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stations of Coro and Puerto Rico, his tined, it would appear, to leave behind necessary supplies from which had hi. hin the greatest reputation to which therto been obliged to travel to him by the South-American revolution has yet a circuit of some hundred leagues across given birth), after his forced retreat from the interior of the country. This last Puerto Cabello in the preceding year, misfortune utterly broke for a time finding his services no longer demanded the spirit of the Venezuelans, and Mi. by the expiring Junta of Venezuela, randa found himself at last obliged to offered himself and the few soldiers he listen to the proposals of the success. had with him to the more prosperous ful general. A capitulation was signed sister state of New Granada. After between him and Monteverde, by which being employed for some time by his it was provided, that the sovereignty new masters in various important serof the Spanish Cortes should be ac- vices, he at last demanded their perknowledged ; that a complete am. mission to lead a small body of troops nesty should be granted for all former across the Andes, once more to atopinions and actions; and finally, that tempt the liberation of his native proliberty of emigrating from Venezuela vinces of Venezuela. This permission should be conceded to all who might was granted, and Bolivar lost no time desire it. Immediately after the sign, in making use of it. He penetrated ing of the treaty, Monteverde enjoyed the hills in the end of 1813, and being the satisfaction of seeing the authority joined by the men of Cumana, and by of the Cortes established once more - great numbers of recruits from every throughout the whole of Venezuela. part of the country, he soon found The cruelty, however, with which he himself in condition to drive the forces violated his own part of the treaty, . of Monteverde everywhere before him. was probably the chief cause of the The last and greatest action of this brief endurance of his triumph. Mi- campaign was decided in his favour by randa, and about a thousand of his the defection of the whole of the Spafriends, were thrown into dungeons nish cavalry, and this was immediately at Puerto Cabello and La Guayra. followed by his making his triumphThe most important persons were sent ant entry into the capital city of Cato Cadiz, where there is every reason

He was there received with to suppose some of them still continue all manner of joy and affection by the to languish in confinement, after no inhabitants. But his triumph' had less then seven years have passed over been attended with evil omens, and their heads. These events occurred victory, stained as his was, might have before the end of 1812.

been welcome indeed, but should About eighteen months had elapsed, scarcely have been joyful. The fault, when the entire appearance of things however, at least the main fault, does in Venezuela was once more changed. not attach to Bolivar. The Spaniards The inbabitants of Cumana, one of the having surrounded, in the course of his provinces which had suffered least du. advance, a small detachment of his ring the former commotions, rose of a army, under the command of his friend sudden, in consequence of some bar. Briceno, that officer was executed af. barities of the Spanish governor ; ter his surrender by order of the royaland the war was already renewed ist general Tiscar. Bolivar from this in those districts, when Monteverde moment declared that all terms were received intelligence of a still more at an end; whoever thenceforth fell alarming nature from another. Si- into the possession of either party, demon Balivar, (a remarkable man, des- manded quarter in vain. The rules of


civilised warfare were entirely aban- favour, but which they, equally with doned, and the war of death, the guerra their adversaries, will in the issue find a muerte, as it is called, begun. It is abundant cause to repent. Monte. since this period that the true horrors verde resolved to raise the slaves against of the revolution are to be dared their masters throughout the VenezuHenceforth the hostilities of the Ca- elan provinces, and, having once deterraccas have assumed a character to mined on this measure, he found no which European eyes, accustomed difficulty in procuring agents willing though they be to war, are totally and and well qualified to assist him in car. happily strangers.

rying it into execution. The most acIn this terrible method of contest, tive of his secret emissaries were Boves, the side of Bolivar had for some time Yanez, Puy, and Palomo--the last a decided superiority; and in a few himself a negro, who had been outmonths, Monteverde, his reverse being lawed several years before as a robber as rapid as his success had been, found and an assassin.

These savage agents his authority confined to the single city soon found their way into the interior of Puerto Cabello, whither he himself of the insurgents' country; and spreadhad retreated at the time when Bolivar ing, wherever they went, the seeds of obtained possession of the capital. The wrath in the breasts of men in whom siege of this place was forth with com., such wrath can scarcely be blamed, menced with vigour by the republic. they succeeded in raising simultaneans; but, in spite of the superiority of ously, in different parts of the terri. his enemy's forces, and in spite of the tory, armies sufficient to encounter total failure of a sally, when he headed with equality, if not superiority of the elite of his own troops, and was numbers, any which Bolivar could severely wounded, the Spanish general even then bring into the field. The persisted in the defence of his position republican, however, separated his with a pertinacity worthy of the best forces, and, after a succession of san. times of his nation. His pride and his guinary actions, he obtained what he cruelty were equal to his fortitude. He conceived at the time to be a final rejected with scorn every offer of treaty triumph over them at Carabobo, on from Bolivar ; he placed whatever pri- the 28th of May, 1814. The ravages soners he had in his power before his of these last enemies had been suffi. lines when the assault was given ; and cient to throw even all the former on one occasion he hanged four men of atrocities of the war into the shade. some distinction in front of the ene. From the mouth of the Oroonoko, my's quarters. In all these brutalities where one of the main inroads had he was followed, passibus équis indeed, commenced, to the city of Caraccas but still only followed, by the insur. itself, a space of four hundred leagues gents. A diversion was attempted in was laid entirely bare by fire, sword, favour of Monteverde by the royalists and famine. Bolivar, understanding of Coro. But these, after penetrating that these barbarians had assembled into the territory of Caraccas, were the relics of their strength in the termet by Bolivar himself, and entirely ritory of Los Llanos, which lies becut off in three successive engagements, yond the frontier of Venezuela, disat Vigorima, Barbula, and Araure. patched several of his best troops in

