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Money mentioned in the New Testament reduced to Federal Currency.
dolls. c. m
A Mite, (Leptum, Mark xii. 42, Luke xii. 59).
, Matt. xvii. 24).
4 15 140 140 1280
1560 13888 1,500 000 24,000loolo
Measures of Length mentioned in the New Testament.
A Cubit, (John xxi. 8) about
miles. rds. ft. i.
74 44 37
3-4 000 000 20 to 30000000
Measures of Capacity mentioned in the New Testament.
say 9 gallons.
Seasons of the Year in Palestine. 1. Seed Time, corresponding to our October and November. 2. Winter,
December and January. 3. Cold Season,
" February and March. 4. Harvest,
April and May. 5. Summer,
June and July. 6. Hot Season,
“ August and September.
Matthew, or Levi, the son of Alpheus, was probably a native of Galilee. Little is recorded of him in the New Testament. He was called by our Lord to be one of his twelve apostles, as he sat at the receipt of custom in Capernaum, in the discharge of his duties as a publican, or tax-gatherer. He immediately left all, and followed the Messiah. Those who collected the Roman revenues in Palestine were held in great odium and ignominy by the Jews, and loaded with every opprobrious name. But Jesus hesitated not to mingle with this abhorred class, and even to choose one as his apostle, as if the better to demonstrate his reliance upon a power more than human, which could employ the foolish things of the world to confound the wise, and the weak things of the world to confound the things which are mighty.
The period of Matthew's discipleship and remaining life appears to have passed without note. Uncertain traditions existed in early times that he preached the Gospel in Parthia and Ethiopia, and fell as a martyr at Naddaber, in the latter country. But the single illustrious monument that remains of him is the following work. This towers simple and majestic over the ruins of time, and bears the name of the once despised publican down to the latest posterity.
His character, as we gather it from the brief data of history, and the style, structure, and spirit of his Gospel, was marked by decision, sterling honesty, and straight-forwardness. He showed his meekness in recording himself as one of a hated and ignominious calling; and his modesty in forbearing to state that the feast which took place after he was called by Jesus, was due to his hospitality. The marks of his unswerving truth and honest independence are traceable throughout his work.
He is generally supposed to have written his Gospel before the others, and hence it has always been placed first. At what exact period it was composed is unknown. Some critics assign it to A. D. 38 or 41, while others, with more probability, conjecture it to have been written as late as A. D. 61 or 64. The great authority of Lardner is in favor of the last date.
Matthew is believed to have used the Hebrew language in the original composition of his Gospel; or rather a mixed dialect termed Aramean, or Syro-Chaldaic, made up of Hebrew, Chaldaic, and Syriac,-our Saviour's vernacular tongue. According to Eusebius, it is stated by Papias, who lived about A. D. 100, that “Matthew composed his history in the Hebrew dialect, and every one translated it as he could;" and by Irenæus, A. D. 190, that “Matthew, then among the Hebrews, published a Gospel in their own language; whilst Peter and Paul were preaching the Gospel, and founding a church at Rome.” Eusebius himself says, that “Matthew,
INTRODUCTION TO THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW.
having first proclaimed the Gospel in Hebrew, when on the point of going to other nations, committed it to writing in his native tongue, and thus supplied the want of his presence to them by his writings.” No copy of this Gospel, however, is now extant in the Aramean, or SyroChaldaic language. All existing manuscripts are in Greek. The translator of the work from the original into Greek is unknown.
The Gospel of Matthew was written and circulated particularly in Palestine, and was designed by its author to exhibit Jesus to the Jews as their Messiah, who had been so long predicted, and so eagerly expected. Hence he often quotes from their sacred books in the way of illustration, and to show the fulfilment of ancient prophecies, thus enlisting in the cause of the Gospel their national feelings and religious associations. As he wrote for the Jews, be takes less pains than Mark, who wrote for the Latin Christians, to explain the inanners, customs, opinions, ceremonies, and geography of the country.
“The Gospel of Matthew," says Dr. Carpenter, “ from the Temptation to the Last Journey to Jerusalem, is essentially Galilean. During that interval, he gives no intimation of occurrences in any part of Palestine, but Galilee and its borders."
“Great brevity in the relation of facts, and detail in the record of discourses, are two of the characteristics of St. Matthew's Gospel. His manner is calmly earnest throughout; and it has the impress of deep conviction and certain knowledge. He gives a clear, but compressed summary of the transactions which he relates; entering but little into the circumstances of each; yet tracing the main fact distinctly and forcibly. For this style of composition, his official duties had, it is probable, peculiarly qualified him; that it is his style is not to be disputed.”
The writer above quoted considers Matthew's order of events, in respect to chronological arrangement, as preferable to that of the other evangelists, though there are exceptions in some places. The devotion of thirty years, with more or less application, to the study of the Four Gospels, entitles his opinions to a candid attention.
The first two chapters of Matthew, the passage contained in chap. xxvii. verses 3—10 inclusive, and the latter clause of verse 52 and the whole of verse 53, in the same chapter, are deemed by some critics, chiefly out of respect to the internal evidence as weighed in their judgments, to be interpolations. But the external evidence from manuscripts, versions, and the early fathers, was not of such a nature as to lead Griesbach to reject either of the passages from the text, or to place it under a mark of inferior authority. And his decisions, so far as that kind of testimony is concerned, have been admitted with great unanimity by almost all critics of every denomination.
GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MATTHEW.
