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aid from subscriptions. But that the quers rendered it impossible to exempt addition to be derived from the latter the latter country, which, after all, was source would be very considerable, he not in a worse condition than many could not doubt, when he recollected counties of England. what had been done by Liverpool, The bill was then read a second where no less than 6 churches had been time. built by subscription. That town,. On the 20th May, when it went inwhich was very inconsiderable at the to a committee, Lord Holland again commencement of his present Majes. pressed his plan of providing for part ty's reign, now possessed a population of the expence, by a temporary sequesof 100,000, and had 14 churches.- tration of church-revenues, and instanWith the addition of two more, suffi- ced the Cathedral of Litchfield, the cient accommodation would be afford. repairs of which had been provided for ed for its population.
by the suspension of two prebends. Lord Holland was friendly, on the The Archbishop of Canterbury, whole, to the measure ; yet he must Lords Liverpool and Grenville, obdischarge the ungrateful duty of say. served, that such an arrangement, for ing, that he could agree to it only un- the benefit of that particular cathedral, der certain modifications. He thought was quite different from a general lea church so richly endowed as that of gislative provision. England, ought to contribute some- On the clause, limiting the powers what to its own support and increase. of the commissioners to the building This he would propose to do, not by of churches, 80 as to afford the greattouching the emoluments of any living est possible accommodation to the lara dignitary, but, according to the plan gest number of persons, Lord Grenadopted'in Roman Catholic countries, ville expressed a doubt whether the by suspending, for a greater or less words were sufficiently explanatory of time, those livings which could most what were the intentions of its framers. easily be dispensed with.
He agreed, that to afford the greatest To this, Lord Harrowby replied, possible accommodation to the largest surely the noble Lord did not think number of persons, ought to be a prithat this measure was intended for the mary principle; but whilst he depreadvantage of the church, considered cated all useless splendour in the buildwith a view to its clergy. Undoubt- ing of churches, he thought it of imedly it was not, but for the advantage portance, that that mode should be of religion in general, and the commůadopted which was best calculated to nity at large ; and there was no more inspire devotion, and which was chareason for calling on the revenues of racteristic of the established church. the church, than on those of any class Lord Liverpool entirely agreed with of society.
the noble Baron, and conceived that The Marquis of Lansdowne, while such was the intention of the framers he considered the measure most indis- of the bill. pensable, complained, that Scotland Lord Holland liked the literal meanand Ireland should be made to contri- ing of the words of the present clause bule, without deriving any benefit. much better than the explanation of
Lord Liverpool replied, that a si. them which the two noble Lords had milar measure would, in due time, be attempted to give. extended to Scotland ; and that the Lord Harrowby was decidedly hos. union of the British and Irish exche. tile to incurring unnecessary expence
VOL. XI. PART. 11.
for splendour ; but he never could agree lost sight of. He was satisfied, that that it was intended by this bill mere- while their Lordships paid a due at. ly to erect four walls like a barn, sole- tention to the accommodation of the ly upon the principle of affording the frequenters of the established church, greatest possible accommodation to the in point of room, they would not largest number of persons.
neglect an adherence to that mode The Archbishop of Canterbury ob- of building which characterised the served, if edifices were erected which Reformed Church of England from departed so far from the style of eccle. churches where that reform was car. siastical architecture that they might ried too far. be mistaken for places devoted to ano- The bill was past without any alther use, he conceived that one object teration. of the present bill would be entirely
Slave-Trade-Treaty with Spain-Mr Wilberforce on the Treatment of Slaves.
- Motions of Sir S. Romilly respecting Proceedings in Dominica, Nevis, and St Christopher's.-Alien Bill—The Bank of Scotland.—Sir Francis Burdett on Parliamentary Reform-Speech of Mr Brougham.-Poor Laws Amendment and Select Vestries Bill. London Breweries.-Auction Laws.
The grand philanthropic object of pulated, that Spain not only abolishes putting a period to the traffic in slaves, the trade, but allows to British vessels, had overcome all opposition in the under certain circumstances, the power counsels and cabinet of Britain. That of search over such Spanish vessels as power pot only enforced the prohibi. may be suspected of being engaged in tion with strictness in her own exten- it. A similar right of search is grantsire possessions, but used all her influ. ed to Spanish, over British vessels.ence to induce the other powers of In compensation for the losses sustainEurope to imitate the example. Hered by the subjects of that power, in urgency, aided by the general influ- consequence of the abolition, Britain ence of the sentiments of humanity, engages to pay the sum of 400,0001. had now secured pretty general pro- On the 9th February, Lord Castlemises of co-operation. A traffic, how- reagh moved, that provision should be ever, in which such vast interests were made for carrying this treaty into exembarked, and which was carried on ecution. He began with remarking over such an extent of distant and bar. the important progress which had been barous shores, could not be easily sup- made in this great object in the course pressed,—it rose, like a hydra, under of last year. All the crowned heads accumulated blows ; and only the con- of Europe, except Portugal, so far as tinuance of equal efforts with those the south of the line was concerned, which had at first produced its pro- had either abolished the slave-trade, or scription, could prevent it from revi- entered into stipulations for its aboliving in all its energy.
