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tion is still very widely at work among ment of the revolution by the govern. the New Granadians ; and he writes ment of Brazil. Artigas, the general to the Spanish war-minister, on the of Monte Video, appears to watch the 7th of March, 1816, in terms which Portuguese, and to have checked every indicate the depth of his fears for the attempt which they have made towards future condition of their country. The the extension of their dominion in his successes of Bolivar in Venezuela, in neighbourhood. The army of Buenos the end of that year, and more lately, Ayres, in the meantime, their own must of necessity have tended very country being considered in perfect much to keep alive the spark of dis- security, have passed the mountains affection ; and it seems probable, that into Chili, and lent powerful assistshould Morillo find it necessary to ance to the independent party in that withdraw any considerable portion of district. his army for the purpose of strength. Chili, like Buenos Ayres, had a ening the hands of the royalists in junta and an independent government Venezuela, a renewal of open revolt so early as 1810; but the royalists would be the immediate consequence from Peru having invaded its terri. of that measure in New Granada. tory in great force, the authority

In the great region of La Plata, of Ferdinand had been fairly re-estathe success of the revolution seems to blished, when the arrival of the troops have been far less chequered with ad- from La Plata encouraged the people versity. Here, indeed, as in New to rise once more upon the Spaniards. Granada, the patriots have had many These were unable to resist such a dissentions among themselves, and combination, and entirely evacuated these have retarded and interrupted the country. Throughout Chili the the progress of their general emanci- independent government is now unipation The Junta of Buenos Ayres versally recognised, and the most per. assumed the reins of government about fect tranquillity prevails. The strength the same time when similar measures of the country, protected, on almost were adopted in Venezuela and New every side, by the impassable Andes, Granada ; but it was not till June, is such, that any invasion by land could 1816, that they issued a formal pro- not fail to be repulsed. According to clamation of independence. After a the last intelligence, the combined ar. long struggle with the royalist troops mies of Buenos Ayres and Chili had under Liniers, the ex-viceroy, and marched after the royalists into Peru, other commanders, and undergoing, and driven them as far as Potosí. in the course of this long struggle, In New Spain, that mighty viceroyal. many remarkable vicissitudes of for. ty, which, including within its bounds, tone, with regard to which we have besides several minor districts, the two little access to particular information, rich and populous captain-generalships the Junta of Buenos Ayres has now of Mexico and Yucatan, the revolu. obtained an apparently firm and de- tionary war has subsisted as long, and cided authority over all the provinces been diversified with as unexpected on the river of La Plata,-excepting reverses, as in any other of the Transonly the city and territory of Monte atlantic dominions of the Spanish Video, which are governed by a Junta crown. In the year 1808, when the of their own, in strict alliance with interı al dissentions of the mother coun. that of Buenos Ayres, and a few places try became known, the viceroy, Iluon the west bank of the river, which rigarray, was requested to assemble a have been seized since the commence. Junta, who might take into their own

hands the supreme government of the retreat almost as rapid as his advance country. The viceroy appeared in- had been. In an action which occur. clined to favour the views of those red about the end of the year, he was who made this request, and was sup- taken prisoner; and, immediately afposed to be on the point of complying terwards, he was executed by order with their wishes, when the Spaniards of Venegas. Morelos, another priest, in his capital entered, his palace by who had received from Hidalgo the night, and sent him prisoner to Spain. rank of field-marshal, now assumed The removal of this officer checked the command; and, for several years, for a time, but did not extinguish, the the war was maintained between him hopes of the Americans; and the cruel and the royalists, under Venegas and deportment of his successor, Venegas,' Calleja, with the utmost fury, and serving to inflame the minds of the with very various success. But Mopeople, an alarming insurrection at relos at last shared the fate of Hidalsast took place in 1810. The leader go; and after the loss of him, the of this revolution was one Hidalgo, cause of the Junta seems to have been a priest ; a man possessed of many re. rapidly and uniformly on the decline. markable talents-above all, of the Latterly, moreover, the cruel Venegas power to excite boundless enthusiasm, having been recalled, Apodacha, a by an artful mixture of religion and man of mild and conciliating characpolitics in his addresses to the people. ter, has been sent out as viceroy; and His chief officers were priests, like the wisdom of this nomination has himself. They immediately formed a been abundantly proved by the event. Junta, and declared Hidalgo captain. Adopting, in every particular, the general. Beginning at the town of most popular measures, the viceroy Dolores, where Hidalgo had his re. has succeeded, in a great measure, in sidence, the army, under the command reconciling a people tired of wars to of this man, began a march towards the authority of Ferdinand. In one the capital of Mexico, in which, for department (that of the Provincias some months, he persisted triumph. Internas), the insurgents still hold out antly, repelling and defeating every in corsiderable force; and in June, royalist force that was sent against 1816, they received a strong accession him, and taking possession, in his pro. by the arrival of General Mina, (the gress, of several of the greatest cities well-known guerilla chief) who brought in the new world. The viceroy, how. with him a large supply of arms, and ever, having persuaded the archbishop a considerable number of experienced of Mexico to excommunicate Hidalofficers, from Europe. Nevertheless, go, this, in some degree, shook the it would seem that the royalists contisuperstitious spirits of his followers. nue to gain ground, and that, in the He advanced, notwithstanding, to the words of a dispatch from the viceroy, gates of Mexico, and there was every "there appears no immediate prospect reason to suppose that his entrance of these provinces renouncing their there would have been hailed with allegiance to Spain.” exclamations of joy by the greater But these very words of the vicepart of the inhabitants ; but sudden- roy, communicating the intelligence ly, whether from unwillingness to ex. of his success, prove how cold are his pose the city to the hazards of a re. expectations with regard to its ulte. solute defence, or damped by some rior and more important consequences. symptoms of dissention in his army, The Spaniards themselves, in spite of he turned round, and commenced a that obstinate and stubborn' resolution