The Genealogy and Birth of Jesus Christ. THE book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the 2 sou of Abraham. -Abraham begat Isaac; and Isaac begat Ja
1. The book of the generation. -Jesus. Saviour; the same as The table of the genealogy, or the Joshua. Jesus is the Greek, and & catalogue of the ancestors. This is Joshua is the Hebrew form of the probably not the title of the whole word. Joshua is called Jesus in Gospel, but the heading of the first Acts vii. 45. Heb. iv. 8.-Christ. chapter, or, more likely, of the first Anointed. The same in Greek as seventeen verses. See Gen. v. 1. Messiah in Hebrew. Dan. ix. 25. xi. 10. Ruth iv. 18. The Jews Priests, Prophets, and Kings were were very careful to preserve their anointed as a sign of induction genealogies. Copies of them were into their respective offices. Exokept at Jerusalem, and handed dus xl. 15. 1 Kings xix. 16. It down thousands of years.
This was usual among the Orientals to was done, in addition to the desire give significant names to their chilcommon to all men of knowing dren. "Our Lord was a Saviour to their ancestry, in order to distin the world, as he came to rescue and guish the tribes and families from preserve men from sin, and a Meseach other, to secure the fulfilment siah, or Christ, an Anointed one, of the laws respecting marriage, to the Jews, as succeeding in srme and the rights of succession to offi sense to their Kings, Priests, and ces and estates, and to afford the Prophets, combining their offices in means of ascertaining in what tribe his commission, and fulfilling the the Messiah was born. Priests who old prophecies.--Son of David, &c. had not kept their lineage accurate Descendant of David and Abraham. ly were degraded from their office. It was essential that the Messiah Ezra ii. 62. Neh. vii. 64. Euse should be able to trace his ancestry bius, the earliest ecclesiastical his to these distinguished persons, so torian, mentions, on the authority venerable to the Jewish mind. Matof Africanus, a tradition that Herod thew was writing to Jewish conthe Great committed the Hebrew verts, and he writes in accordance genealogies kept in the public ar with their feelings. It is generally chives to the flames, that he might supposed that he gives the descent conceal his ignoble extraction, but of Joseph, the reputed father of that they were restored either by Jesus. Whilst Luke, writing for recollection, or by private copies. Gentiles, traces the pedigree of JeThe public documents were utterly sus from Mary through her father destroyed in the sack of Jerusalem Heli, through Nathan, David, and and the dispersion of the nation by Abraham, back to Adam, the anthe Romans, A. D. 70. Other na cestor of both Jews and Gentiles. tions have prided themselves upon Luke iii. 23–38. Their lists are their genealogies. The Welsh pre- different, but not contradictory. tend to carry theirs back to Adam. They drew them no doubt from the
cob; and Jacob begat Judas and his brethren. And Judas begat 3 Phares and Zara of Thamar. And Phares begat Esrom; and Esrom begat Aram ; and Aram begat Aminadab; and Aminadab begat Naas- 4 son; and Naasson begat Salmon; and Salmon begat Booz of Ra- 5 chab. And Booz begat Obed of Ruth. And Obed begat Jesse ; and 6 Jesse begat David the king. And David the king begat Solomon of her that had been the wife of Urias. And Solomon begat Roboam; 7 and Roboam begat Abia; and Abja begat Asa; and Asa begat Jo- 8 saphat; and Josaphat begat Joram; and Joram begat Ozias; and 9 Ozias begat Joatham; and Joatham begat Achaz; and Achaz begat Ezekias; and Ezekias begat Manasses; and Manasses begat Amon; 10 and Amon begat Josias; and Josias begat Jechonias and his brethren, 11 about the time they were carried away to Babylon.—And after they 12 were brought to Babylon, Jechonias begat Salathiel; and Salathiel begat Zorobabel; and Zorobabel begat Abiud; and Abiud begat Elia- 13 kim; and Eliakim begat Azor; and Azor begat Sadoc; and Sadoc 14 begat Achim; and Achim begat Eliud; and Eliud begat Eleazar; 15 and Eleazar begat Matthan; and Matthan begat Jacob; and Jacob 16 begat Joseph the husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus, who is same archives at Jerusalem. If ber between David and the Babythen the genealogies are inaccurate, lonish captivity just fourteen, and whish is improbable, for they were thus render the list more convenient never impugned in early times, the to remember, or because there was error is chargeable upon the original curse denounced against the records, not upon the Evangelists house of Ahab, to which these who copied them.
princes belonged; Ozias, therefore, 2. Judas and his brethren. His was the great-grandson of Joram. brethren are mentioned because 11. Between Josias and Jechothey with Judah were the heads of nias came Jehoiakim. 1 Chron. the twelve tribes. In this genealo- ijj. 15. gy some naines are altered from the 13. Zorobabel. Here terminates Hebrew to the Greek orthography, the line as recorded in the Old Tesas Judah to Judas, Hesron to Es tament. The rest was drawn froin rom, Azariah to Ozias.
later tables, or tradition. 3. Phares and Zara. The latter 16. Of whom. This pronoun is introduced because he was a twin. in the feminine gender in Greek, reGen. xxxviii. 27. The names ferring then not to Joseph, but to of several women are mentioned Mary. Jesus was the actual son of on account of remarkable events in Mạry, but only the reputed, or legal their lives, by which their posterity son of Joseph, and in that way the are identified.
descendant of Joseph's ancestry8. Joram begat Ozias. Three Called Christ. This was added in names, Ahaziah, Joash, and Ama the public record to distinguish ziah, 1 Chron. iii. 11, 12, are here him from others of the same name. omitted, perhaps to make the num Col. iy. 11.