tion at some future period. He was On the 28th January, Lord Castle, assured of the satisfaction it must give reagh laid before the House a copy of the House, to find Spain, infinitely the treaty concluded with Spain on the most important of all the Earothe subject of this traffic. It is insert- pean powers in this view, both for loed in the Appendix. It is there sti- cal authority and extent of colonies, stipulating for the final abolition of cit slave-traders than any other nation the trade. While Spain carried on, This resource was now taken from and protected by her trade and her that baneful evil. Portugal also had flag, this traffic, both on the northern been the first to concede the right of and on the southern coasts of Africa, visit ; and a treaty with that power all that France, Holland, and the other had been signed, fixing a period for powers of Europe could do for the the abolition. It was not presented, abolition was nugatory. There was only because the ratifications had not no slave-trade now to the north of the been exchanged. Spain could not yet line : it could be carried on by possi- be expected to make the concessions bility only to the southward of the line it did, without some compensation.from May 1820. The Congress at With reference to the pecuniary comVienna, if it had no other ground of pensation, amounting to 400,0001., merit or distinction, was entitled to the which it was stipulated by one of these gratitude of mankind on this subject : treaties Spain should receive, he had for there all the great powers of Eu- to state, that so far was this from berope made a declaration which stamp: ing the only motive on the part of the ed the slave-trade as disgraceful, and court of Spain, for acceding to the made every state anxious to get out of treaty, that the Spanish merchants at it as soon as circumstances could con. the Havannah had offered five times veniently admit of its doing so. The the amount for the privilege of still great evil now to be dreaded was from continuing it. On a former occasion, the illicit trade. The peril, the alarm, an offer had been made on the part of the violence, of the illicit trader, in the British to the Spanish government, Alicted cruelties unknown when the of the sum of 850,0001. upon the conmore humane regular trade was con- ditions contained in the treaties now cerned. In this state of the trade, concluded, together with a loan of more disgraceful, and more painful, 10,000,000 dollars, in consideration circumstances occurred than before. of an immediate abolition; and this The illicit traffic arose out of the par- offer had been refused. Not a voice tial abolition, and out of the facilities was then raised in Parliament to dis. that the cessation of belligerent rights, approve of this offer, as excessive or in consequence of the peace, created. impolitic. But however that propoIt was infinitely more easy in peace sition might have been thought wise than during war. With the view of at the time it was made, he repeated, remedying this evil, the powers of Eu- that it was a millstone about the necks rope, for the first time, he believed, in of the British government in the late diplomatic history, gave to each other negociation. Claims, to an immense the right of visit over their merchant. extent, had been advanced ; and it was men. Aware that no independent state with great difficulty that the stipulawould consent to any unjustified inter- tion was reduced to the sum of 100,000l. ference with its flag, they contracted He trusted that this question would that no visit should be made by a na. not be in any degree mixed up with val commander, without his having that of South America ; and that there special instructions for that purpose; would be a feeling of gratitude to Spain, and that detention should not take for the exertion she was about to make. place, unless slaves were actually found Spain intended not only to abolish the on board. The power with whom the 'slave-trade as far as she was concernpresent treaty was contracted, afford. ed, but to effect what would be in fact ed by its flag more protection to illi. its complete annihilation. It was evi
dent that it could never have been abo. abolition of the slave-trade, he must lished but for Spain.
say, that he thought the noble Lord Sir Gilbert Heathcote, though an entitled to his warmest gratitude, for enemy to the slave-trade, could not the efforts which he had made during help regretting that so considerable a a long course of diplomatic attention sum of money should be voted at the to the subject, and for the successful present period. He was of opinion that issue to which he had eventually the 400,0001. might be much more ad. brought those efforts. He was sanvantageously distributed in this coun- guine enough to believe, that he should try. It would furnish the means of himself see this country beginning to giving to 8000 individuals the sum of derive the greatest advantages from its šol. each. Without touching on the intercourse with a people no longer question between Spain and America, classed with the beasts of the field, he might say, that the revolt of the but invested with the moral dignity Spanish colonies in South America that was the undoubted attribute of all was notorious ; that several of those human beings. At that very moment, colonies had established their indepen. there was on the coast of Africa a free dence; and that probably the whole community of from 10 to 12,000 men, of Spanish America would eventually chiefly Africans, living under the inbe emancipated. What would then be Auence of the British law, and advanthe situation of Spain with reference cing rapidly in the path of civilization. to colonial possessions? Whether in It would be an interesting, and stripeace or in war, the people of this king, and glorious scene, if we should country were, it seemed, to be goaded form a connexion with the interior, into madness by incessant demands on which would more than compensate their pockets. It was impossible that for all the trouble and expence of our we could thus continue to be the
exertions. deral paymasters of Europe. If we Sir Oswald Mosley made a speech were to be compelled to pay money somewhat akin to that of Sir Gilbert for any phantasy which might enter Heathcote. into the head of any monarch, he could Sir James Mackintosh, after hear. not see how it would be possible to ing such opinions from two indepenmake the income of the country meet dent country gentlemen, could no its annual expenditure.
longer think of giving a silent vote. Mr Wilberforce confessed his sur. He concurred with them entirely in prise at the observations of the honour. their zeal for economy. He had the able Baronet. He was persuaded that same opinion of the faith of the Spa. the House would think that the sum nish government, and the same feelings of 400,0001. could not be better ex- for the people of South America. If pended than in the way proposed. As he said no more on these subjects on to the proposition for granting 501. the present occasion, he must protest each to 6000 individuals in this coun- against his silence being imputed to try, the honourable Baronet forgot, lukewarmness or negligence. It arose that if the 400,000l. were not voted from his deep conviction, that the abofor the purpose under discussion, it lition of the slave-trade was the most would not be voted for any other. If important question which could be it were divided among the whole po- discussed in the House of Commons, pulation of the empire, it would only -a question
-a question to which every other obbe twopence halfpenny per man. As ject, however interesting or important, one most seriously interested in the ought for the time to yield. Both his