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tions on the subject of promotions. their misfortune, in the precepts of a No one could be an inferior (or what master whom the allied powers, in we call a non-commissioned) officer, the name of humanity, have condemntill he was twenty, and had served at ed henceforth to repeat only to the least two years in the regular army. echoes of St Helena those ferocious No one could be an officer, till he and impious words, men are made had either served two years as an in- for slaughter, and the sabre is the leferior officer, or had gone with suc- gitimate sceptre of the world ?'” The cess through the exercises of the mi- orator then deplored the wrongs suslitary schools. A third of the sub- tained by the most faithful friends of lieutenants were to be drawn from the the king. “ The enemies,” exclaimed inferior officers. Two-thirds of the he, "of the monarch and of legitimacy, places of lieutenant, of captain, of could wish for nothing more than to chief of battalion, and of lieutenant. hear his Majesty's ministers propose, colonel, were to be given according on pretence of economy, to dismiss to seniority. No officer could rise to those faithful soldiers who, from frathe superior rank, till he had been two ternity in arms, from community of years in the one immediately inferior. danger and glory, had ceased for These regulations could be dispensed many ages to be foreigners in France; with, only from necessity in time of soldiers who might truly be said to be war, or in consideration of brilliant naturalized by the blood which they exploits noticed in the orders of the had shed for France and for its kings. day.

Nothing but an army was wanting to The plan for embodying the dise the genius of evil; and now it is to banded veterans into legions for in- get one. It thus hopes to re-establish ternal defence, called forth vehement the illegitimate government on the strictures from both sides of the ruins of the charter and of legitimacy, House. By one it was urged, that on the ruins of the throne,-at the these troops, having obtained a free foot of which will fall those true serand full discharge, could not justly vants, whose vain fidelity will then be be called again into active service; seen and acknowledged, when it was that of the 180,000 men disbanded in too late." 1815, there were so many who must These observations were answered then have been, or have since become, by M. Bignon, who said, “We must unfit for active service, and so many tell those who are frightened by the who could not now be traced, that phantom of the old army, that their the number would not be sufficient prepossessions are unjust, their alarms for the object in view. The Ultra- unfounded ; above all, that the dread royalists, on the other hand, thun- of imaginary has often given birth to dered against this measure, as calling 'real danger. For such a crisis like into action a force from which legiti- that from which we have escaped, for mate monarchy had every thing to such evils as we have suffered, there dread. “What more,” exclaimed the is only one remedy-oblivion. ObliCount de Sallaberry, "could be wish- vion alone can heal the wounds of a ed for by these daring and ambitious long agitated state. He who will not men, who will not yet renounce the sacrifice to oblivion, perpares new idea, that their banners may again dangers, new tempests for his counfloat on the capitals of Europe? What try. What Frenchman does not need other wish could be formed by hun- to forget something, if not for bimdreds of young madmen, trained, to self, at least for his family,—his brethren,- his children? Error has been ministers contended that the plan proin every camp; it has been in the posed was on the whole best calcuwalls and out of the walls; it has lated to reward at once merit and marched under every banner. Over long services, and to maintain the whom would the king now reign, if army in an efficient state. he had not known what it was to for- The question, after all, upon which get?”. The orator then pointed out the Chamber was most strongly dithe advantage which the army would vided, was one which arose unexpectderive from a mixture of veteran sol- edly in the course of the debate. Acdiers and experienced officers, while cording to the project submitted by otherwise it must be composed alto- the Crown, the amount of the peace gether of new levies ; that it would be establishment of the army was perdangerous to leave the old army en- manently fixed. Several members detirely without, and distinct from the manded, that its amount should, as in existing army; that these distinctions England, be the subject of an annual must be made to disappear, and these vote. M.Chauvelin urged,“ The Charshades to melt into each other. ter has given to the two Chambers the

The appel, or compulsory levy, was right of discussing and voting the taxes. strongly objected to, as renewing all Forced levies are a tax in men,-the the evils of the conscription; but it most burdensome of all to him who was answered, that the mode of vo- pays it. It has reserved to them also luntary enlistment had been tried and to determine the mode of recruitfound insufficient; and that there was ing. Under both these views, the no other mode of levying an army. annual vote of the army falls essenThe new regulations, besides, were tially to the two Chambers,—they calculated to do away that indis- cannot abdicate this essential right." criminate severity with which the M. Colard also urged :-“ The goconscription had been enforced. The vernment, using the right with which clauses relative to promotion met the law is about to invest it, might with opposition on both sides of the raise the army to 240,000 men. In vain Chamber. One represented it as de- would the Chamber deliberate, if these priving the king of his just rights in existed, without it and in spite of it, the appointment of officers, while it an unlimited army, not less independopened advancement to individuals ent than the civil list. When such an who had no other qualification for army shall have been placed beyond high command but long service. In the reach of the national power,-potheir view, the higher places in the litical rights are out of the question, army ought not, unless in extraordi- -institutions are a sport, - liberty a nary cases, to be open to soldiers risen dream." The plan of attacking the from the ranks; but they ought in establishment on the side of expence, general to be confined to those whose appeared to him either ineffective, or situation in life gave them the means tending to anarchy. “ What do you of more extended information. An gain then, by displacing the difficulty opposite class of reasoners contended, of the annual vote, and transporting that the proportion of a third to be it to the moving ground of the bud. raised from the ranks was too small; get, except to reproduce it a thouand that to draw all the rest from the sand times more terrible and more military schools, was allowing too dangerous ?" On this question, howgreat an advantage to the aristocratic ever, ministers had the universal supelasses. Against both these opinions, port of the Ultra members. A con