Upon this last disappointment, the pursuit of them ; but having by this royalists of Puerto Cabello had re means too much subdivided his forces, course to a measure, which, for a time he was himself surprised by an assault indeed, turned the tide of war in their of Boves, at the head of a considerable


royalist force which had not been pre. government landed, at the end of 1815, sent at Carabobo, and was defeated by a force which might have been expecthim with great slaughter. This re ed to secure the possessions they had verse occurred at Cura, about fifty acquired, the deportment of their leagues from the city of Caraccas. chiefs disgusted very speedily a great Its worst consequence was the excite. portion of the very troops to whose ment of a spirit of dissention among exertions their successes had been ow. the republicans themselves. These ing; and these, deserting in considerdissentions terminated in distrust of able bodies, began to act together as Bolivar, who, in his turn, being ill. guerillas, and to wish that they had treated by his friends, lost for a time such a general as Bolivar to preside possession of that high confidence in over their movements. Bolivar him. himself which had hitherto rendered self, in the meantime, had entered into him so formidable to his enemies. an agreement with one Brion, a man Wearied with the scenes of horror of large fortune in Carthagena, who through which he had passed, and de- undertook to defray the expences of serted by most of those who ought to a maritime expedition to the island of have adhered to him in the hour of his Margarita, which forms part of the calamities, he embarked once more captaincy of Venezuela, and where, with a few tried companions, and set as Bolivar had learned, the republicsail for Carthagena. He there offered an standard had just been raised by his services once again to the Congress Arismendi. He sailed; and, having of New Granada, and being again ac. taken two Spanish ships of war in cepted, he continued for two years to an action at sea, made his appearfight the Spaniards under their colours, ance at Margarita in force sufficient anxiously expecting the time when he 10 strike a panic into the Spaniards. might again have an opportunity to These therefore left the island with elevate his own.

precipitation, and Bolivar found himThe same causes which prepared self at leisure to think of turning the way

for his first return, were not his arms elsewhere. He landed aclong in reni sving their operation and cordingly, after some deliberation, not their effect. Although the Spanish far from Cumana,* in the neighbour

The barbarous rage of the Spaniards, on hearing that Bolivar had again begun to make his appearance among them, may be gathered from the following anecdote, cxtracted from the journal of a British naval officer, (Captain Hardy, of the Mermaid).

Cumana, June 12, 1816. “I witnessed the following barbarous act :- A female, of a most respectable family in Cumana, having spoken against the Spanish government and in favour of the patriotic party, was placed on an ass, led through the streets attended by ten soldiers; at the corner of every street, and opposite the houses of her nearest connections, she received a certain number of lashes on her bare back, nearly two hundred being the number she was sentenced to. The poor sufferer was blindfolded, and bore the inhuman treatment with as much fortitude as was ever exhibited on such an occasion. Her cries were feeble ; but I could discover, notwithstanding, through her veil, that her tears were trickling down.

“ I saw but one dozen lashes inflicted. Some of my crew observed the whole sentence put in execution. My feelings were too much shocked for curiosity to overcome them. I made enquiries concerning the poor girl, and I was informed that she refused all food and medical assistance, and died in a few days, being unable, from her exquisite feelings, to survive the disgrace and pain she had suffered.”

hood of which city, he was informed, return before Bolivar embarked, and some of the guerilla corps had their being pressed by the victorious royal. stations. These corps immediately ists, changed the course of his march, joined him, and, having then embark- and struck along the coast eastward ed them in his vessels, he sailed for to Barcelona, that he might have the Ocumare, a port lying on the same more easy communication with the coast, considerably more to the west. guerillas of Cumana. He did not, ward. Here he landed on the 6th of however, reach that city, without beJune, 1816, and immediately issued a ing obliged to fight two battles with proclamation, offering freedom to the Morales. In the last of them he was slaves, and announcing his resolution completely triumphant, and immedia that the war of death should be at an ately after it he made his entrance into end.

