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ed, on both sides, to 500 men. On sued by the lancers, who killed two of the same day, 400 patriot horse met his hussars by his side, Being now and defeated an equal number of royal- compelled to shut himself up in Calaist cavalry, near the river Apure, of bozo, Bolivar immediately took meawbom 300 are said to have been kill- sures for blockading him, on which he ed. These partial encounters were quitted the place, pursued by the pabut the prelude to more serious com- triots. This retreat was disastrous to bats. About the end of December, the Spaniards. They were repeatedly Boliver resolved to concentrate his attacked by the republican cavalry i troops, for the purpose of bringing on and many also died through fatigue. a general action. On the 3d January, At Sombrero the royalists were overhe accordingly began his march from taken by Bolivar's force, when a desAngostura, where his head-quarters derate conflict took place on the 16th were established, with 2500 infantry, and 17th February. About 1000 men and 2000 horse. His plan, from which fell in this action, in which both parhe expected the entire destruction of ties claimed the victory. It is certain, the Spanish army, was to effect a junc. however, that the royalists retreated tion with Paez, who was posted on the the following day, from which we Apure with 2000 horse and 800 foot, may infer, that they were worsted in and to attack the royalists on the the action. After this affair, it would plain, if they dared to await his ap- appear that Bolivar had advanced; and proach, or, if they fed, to confine them on the 10th March a division of his for the remainder of the campaign force occupied the valley of Aragua, within the maritime towns, which were and pushed its advanced posts as far as blockaded by the independent feet un- Valencia, about 12 leagues from Porto der Admiral Brion. Bolivar experien- Cabello. ced no opposition to his movement. These successes of Bolivar occasionHe effected his junction with Cedeno ed a general alarm among all the rich on the 17th January, and with Paez merchants and landed proprietors of on the 3d February, at S. Juan de the maritime towns; and they expectPayura. He crossed the Apure on ed nothing else than the entire and ra. 6th February; and, after a march of pid subjugation of the country by the 300 leagues in 42 days, he reached Ca- republican arms. But the victorious labozo, a town 120 miles south of the army of Bolivar, exhausted by its succity of Caraccas, as formerly mention. cesses, was in no condition to attempt ed, where Morillo, having treated the siege of the towns to which the before this concentrated force, had royalists retreated; and the general, established his head-quarters. On the therefore, having detached part of his 12th, the town and forts were invest. force to secure his rear, gave orders ed by the Venezuelan army; and Mo- for commencing the siege San Ferrillo, in order to deliver himself from a nando de Apure, a strongly fortified siege, advanced a body of cavalry, in island in the Orinoco. This position, order to turn the left Bank of the pa. besides being essential to the safety of triots. This movement was checked Angostura, commands the navigation by the rapid advance of Bolivar’s of the Orinoco, and facilitates the horse, by which the right wing of communications with New Grenada, Morillo was completely overthrown, which, it was evident, might be of the and the whole force of the royalists at greatest importance to the success of length put to the rout. Morillo nare the independent cause.
It was de rowly escaped, almost alone, being pura fended by 500 Spanish troops, who were so vigorously attacked, that they encamped on the heights at Ortiz. were compelled to evacuate the place This position was assailed with great on the 6th March, pursued by the pa intrepidity by the patriot army, and triots.
carried, after an obstinate conflict, Morillo having received reinforce which lasted from eleven o'clock in the ments as he approached Valencia, while morning till night; and in which the Bolivar was weakened hy his advance, assailants lost from 500 to 600) men. was now anxious to bring matters to The royalists retreated on Villa de the issue of a battle. He accordingly Cura, and afterwards on Calabozo, made an unexpected march from Va. which they occupied towards the end lencia on the 13th March, and sur. of March. prised Bolivar's corps, which had ad. The two armies appear to have been vanced to Cabrera, within five or six exhausted by these continued and sanleagues of Caraccas, and which con- guinary contests; and we have accordsisted of 1200 horse, and from 400 to ingly no account of any other battle 500 infantry. The patriots were here until the middle of April. In the defeated, with the loss of 200 killed, meantime, an adventure happened to and many wounded, 20 loads of bag- General Bolivar, through the treachery gage, and a great quantity of warlike of one of his officers, which had nearstores. A more serious encounter took ly deprived the independent cause of place on the 16th and 17th March, in the benefit of his great and active tawhich the patriot troops were totally lents. He had lain down to rest, with defeated. The action commenced on a few attendants, within half a league the side of Bolivar, who made an at- of San Josef de Tisnados, when the tack with his whole force on Morillo's Spanish Colonel Lopez, being appriposition. In this attack he was finallyzed of the place of his retreat, penetrarepulsed, with the loss of 800 killed, ted, with a dozen of horsemen, for the and 900 wounded. Nine hundred pri- purpose of making him prisoner while soners were also taken, besides 1600 asleep. Awakened by the noise of muskets, and 3000 horses and mules. the soldiers, he lost no time in making In this action General Morillo was his escape, with those who were with wounded in the thigh with a lance, him. In their retreat they were fired and was in consequence succeeded in upon by the Spanish troops, and were the command by La Torre. In the dis- all either killed or wounded, with the patch of Morillo, giving an account of exception of the chief, who succeeded this battle, he states his own loss at with difficulty in reaching a place of five killed and three wounded.
