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the temple of another divinity, at a and especially upon his works in ivory, distance from Athens.
in which he stood unrivalled. The statue of Minerva within the Elidas, the Argive, is mentioned as temple, was the work of Phidias him. the master of Phidias; which honour self, and with the exception of the is also shared by Hippias. His two Jupiter which he made at Elis, the most celebrated scholars were Al. most celebrated of his productions.camenes an Athenian of noble birth, It was composed of ivory and gold; and Agoracritus of Paros; the latter with regard to which, some very cu of whom was his favourite; and it rious anecdotes relating to the politie was reported, that out of affection to cal history of that time, are to be him, Phidias put his scholar's name found in the same writers; the earli- upon several of his own works; among est of which, from a passage in a which the statue called Rhamnusian contemporary poet, Aristophanes, Nemesis is particularized by Pliny proves that the value of these mate and Suidas. rials involved both Pericles and the In another passage of Pliny, Aldirector of his works in great trouble camenes is classed with Critias, Nes. and jeopardy; upon which account tocles, and Hegias, who are called the latter is said to have withdrawn the rivals of Phidias. The name of to Elis, and to have ended his days Colotes is preserved as another of his there, leaving it doubtful whether his scholars. death was natural, or in consequence The other great sculptors, who of a judicial sentence; but Plutarch were living at the same time with places his death at Athens, and in Phidias, and flourished very soon af. prison, either by disease or by poison. ter bim, were Agelades, Callon, Po.
It has been doubted whether Phi- lycletus, Phragmon, Gorgias, Lacon, dias himself ever wrought in marble; Myron, Pythagoras, Scopas, and Pebut although, when he did not use relius. ivory, his chief material was unques The passage in which Pausanias tionably bronze; there are authori- mentions the sculptures on the pedie ties sufficient to establish, beyond all ments is extremely short, and to this controversy, that he sometimes ap- effect: “ As you enter the temple, plied his hand to marble. Pliny, for which they call Parthenon, all that is instance, asserts that he did so, and contained in what is termed the (eamentions a Venus ascribed to him, gles) pediments, relates in every parexisting in his own time in the col- ticular to the birth of Minerva ; but lection (or in the purtico) of Octa- on the opposite or back front is the via. Phidias is called by Aristotle, a contest of Minerva and Neptune for skilful worker in stone; and Pausa- the land; but the statue itself is formnias enumerates a celestial Venus of ed of ivory and gold.” The state of Parian marble undoubtedly of his dilapidation into which this temple hand; and the Rhamnusian Nemesis, was fallen, when Stuart visited it in also of the same material. Some of 1751, and made most correct draw. his statues in bronze were brought to ings for his valuable work, left little Rome by Paulus Æmilius, and by opportunity of exanıining and comCatulus.
paring what remained upon that part His great reputation, however, was of the temple with the passage refer founded upon his representations of red to; but an account is preserved the Gods, in which he was supposed by travellers, who, about eighty years more excellent than in human forms, earlier, found one of these pediments
in tolerable preservation, before the ther female figure without a head is war between the Turks and Vene sitting behind her with a child, which tians, in 1687, had done so much da- she holds upon her knees, I cannot mage to this admirable structure. say who she is; but I had no trouble The observations of one of these (Dr in making out or recognising the two Spon, a French physician) may be next, which are the last on that side;, literally translated thus :
it is the Emperor Hadrian sitting, “ The highest part of the front and half-naked, and, next to him, his which the Greeks called the Eagle,' wife Sabina. It seems that they are and our architects the Fronton,' is both looking on with pleasure at the enriched with a groupe of beautiful triumph of the goddess. I do not be. figures in marble, which appear from lieve that, before me, any person ob. below as large as life. They are of served this particularity, which deentire relief, and wonderfully well serves to be remarked.” « On the worked. Pausanias says nothing more, left of Jupiter are five or six figures, than that this sculpture related to the of which some have lost their heads ; birth of Minerva. The general de- it is probably the circle of the gods, sign is this :
where Jupiter is about to introduce “ Jupiter, who is under the high- Minerva, and to make her be acest angle of the pediment (fronton,) knowledged for his daughter. The has the right arm broken, in which, pediment behind represented, accordprobably, he held bis thunderbolt ; ing to the same author, the dispute his legs are thrown wide from each which Minerva anui Neptune had for other, without doubt to make room naming the city, but all the figures for his eagle. Although these two are fallen from them, except one head characteristics are wanting, one can of a sea-horse, which was the usual not avoid recognising him by his accompaniment of this god; these fibeard, and by the majesty with which gures of the two pediments were not the sculptor has invested him. He is so ancient