Barcelona. Here Bolivar joined him His first object was to secure pos- in December, with reinforcements of session of the capital, Caraccas. In every kind, which he had been able to the direction of that city, accord. procure from Arismendi at Margarita. ingly, the vanguard of his army im. From this time, the war in Carac. mediately marched, under the com- cas has been conducted with greater mand of a Scots adventurer, by name equality of success than at any former Gregor M‘Gregor, who had for some period. The country, devastated and time been attached to the fortunes of impoverished by a war of seven years, Bolivar, and who was valuable to him does not possess resources enough to on account of his experience in arms, support armies long in any one quarderived from the peninsular campaigns. ter. The consequence of this has The general himself was preparing to been, that almost every town in the follow with the rest of his forces, interior has changed its masters more when he found his progress arrested than once within the last two years. by the royalist general Morales, who, The republican party, in the mean in the issue, defeated him, and com- tíme, has agents in various parts of pelled him to effect a hasty re-embark- Europe, who omit no exertion to proation of his troops. M'Gregor, in cure soldiers and arms for the assist. the meantime, having gone too far to ance of their countrymen.* The mo.

We write December, 1818. It would appear that these agents, in many instances, exceed their powers, in such a way as to injure most severely those who rashiy listen to their proposals. A vír James Ilacket has just published a very interesting little narrative, in which he details the history of an expedition which sailed from the Thames in the end of 1817, to join Bolivar in Venezuela. Bolivar, it seems, has no desire of such reinforcements, and is neither able nor inclined to spend any of the little money he has on the support of English auxiliaries. The expedition, in which Mr Hacket was engaged, on reaching the West Indian islands near to the coast of Caraccas, found that they were going on a thankless errand, and gave up all thoughts of persisting in their designs. The greater part of the men composing the force were Teluced to great distress, being abandoned by the merchantmen which had carried them out, and obliged to seek a circuitous and precarious method of returning home, by wor!:ing their passage to North America. This should operate as an example to the young unemployed military, of which we have at present such an abundance ; but none of whom we can spare, unless it be for their own advantage. It should be mentioned, that Mr Hacket, notwithstanding all the sufferings he has undergone, has come back with the same confidence in the ultimate success of Bolivar which formed the original motive of kis journey.

ther country is too weak to make any The consequence of the foolish con.. commanding exertion ; and, however duct of Santa Fe, was a minor civil war long the struggle may be protracted, between it and the Congress, which there can be little doubt that, in the terminated in its reduction by force end, it will not be favourable for her. of arms; and the capital of Cariha

We have hitherto attempted to gena has in like manner undergone a follow the course of events in Vene- siege by the troops of the Congress. zuela. That province deserves parti. In the first years of the war, not with. cular attention, not because it is the standing, distinguished success attend. richest or the most important of the ed the general exertions of the insurSpanish colonies, but because in it the gents. Their armies, headed by Nawar first commend

enced, and has been rino, a man of high talents and dauntconducted with the most determined less resolution, repelled every attack fury down to the time when we are of the royalists, and defeated them on writing. Its vicinity to some of our one occasion in a great battle at El own islands, too, has rendered the allo del Palace, with circumstances of events which have occurred there bet. heroism not inferior to any thing which ter known to us, than are those which has been displayed in Venezuela. The have taken place in most of the other province of Popayan, alone, still held South American provinces. We shall out for the royalists, and Narino marchnow, however, attempt, so far as our ed against it in June 1814, with every information enables us, to bring down prospect of success. The district, the history of the sister states to the however, is rugged and mountainous ; same point.

and Narino, having fallen into an amThe vice-royalty of New Granada bush, was made prisoner, along with is situated immediately adjoining to the greater part of his troops. Bolithe provinces of Venezuela, and its var, the Venezuelan, during his last inhabitants seem to have caught from absence from his own country, supthence, at the very moment of the revo. plied the place of this general. But, lution in 1810, the first spark of that since the recommencement of hostilienthusiasm for independence which has ties in the Caraccas, it would seem that since distinguished them. Unfortu- the Granadian army has been less fornately, however, for New Granada, tunate in its commanders. In 1816, her various provinces, although all General Morillo sailed from Spain with desirous of freedom, have never been a force of 12,000 men, and leaving united among themselves by a perfect 2000 at Puerto Cabello under the com. harmony of views in regard either to mand of Morales, (whose proceedings the species of free government to be we have already described,) he landed established, or on the mode in which with the rest in New Granada, and its establishment might be effected. commenced immediately the siege of The great city of Santa Fe de Bogota, Carthagena. He was repulsed* at for example, resisted for several years first, but, in the end, he succeeded every proposal of uniting itself to the not only in taking this city, but in General Congress of New Granada; restoring the authority of King Fer. and the province of Cart hagena has dinand over almost the whole of the preferred, during almost the whole territory of the confederation. Mo. period of the war, to conduct its af- rillo himself, however, seems to be fairs in the same independent manner. well aware that the spirit of disaffec

* See Register, 1816.

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