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application by a penalty, which, in the hands, it can merely arise from extenpresent instance, was much more ty- sive capital and machinery, enabling rannical and severe, not only confining the great dealer to make cheaper and the individual, but wresting the chil- better beer than the smaller one. We dren from the parents. It would fall believe it to be a very idle plan in these too only upon the worthy and virtuous great houses to manceuvre in buying parents, while those of an opposite retail houses, and giving advances of character would be heartily willing to capital as bounties for the custom of throw the burden of their children upon others. This is distracting their ca. the public. Yet the clause, though pital and attention from their own opposed by Mr Curwen, Mr Lamb, proper business ; while, if the trade is and Mr Calcraft, was carried by a ma. free, these artificially propped houses jority of 46 to 14. In the progress, of sale can never make head against however, of the bills through the Up. others selling cheaper and better

beer. per House, the Marquis of Lansdowne The plan, therefore, is idle in them; so strongly pointed out the inconveni- but it would be equally idle in the ences of this clause, as to procure its legislature to interfere to prohibit rejection.

what can, in fact, do no harm to the A great clamour was raised during public. But this case is very different, this session, on account of the price of if, as asserted in some of the petimalt liquor, particularly porter. Among tions and speeches, it be really true, other petitions, Mr Lockhart present- that under the system, which subjects ed one on this subject, containing every house of public entertainment 14,000 signatures. It complained, to license, the brewers have influence that the brewers raised the price of enough to obtain a preference for perporter when there was no cause, and sons in their own employment, and to did not lower it when there was cause; exclude others. This forms a most that in London the whole trade of gross monopoly, and one which Parmaking porter was engrossed by a few liament ought by every possible means great brewers who regularly combined to break. The licensing system ought and consulted together, like the parts to be used, as the law intended it, soleners of one concern ; that these eleven ly for the preservation of public morals, were themselves the owners of a large not to enable the brewers to force an proportion of the houses in which inferior article, at a high price, on the porter was retailed; and that by the public. The Report of the Commitlicensing system, and by advances of tee, whilst it severely inveighs against money, they kept the rest in such brewers possessing and controlling check, as to maintain a perpetual con- public houses, which by itself can trol over the price of beer. On this never do much harm, has scarcely subject we must treat as utterly absurd touched on this alleged control over the idea that there can exist any mono- the givers of licenses, which alone can poly in a trade which is left perfectly establish any real monopoly. A Re. free, and which any one that pleases port was presented this session, se. may exercise. In this case, if the ex. commending farther restrictions on the isting dealers sell their commodities sale of goods by auction, to which Par. dear or bad, there will never be wanting liament for some time back has shewn some one or more who will draw the a very strong hostility. We do not public to themselves by supplying mean to recommend 'auctions as an them on better terms. If therefore the advantageous mode of carrying on remanufacture be engrossed by a few tail trade of a country; or to deny,

that the present age is smitten with much rather have the public discover a sort of auclio-mania. The hunting these things for themselves, and be on after bargains in auctions is, we be their guard against auctions, than be lieve, a very idle and unprofitable driven away from them by act of Partrade. It involves a loss of time, and liament. Auctions may often be inregular habits of employment ; and expedient, but we cannot see why they it leads naturally to the purchase of should be illegal. What right has many things as cheap, which other. government to dictate to any indiviwise neither would nor needed to have duals the mode in which they are to been thought of at all. Unless too dispose of their property. We verily

person is thoroughly versed in the believe that the world would go on article purchased, he is liable to the better in all these matters, if left to most complete imposition, without any itself, than by flying to statutory rerecourse. In jewellery and furniture, medies for all the evils to which human above all, two articles for which auc- life is found liable. Such do not aptions are much resorted to, and which, pear to have been the views of the if sound, would last for generations, committee, who strongly recommend, any want of soundness can never be that a bill should be introduced next compensated, by almost any cheap- session, imposing fresh limitations and ness. At the same time, we would restrictions on this species of traffic.

