is reckoned from Thad. lamps by night are burning in its pre- dæus, with, perhaps, as good authority as sence, tumblers of oil with lighted wicks in the succession of Peter may be established them, and an old woman to light them as in the Romish Church. But it was not often as the wind blows them out; and until the commencement of the fifth cen. here the people are constantly coming and tury that, throngh the remarkable labours throwing themselves down on the stones, of “Gregory the Enlightener," the whole and saying their prayers. One young nation was brought to adopt the Chrisman was so earnest in his devotions that tian religion. By order of the king, the he prayed with a lond voice, regardless of heathen temples and altars were throw those around him, and as if he knew the down, and churches built in their stead; statue was quite deaf and could hear no schools were established, and the people common prayer. In 1863 the frightened were aroused to new life and energy. An people rushed to this image, when they alphabet was prepared for the language, saw that the insurrection was not to be which had previously been written with successful, and the Russian troops charged the characters of other languages, and the upon the prayiug multitude of men and Bible, newly translated, was the first book women on their knees. I have not seen written in the new character. more stupid idolatry in Spain or Italy How pure may have been the Christhan in Warsaw.
tianity thus established
Armenians we cannot now fully deterTHE ARMENIAN CHURCH.-It is mine; we are only sure of this, that the claimed by the Armenians that Haig,* or type we find among them to-day is as Haicus, son of Togarmah, who was grand corrupt as it can well be. Little by little the son of Japheth, was the founder of their language changed, until that into which race; and, consistently with this view, the Bible and the Church-books were they call themselves Haiks, and their translated was no longer the vernacular of country Haiäsdän, to this day. However the people. Having, therefore, no guidthis may be, it is evident from Scripture ing star, they very naturally wandered far allusions, (2 Kings xix. 37; Jer. li
. 27, from the truth, falling into numberless &c.,) and from profane writings, that superstitions and old wives' fables. They Armenian history is very ancient and believe in baptismal regeneration, traninteresting ; and that the independent substantiation, intercession of saints, nationality of the Armenians was main- extreme unction, purgatory, &c. tained, though with varying fortunes, until There are nine orders of clergy in the near the close of the fourteenth Christian Armenian Church, the six lowest of which century. During the last five centuries, are porters, readers, exorcists, candlehaving no central government to hold lighters, sub-deacons, and deacons. These them in the region of Ararat, their ancient perform the subordinate parts in all the country, they have become greatly scat- services and ceremonies of the Church. tered, and are found in large numbers in A candidate for the higher orders mast all parts of Turkey, in Russia, Persia, and first pass through all these lower, though
* The “ ai,” in all these words has the sound of" i "in "high."
they may all be passed in one day. It of that term. But the greater part of matters little how ignorant a candidate for them are gathered in monasteries, where the priesthood may be, provided he is able a few of the more disinterested and to read the Church service; but two thoughtful, having the real welfare of the things are absolutely essential to his be- people at heart, engage earnestly in relicoming a priest—that he discard razors, gious and literary studies; and to them and marry a wife. As celibacy is enjoined the nation is largely indebted for its liteon all the orders above the priesthood, the rature. The majority of these monks, priest, by marrying, cats himself off from however, busy themselves in caring for the all hope of promotion. This fact, and revenues of their respective monasteries, the narrow and trifling nature of the and in schemes for robbing the simplepriestly duties, tend to fill the office with minded pilgrims ; who, lured by monstrous an unambitious, inferior class of men, fables, visit their holy shrines. whose ignorance and indolence are only Every considerable city has its bishop, equalled by their meanness and treachery. whose diocese includes all the neighbourIf the priest's wife dies, he is not permitted ing villages. He ordains all the clergy to marry again. He may, however, be. below himself, receiving a fee for each come a “vartabed," and thus be thrown ordination, and if there be two applicants in the line of promotion. But it gene- for the same place, not scrupling to give it rally happens that a priest left a widower to the highest bidder. The bishop has an is more anxious to break the rules of the important part not only in the manageChurch and marry again than to be pro- ment of the financial affairs of the Church, moted.
but also in the assessment of taxes de. The priest in his every-day street dress manded by the Turkish Government, wears a bell-shaped cap, and" long, broad- taking care that a fair margin remains in cloth tunic, with loose sleeves. While his own hands. He celebrates mass on all officiating in the church, his tunic and important occasions, and while doing so, cap are removed, and over his shoulders is wears a most costly mitre and magnificent thrown a kind of cloak, which is pinned silken robes, and bears in one hand a in front, and on his head he wears a close- silver mace of office, and in the other a fitting skull-cap-a far less tasteful silver cross. arrangement than his out-door dress. The patriarch, though by some regardThe priests are the most numerous of all ed as a separate order, is more generally the orders of ecclesiastics. They are treated as merely a bishop with extrafound in large numbers in the cities, and ordinary jurisdiction and powers. For overy village has at least one, and more instance, the Bishop of Constantinople is frequently two or three. Their support, called "patriarch” because, by virtue of his often very meagre, is derived chiefly from position, he is able, in great part, to confees which they receive for baptism, mar- trol the appointment of all the bishops of riage, burial of the dead, prayers for the the empire, and is also the recognised repose of souls, &c.
civil representative of the Armenian The order of vartabeds is by some nation in Turkey, at the Sublime Porte. reckoned collateral in rank with the The catholicos is the highest of the priesthood, inasmuch as candidates are ecclesiastical orders, and is the “ Pope" ordained to both, directly from the rank in the Armenian Church, having his seat of deacon. By others it is made a separate at Echmiadzin, near the Turkish border, order, superior to the priesthood. How- in Russia, but having far less power than ever this may be, it is certain the “varta- the Pope of Rome. He seems content beds” are much more intelligent than with the honour of his position, together priests, and their position is invested with with its emoluments, derived from the sale far more dignity. The priests never of bishoprics, the monopoly of the traffic preach ; iustructing the people forms no in holy oil, used in all important cerepart of their duty. This work is specially monies of the Church, and the offerings committed to the “vartabeds." Per- of the devout. All bishops are ordained haps at some former period they may have by the catholicos, while he, in turn, is gone about preaching and teaching ; but ordained by a council of bishops. now they are never located in villages, and The lack of vigour in the ecclesiastical rarely visit them except to look after the domination of the Armenian Church, the revennes of the church. One, at least, is people's profound, though misdirected, found in each of the cities, who acts as veneration for the Bible, and their native private couusellor or secretary, or more intelligence and love of investigation, have sikely as boon companion to the bishop; contributed largely to the success which rarely preaching, in the usual acceptation has already attended the Missionary work