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tinguished by somewhat violent con- which the kingdom of the Nether tests respecting the indemnities to be lands was composed, differing entirel granted to the nobility for the aboli- as they did ; one agricultural and ma tion of those immunities, in point of nufacturing, the other commercial taxation, which they had hitherto en- one Catholic, the other Protestant joyed.

one attached to France, the other hos The session of the States of the king. tile to it. It was estimated that th dom of the Netherlands, assembled in the number of Catholics was 4,100,000 preceding year, was continued through of Protestants, only 1,800,000; yet th the earlier part of the present. The King, provision for the former was 180,000/ having been unable to procure in time for the latter 130,000. The very dif their consent to the budget of 1818, ference of language was a ground o issued a proclamation continuing the controversy; and it was necessary to taxes of 1816, till their place was sup- admit the use of both in the debates o plied by a new law; a stretch of power the States-General. The government which seems to us somewhat strange, made considerable exertions to concili but to which no objections were made. ate its new subjects, by founding agri On the 6th February 1818, the States cultural societies, and other useful esgave their consent to the new law, tablishments, and by sending colonies by which the expences were stated to clear uncultivated lands. These at 7;400,0001. sterling ; the receipts measures, however, were not sufficient at 6,750,0001., leaving a deficit of to allay the irritation which prevailed 650,0001. to be made up either by in men's minds. loan, or by sale of the national domains. Poland presented this year a some. The King then procured the consent of what striking spectacle,--the forms of the States to a very severe law, desti- a free government granted by the most ned to repress the violent attacks made despotic of the European powers. The in writing against the allied powers, Emperor Alexander had always some and particularly France, which had liberal ideas floating in his mind, which, called forth vehement remonstrances. imperfect as they have proved, did some A fine of 301, co 501. was imposed up. credit to one nursed in the heart of such on all concerned in the publication of a lawless despotism. In his conduct toarticles personally offensive to any wards Poland, he has shewn a sense of foreign power or sovereign, calling in the wrongs inflicted by his ancestors, doubt the legitimacy of their dynasty, and some wish to repair them. He even and of their government, tending to caused the ashes of her hero Kosciusko, trouble the tranquillity of their states, to be transported into Poland, and into excite to disobedience and revolt. terred in the citadel of Cracow. He In the budget for 1819, a saving of now erected Poland into a kingdom, 130,0001. was effected by military re. and bestowed on it the form of a repre. ductions, and the revenue was brought sentative constitution. This kingdom nearly to the level of the expenditure. of Poland, however, was very different In the discussion, complaints were from that which, under Sigismond and made, that the expence of collecting Sobieski, gave law to the east of Euthe revenue, which, in England, is on- rope. Russia threw into it none of the ly 5 per cent, amounted with them in extensive territory severed by the suc. some instances, to 40 and 50 per cent. cessive partitions. The portions carThe budget was, however, carried. ried off by Austria and Prussia, remainVery great difficulties were felt in ed equally detached. It consisted, there. amalgamating the two portions of fore, almost solely of the duchy of War.