as the body of the temple naked, as they usually represented built by Pericles, for which there him, and particularly the Greeks, who wants no other argument than that for the most part made their figures of the statue of Hadrian, which is to naked; on his right is a statue, which be seen there, and the marble which has its head and arms mutilated, is whiter than the rest. All the rest draped to about half the leg, which has not been touched. The Marquis one may judge to be a Victory, which de Nointel had designs made of the precedes the car of Minerva, whose whole, when he went to Athens; bis horses she leads. They are the work painter worked there for two months, of some hand as bold as it was deli- and almost lost his eyes, because he cate, which would not perhaps have was obliged to draw every thing from yielded to Phidias, or Praxiteles, so below, without a scaffold.”_ Voyage renowned for (representing) horses. par Jacob Spon ; Lyons, 1678; 2 tom. Minerva is sitting upon the car, ra. p. 144. ther in the habit of a goddess of the Wheler, who travelled with Spon, sciences, than of war; for she is not and published his work at London dressed as a warrior, having neither (four years later) in 1682, says, helmet, nor shield, nor head of Me.
“ But my companion made me ob. dusa upon her breast; she has the serve the next two figures sitting in air
of youth, and her head-dress is not the corner to be of the Emperor Hadifferent from that of Venus. Ano drian and his Empress Sabina, whom
I easily knew to be so, by the many sanias gives but a transient account medals and statues I have seen of of this temple, nor does he
whe. theni.” And again, “ But the Em- ther Hadrian repaired il, though his peror Hadrian most probably repair-statue, and that of the Empress Saed it, and adorned it with those fi bina in the western pediment, have gures at each front. For the white- occasioned a doubt whether the sculpness of the marble, and his own sta- tures, in both, were not put up by tue joined with them, apparently show him. Wheler and Spon were of this them to be of a later age than the opinion, and say they were whiter first, and done by that Emperor's than the rest of the building. The command. Within the portico on statue of Antinous, now remaining at high, and on the outside of the cella Rome, may be thought a proof that of the temple itself, is another border there were artists in his time capable of basso relievo round about it, or at of executing them, but this whiteness least on the north and south sides, is no proof that they were more mo. which, without doubt, is as ancient as dern than the temple, for they might the temple, and of admirable work, be made of a whiter marble ; and the but not so high a relievo as the other. heads of Hadrian and Sabina might Thereon are represented sacrifices, be put on two of the ancient figures, processions, and other ceremonies of which was no uncommon practice The heathens' worship; most of them among the Romans ; and if we may. were designed by the Marquis de give credit to Plutarch, the buildings Nointel, who employed a painter to of Pericles were not in the least im. do it two months together, and show- paired by age in his time; therefore ed them to us when we waited on him this temple could not want any mateat Constantinople.”
rial repairs in the reign of Hadrian. Another French author, who pub. With regard to the works of Halished three years earlier than Spon, drian at Athens, Spartian says," that a work called, “ Athenes Ancienne et he did much for the Athenians ;" + Nouvelle, par le Sr. de la Guilletiere ; and a little after, on his second visit à Paris, 1675,” says, “ Pericle sem. to Athens, “ going to the East he ployed upon the Parthenon the cele made his journey through Athens, brated architects, Callicrales and Ice and dedicated the works which he tinus. The last, who had more repu- had begun there; and particularly a tation than the former, wrote a de- temple to Olympian Jupiter, and an scription of it in a book, * which he alțar to himself." composed on purpose, and which has The account given by Dion Casbeen lost;, and we should probably sius, is nearly to the same effect, addnot now have the opportunity of ad- ing that he placed his own statue miring the building itself, if the Em. within the temple of Olympian Jupiperor Hadrian had not preserved it ter, which he erected. I to us, by the repairs which he caused He called some other cities after to be done. It is to his care that his own name, and directed a part of we owe the few remains of antiquity Athens to be styled Hadrianopolis ; $ which are still entire at Athens.' but no mention is made by any an
In the Antiquities of Athens by cient author, of his touching or repairStuart, vol. II. p. 4, it is said, “ Pau. ing the Parthenon. Pausanias, who
Ictinus and Carpion were jointly concerned in this work, for which we have the authority of Vitruvius, Lib. 7. præfat.