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which forms the chief ingredient in ther country, were she doubly larger their character, cannot any longer than she is, could have no expectation conceal from themselves, that what- of coping. The mother country, moreever advantages they may gain can over, is torn and lacerated by domestic only be temporary ones, and that the factions; her revenue does not suffice cause in which they are engaged is even for her domestic expenditure, to one that, in the end, must fail. To say nothing of immense expeditions to reduce these mighty kingdoms to their the new world. But above all, the former state of subjection, after they Spanish Americans have perpetually have supported for eight years a war before their eyes the freedom of the for independence, is an attempt which United States on the one hand, and would probably be too much for any Brazil flourishing under a resident king European power, but which is utterly on the other. With these objects at and manifestly absurd in the case of a hand to stimulate their ardour, it is power so reduced in all its energies as scarcely possible that the people of Spain. For a few years, indeed, she New Granada, La Plata, and Mexico, may continue to send armies and gene- can for a moment permit themselves rals to America, and these, like the to sit down in contented submission. army which sailed under Morillo, may Nor even if they should, would Spain obtain, for a time, no inconsiderable be long a gainer by their pusillanisuccess. They may capture cities, mity. Were a far wiser prince than and scatter armies; but the strength Ferdinand at this moment recognized of their adversaries does not lie in as the indisputed lord of all the pro. fortresses, and of men they have no vinces which he has lost, we are perwant. The superiority of European suaded he would find it utterly im. tactics will soon cease to be observed possible to oppose any enduring barin the history of these American wars; rier to that stream of events which for the South Americans must learn, seems to carry America irresistibly as already the North Americans have into independence of Europe. learned, to be as good soldiers as those What England in vain attempted in with whom it is their business to fight. the plenitude of her vigour, it is not The war, besides, must come to de. to be believed that Spain can do in the pend less and less upon the character midst of that decline which is equally of particular troops'; for, in its es- discernible over every department of sence, it is a national war, and the her resources. It matters not whewhole population must, in the end, ther she continue to combat the insurbecome an armed population. Moun- gents in every state, or, concentrating tains, rivers, deserts, and immense dis- all her power, endeavour to rescue at tances-every meansof natural strength least one of her old possessions from is in the hands of the Americans. Their their hands. Should she abandon all antagonists can never, in regard to num- but Mexico, the army of South Amebers, be any other than a drop in the rica would soon do for Mexico what bucket, when compared with them; that of Buenos Ayres has already done for they are only what a population for Chili. of ten millions can spare, and send Without professing to entertain any across the Atlantic, to subdue a po- very extravagant notion of the Abbé pulation nearly twice as great. The de Pradt in his general character of a population of the South American political prophet, we cannot help think. provinces, too, is destined to multiply ing that the views he has embraced itself to an extent, wherewith the mo- concerning the future destinies of Ame.

rica, seem, on the whole, to be sup- have obtained. The pretending and ported by a larger and firmer basis of gasconading character of his style undeniable facts, than were ever before should not be allowed too deeply to piled together to sustain a prospective prejudice us against a writer, who has and predictive theory. His work on undoubtedly as much acuteness, and “ America, and on the Colonies," at least as much eloquence, as any of is highly deserving of more serious his contemporaries. consideration than as yet it seems to

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CHAP. XIII,

West Indies.---Disturbances in Jamaica and Barbadoes. Different Representa

tions given of the Causes of these l'umults in the British Parliament.--Mr Wilberforce's Motion concerning a Slave Registry Bil-abandoned for the present.--East Indies.-Second Campaign in Nepaul.-Battle of Muckwampore.Capture of Hurrykurpore.Peace concluded.-Cessions to the British._Proceedings in Cutch.--Disturbances at Barreilly.--Inroad of the Pindarees.-Java is delivered up to the Dutch.

In the same hemisphere, meantime, pleasure an extent of country much our own more scattered possessions wider than these at first conceived to .continued to be visited with many be in any danger from their violence, symptoms of that general spirit of co- On the evening of the third day, the lonial commotion, to which allusion ring leader, or captain of the whole, has already been made in treating of was defeated in a village where he had the more terrible convulsions which posted the prime and flower of his adhave so long agitated the more exten- herents; he was surrounded and taken, sive and important provinces of Spain. and executed on the morrow; but be. In Jamaica, an insurrection of negroes fore his death, he made such disclooccurred at the opening of the year, sures as enabled the king's authorities which promised to be of long and se to cut off all communication among sious endurance at its commencement, the remainder of the negroes, and so but which the vigilance of the Duke to prevent the farther progress, and of Manchester happily suppressed in not improbable completion, of a plot, the course of a few days. A far more which, according to the account given extensive and alarming tumult took of it by this desperate chief, exceeded, place in Barbadoes on Easter Monday. in the boldness of its preconcerted atroIo that island, however, the level cha. cities, every thing which has yet ocracter of the country, and the much curred in the history of these ferocious greater admixture of white inhabitants, savages. presented facilities of repressing the The notice of parliament was immecommotion, infinitely superior to what diately directed to the subject of these almost any other of our insular colo. disturbances by the old and honoured nies could have afforded. For three champion of negro emancipation, Mr days, nevertheless, the insurgent slaves Wilberforce. This gentleman made a not only made head against all the long and energetic speech, in which troops which the governor could bring he expressed his conviction, that a into the field, but deyastated at their very great share of the unhappy tuVOL. IX. PART I,

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