saw, and did not comprise a fourth part terior, submitted to the assembly a of the original Poland. However, it view of the state of the kingdom, presented still a name and shew of the The population, which, in 1810, a. former kingdom. The Viceroy Zay. mounted to 3,300,000, had, by the onzeck was a native Pole, had been the calamities of war, been reduced to companion in arms of Kosciusko, and about 2,600,000. Within the two last had even fought under Buonaparte. years, it had greatly revived, in conseThe national representation is, we be- quence of the security of person and lieve, independent of the crown, though property, the privileges and exempon too aristocratic a footing. The depu- tions granted to the industrious, and ties of the nobles amount to 77, those the numerous foreign colonists who of the commonalty to 51. The position had been induced to fix their abode too, close by their side, of a Russian in the kingdom. The minister then army of 40,000 men, could not be very stated the arrangements made in regard favourable to the freedom of delibera. to the church, by which special ime, tion. The Emperor arrived at Warsaw munities had been granted to the Caon the 13th March, and on the 27th tholic clergy, without encroaching on opened the diet in person. In his open- the rights or revenues of the other ing speech, he indirectly alluded to the sects. Public instruction had also been hostile attitude in which Poland had provided for by the opening of the liplaced herself against Russia. He de- brary, and of various museums, while clares, that all this is now sunk in sin- great attention had been paid to bring cere and complete oblivion. He tells the elements of popular instruction to them, however, that their destiny is in the level of all classes. At Warsaw, dissolubly united with that of Russia; and at Lublin, schools on the Lancasand that their utmost care must be di. trian system had been established, rected to extend this salutary union. which would be rapidly extended in He then pointed at the blessings ari. the following years. The budget, sing from those liberal institutions which forms usually the leading object " which bave not ceased to be the ob- of deliberation in a representative asject of my solicitude, and of which I sembly,was not even broughtonthecarhope, with the blessing of God, to ex- pet, though it was announced, that, actend the salutary influence over all the cording to every probability, it would countries entrusted by Providence to be laid before the diet the next session. my care. Prove," said he," to your co- Russia published this year a statetemporaries, that those liberal institu- ment of her finances, which were in tions, theever sacred principles of which the same disordered state as those of are by some confounded with those sub. the other great powers. Her regular versive doctrines, which, in our days, debt amounted to about 100,000,000 have menaced the social system with a of roubles, borrowed in Holland, and frightful catastrophe, are not a danger- of a paper called Bank .assignats, a. ous phantom : but that, brought into mounting to the immense sum of genuine action, and directed with pu- 214,000,000 of roubles. The grand rity of intention towards objects useful object was to reduce this last amount, to humanity, they are perfectly con- which pressed most heavily on the peos sistent with order, and produce, by ple, and to convert it by loans into a common agreement, the true prospera regular debt. A loan, already opened ity of nations."

on the 30th July 1817, had enabled When the Emperor had concluded, the government to take up 30,000,000 Count Mostowski, minister of the in- of assignats. The success of this mea

sure induced the ministry to open a faction. The peasantry complained, new loan, to which every person who that the citizens and mercantile classes brought 85 roubles should have in possessed the sole sway in this assemscribed in the great book 100 roubles bly, and ordered all things for their at 6 per cent. So satisfactory .were own particular interest. The bad harthese terms considered, that before the vest, and the stagnation of agriculture, end of the year, government were en. inflamed their discontents. Assembling abled to take up 63,000,000 of assig- to the number of about 1200, they nats, which were immediately burned. marched tumultuously into Christiana,

In Sweden, this year was distin- to demand that the King should disguished by the death of Charles XIII. solve the Storthing, and govern in an the nominal king, and the succession of absolute manner, as the Kings of DenBernadotte to the entire sovereignty, mark had done. A small armed force under the title of Charles XIV. Con- was sufficient to disperse them, and to siderable apprehensions were entertain- make prisoners of the ring leaders, who ed, that this event might give rise to were detained for several months. The some commotion, and that an attempt harmony, meantime, between the King might be made to restore the legitimate and the Storthing was far from comdynasty. The event, however, took plete. His great object in every meaplace without any commotion. As soon sure, was to render entire the union as the monarch had rendered his last between the two countries; theirs, to breath, Bernadotte caused himself to preserve the separation. They negabe acknowledged as King, and took tived even, by a majority of 67 to 5, before the Council of State an oath the proposition of sending a deputato observe the constitution. He con- tion to welcome him on his entrance tinued till late at night receiving the into the country. oaths of the Council, of the Generals, Proceeding to the farthest extremiof the officers of the Court, and of the ties of Europe, and of the civilized principal authorities, civil and military world, we come to the Turkish em. Next day, he issued a proclamation to pire. Its history, during this year, was the people ; and on the day after, went chiefly distinguished by the progress to the Diet, when he renewed his oath, of the war against the Wahabis

, a da. and received that of the States. The ring and fanatical race, who had seized Emperor of Russia, who, alone of any the holy cities of Mecca and Medina, foreign power, might have been sus- laid waste the eastern frontier of Syria, pected of some partiality to the old and even threatened Damascus. Ibradynasty, was no sooner apprised of the him, however, son of the Pacha of new King's succession, than he wrote a Egypt, pushed the war with such viletter, expressing in the warmest terms gour, that Ibn Saoud, their chief, was his regard and good wishes.