+ Folio Edit. Paris, 1620. p. 6. B. 69, c. 16. Spartian, p. 10. 1
wrote in his reign, says, that “ the derable part of the temple in the temples which Hadrian either erected Turkish war by the falling of a Ve. from the foundation, or adorned with netian bomb, within a short time after dedicated gifts and decorations, or the year in which they were made ; whatever donations he made to the which, however, must have been prior cities of the Greeks, and of the Bar to the date of 1683, affixed to the barians also, who made application to plate in Barry's works, (2 vols. p. him, were all recorded at Athens in 163. London, 1809.) the temple common to all the gods." Some notes of M. Fauvel, a paint
It is not unlikely, that a confused er and antiquarian, who moulded and recollection of the statue which Ha- took casts from the greatest part of drian actually placed at Athens, may the sculptures, and remained fifteen have led one of the earliest travellers years at Athens, are given with the into a mistake, which has been re- tracings of these drawings; in which peated, and countenanced by subse- it is said, with regard to these pediquent writers; but M. Fauvel, who ments, " These figures were adorned will be quoted presently, speaks as with bronze, at least if we may judge from his own examination and obser- by the head of Sabina, which is one vation, when he mentions the two of the two that remain ; and which, statues in question; which, it is to be having fallen, and being much mutiobserved, still remain (without their lated, was brought to M. Fauvel. The heads) upon the pediment of the en traces are visible of the little cramps trance, and have not been removed which probably fixed the crown io by Lord Elgin.
the head. The head of the Emperor An exact copy of these drawings, Hadrian still exists. Probably this by the Marquis de Nointel's painter, group has been inserted to do honour is given in M. Barry's works; which to that emperor, for it is of a workare rendered more valuable on ac- manship different from the rest of the count of the destruction of a consi- sculpture.”
Paus. Att. p. 5. Ed. Xyl.
Admiralty-office, Sept. 15. from it on this day by the signature Captain Brisbane, of his Majesty's of peace. · ship Queen Charlotte, arrived at Thus has a provoked war of two
this office last night with the fol. days' existence been attended by a lowing dispatches from Admiral complete victory, and closed by a reLord Exmouth, G. C. B. addressed newed peace for England and her to John Wilson Croker, Esq. : ally, the King of the Netherlands,
on conditions dictated by the firmQueen Charlotle, Algiers-Bay, ness and wisdom of his Majesty's goAug. 28.
vernment, and commanded by the viSir, In all the vicissitudes of a gour of their measures. long life of public service, no circum- - My thanks are justly due for the stance has ever produced on my mind honour and confidence his Majesty's such impressions of gratitude and joy ministers have been pleased to repose as the event of yesterday. To have on my zeal,
on this highly important been one of the humble instruments, occasion. The means were by them in the hands of Divine Providence, made adequate to my own wishes, for bringing to reason a ferocious go- and the rapidity of their measures vernment, and destroying for ever speak for themselves. Not more than the insufferable and horrid system of one hundred days, since I left Algiers Christian slavery, can never cease to with the British feet, unsuspicious be a source of delight and heartfelt and ignorant of the atrocities which comfort to every individual happy had been committed at Bona; that enough to be employed in it. I may, fleet, on its arrival in England, was I hope, be permitted, under such im- necessarily disbanded, and another, pressions, to offer my sincere congra- with proportionate resources, created tulations to their Lordships on the and equipped ; and, although impecomplete success which attended the ded in its progress by calms and adgaliant efforts of his Majesty's fleet verse winds, has poured the vengein their attack upon Algiers of yestere ance of an insulted nation, in chasti. day; and the happy result produced sing the cruelties of a ferocious go