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ther Far or peace.

tinental state, they insisted, might as ample in the military history of nawell disarm altogether, as oppose tions,-an operation which, from bewhat may be called a moveable force, ing necessary, was not the less grieto the permanent force of its neigh- vous to me, I gave to my ancient bours. The King, with an intermitting companions in arms the solemn asarmy, could not effectually make ei surance, that the terms of their dis

The insular si- solution should be faithfully fulfilled, tuation of England might enable her and that they might trust, without to neglect means of defence adopted reserve, to promises made by the by the continental nations; but this Throne. Could 1 abandon them after example

, departed from by itself in having been the witness of their hethe formation of the militia, was not roic resignation ?” The next amendapplicable to France. The govern- ment proposed, that promotion by sement of the King will never refuse to niority should cease with the rank of give, on revision of the budget, every captain. Carried further, it appeared necessary information respecting the to the committee destructive of all strength of the army; thus the Cham- ambition, and exposing higher combers will always be able to influence mands

to fall into the hands of officers effectually, in a manner more consti- destitute of the necessary talents. tutional and less dangerous, the tran- The Marquis Dessolle opposed both quillity of France and of Europe. these amendments. The former ap

The debates continued in the peared to him to be only creating a Chamber of Deputies from the 14th reserve in order to destroy it. What January to the 5th February, on was this pretended faith? The solwhich last day, the question being dier, who had received his congé, was put, the law was carried by 147 liberated indeed from all active seragainst 92.

vice; but the service proposed for On the 9th February, the law was the veterans was the duty of all the carried into the Chamber of Peers; duty imposed on the national guard, and, on the 24th, the Duke of Taren- which is itself only the nation orgatum brought up the report of the nized in a military manner. committee. It approved of the law a service on their natal soil, the limits in general, particularly of the prin- of which they were never to pass,ciple of compulsory levy. Voluntary a service in their homes, and for their enrolment was said to have been so homes. Would these brave men wish little successful, that it was neces- a privilege, which should exempt them sary to dismiss one-fifth of the guard alone from being called upon in the recruited in this manner; and of nine moment of danger? Promotion by sehundred military sentences passed in niority too, should, he thought, be the course of two years, eight hun- extended to the rank of lieutenantdred and fifty were upon voluntary colonel,—the first step, in his opinion, recruits. Two amendments only were when an officer would have a full opproposed, one exempting from territo- portunity of distinguishing himself, rial service married men, and those of drawing the attention of his supewho had been dismissed by what were riors, and of creating a public opinion called absolute congés. On this point, in his favour. the Duke could not refrain from some In this debate, attention was chiefly statements that personally concerned attracted by the speech of Chateauhimself

. “ Charged,” said he, « at a briand, who attacked, with the utınost time which I scarcely dare think of, severity, the conscription reproduced with an operation porbaps without ex- under the name of appel." He de