VOL. XI.

ART 11.

K

CHAPTER VIII.

ROYAL FAMILY.

Want of Heirs to the British Crown.-Royal Marriages.-Parliamentary

Provision for the Duke of Clarence-the Duke of Cambridgethe Duke of Cumberlandthe Duke of Kent.--Regency Aci Amendment Bill.-Death of the Queen.

Among the sources of that affic- to consider themselves as the most iltion which had been so deeply felt by lustrious members of the society, as the empire at the untimely fate of its beings on whom every appendage of princess and her offspring, some place pomp and pleasure should wait ; they had been held by the dread, that heirs are yet restricted to an income, much would fail entirely to the British inferior to that of the first, and scarce. throne. Numerous as was the Royal ly equal to that of the second nobi. Family, only two of its members lity. It is with great difficulty that, were married, and under circumstan- in such a government, they can find ces which precluded any expectation access to any high public employ. of issue. A disputed or a foreign ments. The nation, justly jealous succession, both evils of the first mag- lest its affairs should be mismanaged nitude, seemed imminent. It would in the hands of functionaries, for whose be unjust to deny, that very extraor- promotion favour alone appears sufdinary exertions were made by the ficient to account, criticises their conprinces of the royal house to tranquil. duct much more rigorously than that lize the national alarms upon this sub- of any other persons occupying the ject. Four royal marriages announ- same place. In every case of failure, ced in the course of the present ses- it raises clamours so loud, as the court sion, afforded to the public a well- is unable to resist. Thus excluded grounded hope that this illustrious from any important occupation, yet house would not become extinct by everywhere courted and caressed, they the want of issue.

are almost inevitably drawn into the No very amicable feelings have been whirl of gaiety and pleasure, involved wont to reign between the nation and in debt, and finally, perhaps, sunk its princes. The royal brothers, in a in those degradations from which debt limited monarchy, are placed in pecu- can with such difficulty be separated. liarly difficult circumstances. Born With such faults the nation had to reproach its princes; and it did re. accession of income to meet the enproach them with an asperity whetted larged establishment involved by such rather than blunted by their elevated an arrangement. On the 13th April, situation, and not softened by any al- Lord Castlereagh brought down a lowance for the trying circumstances message from the Prince Regent, anin which they stood. It is but just nouncing the negociation of treaties to state, that within these few years, of marriage between the duke of Claa sensible retrievement has taken place, rence and the eldest daughter of the even in the public opinion. The Duke of Saxe Meiningen, and of the grounds of scandal have in a great Duke of Cambridge and the niece of measure ceased ; and deeds of bene- the Elector of Hesse. An address of ficence, and actions worthy of praise, congratulation was then moved, not have begun to be recorded. Never- simply, however, but accompanied with theless, the original feeling still pre- a promise to consider the subject in vailed so far, as to give a certain de. such a manner as might demonstrate gree of popularity to any measures their zeal and duty. Ministers would tending to mortify or thwart those gladly have had the affair pass, for members of this illustrious house. this day, in general terms ; but Mr

The first marriage announced to Tierney immediately began putting Parliament was one which, from the questions about a meeting of ministeage of the party, could scarcely have rial members held that morning for any reference to the present exigency: the purpose of feeling their pulse on It was that of the Princess Elizabeth the subject. These meetings, he said, with the Prince of Hesse Homburg. were, it would seem, always called when The lady had the reputation of ta- any new measure was to be submitted lents and accomplishments; and her to the House ; for ministers were spouse, though not possessed of ex. convinced, that unless their measures tensive territory, had acquired a con- had such a previous rehearsal, they siderable military reputation in the could not carry them. Nothing could great continental war. The Houses, be done without a previous discussion on the 9th April, were merely called in a meeting of fifty or sixty ministeupon, by Lords Liverpool and Castle- rial gentlemen. Such had been the reagh, to offer an address of congra- nature of the meeting at Lord Liver. tulation to the Prince Regent upon pool's that morning. Lord Castlethis subject. The destined husband reagh denied that there was any thing was stated as a prince of a most illus- unconstitutional in such a meeting ; trious family, whose character stood but Mr Taylor said, he considered the high over Europe, who had partaken practice of calling together a certain in almost all the great battles by which number of members, for the purpose its independence and tranquillity had of taking their opinion whether such been achieved, and had exhibited in an application ought to be made, a field all the qualities of a brave, ac- practice highly objectionable. At tive, and able officer. Parliament ha- length, Lord Lascelles fairly told the ving nothing more asked than the ad- House, that he was one of those who dress