compelled to throw himself, with the On the 5th August, the King set main body of his troops, into Deraieh, out for Christiana, to be crowned sove. his capital, situated in the heart of reign of Norway. This country had Arabia. It made a long and obstinate reaped some advantages by its unjust resistance, till at length, on the 7th transference from the Danish to the October, a general assault took place, Swedish dominion. The King had when Deraieh was taken by given them a free constitution, and had Twenty thousand Wahabis are said restored the Storthing, or ancient re- to have perished; the chief himself, presentative assembly. This measure, with his family and his treasures, fell however, had not given universal satis into the hands of the victors. He was


conducted to Cairo, where the victory Constantinople are dissatisfied, they was celebrated with boundless rejoi- shew it by setting the city on fire. cings. The captive chief was then dis- This proof was given during the prepatched to Constantinople, where, af- sent summer, so violently and repeatter being led in triumph through a edly, that Constantinople was in dannumber of the streets, he was put to ger of being reduced to ashes. On death.

one of these occasions, Prince YpsilanRevolts took place also this year in ti’s mother, three of his wives, and sethe provinces of Trebisond and Merdin, veral of his children, perished in the on the eastern frontier ; but their sup- flames. At the greatest of these conpression was soon announced by the flagrations, which took place on the heads of the ringleaders, suspended in 13th August, the Sultan having, acgreat numbers from the gates of the cording to ancient usage, hastened to Seraglio.

the spot, was assailed with such sediWhile these prosperous events were tious cries, that he judged it necessary taking place abroad, Constantinople to return. The conduct of the governitself was the theatre of serious disturb. ment, however, was firm and moderate. ances. These took their origin from The only concession was the dismissal the Sultan making the attempt, so of. of the Captain Pacha, and the sending ten abortive and fatal to its authors, of out of the city all the elephants, whom placing the military and political sys- popular superstition supposed to be tems on a footing with those of other animals of evil omen. Several persons, European powers. The Janizaries suspected of having instigated these were particularly dissatisfied with the disturbances, were banished, and one attempts to subject them to regular put to death. Thus, tranquillity was discipline. Whenever the people of at length restored.


Opening of the Campaign of 1818 by General Bolivar.--Defeat and Retreat

of Morillo.-- Battle of Sombrero.-- Caplure of San Fernando de Apure. Defeat of Bolivar.Baltle of Ortez.

--Bolivar nearly taken.- Battles in April and in May. The Royalists victorious.-Rainy Season.- Preparations of both parties.- Naval Force of the Patriots.-State of Affairs at Buenos Ayres---In Chili.- Patriots Defeated at Talca.--Decisive Battle of Maipo.-Royalists Defeated. --State of Brazil-Mexico-United States. War in Florida.-Excursions of Arbuthnot and Ambristie.-Reflections on that Transaction.

DURING the year 1818, the war in on the other hand, the royalist troops South America does not appear to were equally unable to drive from the have made any perceptible progress to open country, in a great degree wild its termination. The steadiness and and unsettled, and not easily accessible, discipline of the royalist troops gave the bold and desultory bands by which them, no doubt, in the field, many ad- it was maintained. Of the loose and vantages over the brave but disorder- irregular warfare which marked the ly levies to which they were opposed. commencement of operations, we are But these advantages were counter- but imperfectly informed ; nor would balanced by other circumstances, it indeed be interesting, even if we posby the ardent zeal of the patriotic sessed the materials for such a task, to troops, and their devotion to their enter into a detail of all the numerous chiefs,-by their rapid movements al. skirmishes,and unconnectedadventures, 80,—and by the ease and celerity with which took place in the course of this which they always continued to re- desultory contest. We prefer, if pos. cruit their wasted force, and to re-ap- sible, to give a general sketch of such pear in the field, even after a defeat, in events as appear to have produced degreater strength than before. Hence cisive results ; although we must fairly the lingering

and indecisive character confess, that after all our research and of this destructive war, which victory inquiry, we are not so well provided as and defeat seems alike to protract. At we could wish with the necessary inthe conclusion of the year 1817, the formation. successes of the independent chiefs had The campaign, which appears to enabled them to occupy the open coun- have been uncommonly active, opened try; and the royalist troops were in in December, when General Zazara, consequence chiefly confined to the as already mentioned, was defeated by coast towns. From these, however, the royalists, near Calabozo. The they were unable to expel them; while, number of slain in this battle amount.

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