It was

scribed it as a measure natural at sant warriors, who in the morning once to despotism and democracy; cut down the field, where in the even. to the former, because it carries off ing they were themselves to be cut men by force, violates political and down." The principle on which they individual liberty, and is obliged to were rejected, ought to have concludemploy the most arbitrary measures ed equally against the force now proin its execution ; to the other, be posed. The most generous sentiments cause it reckons man only as an indi- have their illusions and their chimevidual, and establishes a metaphysical ras ; even the love of country may lead equality, which does not exist in pro- men astray. As for the article relative perty, in education and manners. The to promotion, he would not mention despot is a leveller like the people ; one of its provisions. The very printhus, the conscription, decreed under ciple appeared to him a direct attack the republic, passed as a natural in- on the royal authority. What sort of heritance to the empire under Buona- army would it be, which should owe parte. This orator, however, took a its promotion to a law; an army reavery different view from the other Ul. soning on its rights, approving or critra-royalists, of the character and ser- ticising the law, deliberating in its vices of the old army. “I have always barracks? Had they forgotten St thought,” said he, “ that the French Cloud, and the grenadiers expelling soldiery is the first in the world; ir- the representatives of the people? Deresistible in success; patient, what- mocratically as the army was compoever may be said to the contrary, in sed, it did not the less turn to the door misfortune; full of intelligence, of ge- the Council of Five Hundred.” The nerosity, of honour; a single mark of Gauls, gentlemen, adored their swords, esteem is enough to carry it to the end and we have not lost this superstition of the world. What should we be to- of our forefathers.” M.Chateaubriand day, gentlemen, without the courage concluded with lamenting the general of our army? It has thrown the veil tone of sentiment which prevailed of its glory over the hideous picture around him. “ Every thing becomes of the Revolution; it has wrapped the worse; the fatal spirit, which produwounds of the country in the folds of ced our misfortunes, is rekindled on its triumphant ensigns; it shared not every side ; vain questions are recallin the death of the most virtuous of ed; the errors and language of ankings; it refused to turn its arms a. archy are called up afresh; the words, gainst the emigrants and the English with which they plundered and slaughprisoners. It could not indeed pre- tered the nobles, and led Louis XIV. vent all our enormities ; but at least, to the scaffold, are heard anew. We it threw its valiant sword on one side are turning our steps backwards, of the balance, to serve as a counter- we are descending again into the poise to the revolutionary axe.” Not- abyss." withstanding this panegyric, the ora- The Marquis de Lalli Tollendal detor could not shut his eyes to the dan- fended the law in all its provisions. gers arising from the simultaneous Amid the artizans of trouble, and the existence of two armies, having se- prophets of evil, they were advancing parate characters and interests ; he from year to year towards the comreproached ministry with their dis- pletion of the great work undertaken trust of the Vendeans ; “ those be- by the wisdom and benevolence of roic labourers, who turned up with the sovereign. He, a royalist, who their plough the bones of their fa- might well boast of being as proved thers, who died for the King ; pea- and tried as any, must own himself


The post,

to have felt some apprehension at Extraordinary Expences. the idea of a peace establishment of Third of the five instalments Francs. 240,000 men, and was only reassured, of the war contribution, 140,000,000 by considering the national elements Pay and support of the allied of which the King wished to compose Repayment and interest of


154,800,000 it.


11,468,422 Twenty orators were heard on the Funds of Reserve, &c. 6,000,000 project; and sixteen more were ready to speak, when the Chamber determi

312,268.422 ned to close the discussion. So eager

General total of charge, 993,244,022 ly was it carried on, both with respect About £41,383,500 Sterling. to the general law, and to each particular provision, that the issue was

Ways and Means.

Francs. considered as extremely doubtful. On

Land Tax,

259,054,937 putting the vote, however, the ma

Personal contributions, move. jority was found to be decisive. Of

ables, doors and windows, 98,423,663 170 Peers present, 96 voted for the Woods,

162,200,000 law, and 74 against it, leaving a ma



Indirect contributions, jority in its favour of 22.


12,000.000 The next subject of consideration

Lottery, salt works,

14,000,000 to the Chambers, was the budget, Returned in the Civil List, 3,000,000 which excited in France itself a much Accidental receipts of Police, 5,900,000 deeper and more serious interest than Retained on Salaries and Penany other. This interest was not un


13,200,000 mingled with fear, considering the

767,778,600 burdens of all kinds which the nation About £31,999,100 Sterling. had to support, and the immense sums which were to be paid to the Therethusarose a deficit of 9,384,4001. foreign troops occupying her territo- to provide for which, the minister ry. The result was on the whole more sought an annual revenue of sixteen favourable than these circumstances millions, (750,0001.), of which, howgave ground to expect. The follow- ever, he hoped, that only two-thirds ing statement of the expenditure, and would be required for the service of of the ways and means, was submit- 1818. ted to the Chamber, by the Minister These statements of the minister of Finance :

were referred to a committee, which

seems to have proceeded with a very Ordinary Expences.

considerable degree of zeal and diliInterest of the old and new Francs. Public Debt,

gence. They spent four months in

140,782,000 Sinking Fund,


investigating all the details of the fiAnnuities,

12,000,000 nances, in examining all the docuPensions of every kind,

65,908,000 ments, and in consulting the persons Civil List,

34,000 000

most skilled on the subject. The reClergy, (besides pensions), 22,000,000 Chamber of Peers,

port was presented on the 21st and

2,000,000 Chamber of Deputies,


224 March, by MM. Roy and BeugGeneral services, (ministeres), 292,913,000 not, the former of whom treated of Departmental expences,

31,976,000 the wants of the state, and the latFinancial operations,

17,916,600 ter of the means of supplying them. Negociations,

18,000,000 Registry,

They approved, on the whole of the 3,000,000

proposition, recommending, however, 680,975,600 some not inconsiderable reductions ;


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