, voted it without the least hesi- had attended the meeting alluded to tation,

during the early part of the discusAffairs took a very different turn, sion. "He thought he should not take when it came to the lot of ministers to too much upon himself if he stated anbounce the approaching nuptials of that what had transpired there had the Royal Dukes, and to solicit an not met with the satisfaction of several others besides himself. He the consideration of the message until would not say more at present, but to-morrow, their Lordships might be he would repeat, that in what he had the better prepared to give their opi. mentioned, he had not stated his own nion upon the measures which minis. feelings alone. The same statement ters might consider it their duty to rewas made by Mr Lee Keck and Mr commend ; and Lord Sidmouth admitE. Littleton. Mr Bennet then ask- ted that alterations might be made in ed, whether ministers had not com- the plan. Different impressions which municated to their select committee, had been produced might be removed. that they intended to propose 19,0001. He would repeat, that different imin addition a year to one of the royal pressions might be removed, and al. dukes, besides19,0001.as an outfit, and terations suggested, which would re. 12,0001. a-year to each of the others ? quire consideration. Lord King beLord Castlereagh said, the address lieved this was the first time that a did not commit the House on any of minister had given a decided negative the points mentioned. It gave no to an address of thanks and congratucountenance to any particular amount lation proposed to the throne; and the of grant, or in fact to any grant at Marquis of Lansdowne observed, it all.

Mr Brougham then moved as appeared that there was some mode an amendment some additional expres- by which the impressions were to be sions, referring to the burdened state removed, and alterations made, withof the country. Sir S. Romilly beg- out the knowledge and concurrence ged the House, before it came to a of that House ; and that, while that vote, to recollect that the whole of the process was going on, their Lordships members to whom the private and must patiently await the result. As unconstitutional disclosure had been the mode by which this was to be acmade in the morning, and who alone complished was, it seemed, not fit to knew its nature, had, from all that be stated, the House were required to now appeared, disapproved of it, and adjourn until ministers came fully prehad, one after another, informed the pared with the result of their secret House of its being of a kind impos- consultations. sible to be supported by those who A similar postponement was on the usually voted with ministers. The same day moved in the House of Comamendment was then negatived, though mons, to the motion for a committee only by a majority of 144 to 93. on the Prince Regent's message. Mr

The rough reception which the mea. Brougham made the most violent sure had met with, seems to have in- strictures upon the proceeding. The duced a pause in the counsels of mi. plain English of it was too obvious to nisters. On the 14th, Lord Liver- allow it to remain secret for one sepool, in the Lords, moved a postpone. cond to any person, who wished to ment of the consideration of the simi- discover it. A noble lord, a memlar message which had been transmit- ber of the other House, and standing ted to them. The opposition severe- at the head of his Majesty's councilsly taunted

ministers on a proceeding so in a private room—in a manner con. disrespectful to the Crown, to whose trary to the spirit of the British conmessages it was customary for the stitution—in a way which was against House to return an immediate answer; all practice, but which no man, even and Lord Holland moved an address if the practice existed, could defend similar to that of Mr Brougham. Lord on that ground--had thought fit to Liverpool stated, that by postponing meet a select body of the members of

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