safety. The patriot generals appear, as usu
Bólivar had scarcely joined his corps, al, to have very soon recovered from when he was attacked on the 17th the effects of their defeat. The junc- April by General Pla, about a league tion of Generals Paez and Cedeno with from San Josef de Tisnados, where he the corps of Bolivar, which took place was stationed with 700 cavalry, and about this period, gave a more favour. 350 infantry. He was, according to able aspect to their affairs. General the account of the royalists, totally Paez was strengthened by a reinforce. routed, and with difficulty made his ment of English volunteers; and the escape. Having succeeded in collectwhole arnıy was reviewed by Bolivaring his whole force, he appeared at on the 20th March, at Calabozo, day-light at the head of his troops, to whence Paez and Cedeno marched to dispute the field with his victorious adattack the Spanish general, who was versary. The two armies being with
in gun-shot, a bloody action imme- were drawn up in order of battle. The diately took place, in which the pa- infantry of the royalists was arranged triots gave way, and were pursued in in columns, flanked by two squadrons every direction, with great loss, 400 of cavalry.. The patriots charged the being killed in the battle, including se- cavalry with great intrepidity, and notveral officers of rank, and 150 made withstanding the firmness with which prisoners. They lost, besides, all their the attack was sustained, they were at stores of ammunition, 400 lances, and last broken, and at the same time the two stands of colours. The royalists infantry was thrown into disorder, and stated, that their own loss in this ac- put to flight.
put to fight. In this general rout, tion did not exceed 40 men. Several the royalists lost 1000 men in killed British officers were present in this bat- and in prisoners, besides great quantitle, and it is mentioned, on their au- ties of arms, ammunition, and warlike thority, in Hippesley's Narrative of stores. The loss of the patriots, achis Expedition to the Orinoco, that the cording to the statements in their of. royalists were inferior to the patriots ficial bulletins, was not considerable ; in numbers, but superior to them in but was sensibly felt, as it prevented discipline and skill; that owing to the their intended advance on Valencia. General-in-chief Bolivar, who had so From this circumstance, we may infer confused his line, the infantry were that their loss was severe, and that beaten, and nearly destroyed, before though they no doubt gained the viche could collect himself; and that it tory, it produced, like many other vicwas owing to one or two desperate tories, more glory than any solid or charges of the cavalry, under General permanent advantage. It does not Paez, that the army was rescued from seem to have effected any change in utter destruction.
the positions of the hostile armies, the It does not appear, that this vic- independent force, after the battle, octory of the royalists contributed in any cupying San Fernando de Apure, Camaterial degree, to the discouragement labozo, and San Carlos ; while the of the patriots. Their forces were royalists were stationed at Sombrero, again assembled about the end of April, Valeucia, and Caraccas. On the 11th and by order of the general-in-chief, May, another severe action took place, the division of General Paez directed about 19 leagues from the town of its march on Villa del Pao, in order to San Carlos, in which the royalists, with dislodge a large body of the enemy, a severe loss, gained the victory. The under the command of the Spanish Spanish General La Torre, 20 officers, Brigadier Real. On the approach of and 400 men, fell in the conflict, while the patriots, Real abandoned Pao, and General Paez, out of 2000 men which withdrew towards Valencia, on which he brought into the field, lost about the division of General Paez advan- 1000. After this action, the royalist cing, succeeded in gaining possession General Morillo advanced to Calaboof the town of San Carlos, after de. zo. On the 24th May, another battle feating the enemy, who attempted to took place, in which the royalists were oppose him. In order to check the victorious. The last act of hostility progress of the force under Paez, La which, during the campaign, was an Torre collected all the garrisons of the attack made by the patriot General different places, and even the militia of Bermuda on the city of Cumana, in the city of Caraccas. With this con- which he was defeated with the loss of centrated force, he advanced into the 200 men. plains of Cogede, where the patriots After this period, a cessation of hos
tilities necessarily took place between season in equipping and disciplining the the hostile armies, owing to the in. new levies, held on the 1st October a creasing heat of the climate, and the council of state at Angostura, in which, periodical rains. The campaign ter- after giving a brilliant sketch of the minated unfavourably for the patriots, resources and prospects of the repubthough it produced no serious or last- lic, he informed them that he was just ing injury to their affairs. They ap- about to set out for the army, and he pear to have acted throughout on the named the general of division Urdanoffensive, their object being to expel eta, the Director-general Don Roscio, the royalists from the possession of the and the intendant Penalvez, as state coast towns, where they still maintain- councillors, to take the general direced themselves in considerable force. tion of affairs in his absence. It was In this they failed, being defeated in also decided, that a general assembly the last actions of the campaign, and of deputies from the Venezuelan proforced to retreat to their former posi- vinces should be convoked on the 1st tions before their enemies, who ap- January 1819, for the purpose of setpear, however, to have attempted no. tling matters, and fixing the governthing offensive ; but to have remained ment on some durable basis. These satisfied with the successful defence of resolutions being all agreed to, the their own positions.
general took his departure in order to The interval of rest afforded by the commence the campaign. Morillo, advance of the season, was improved with about 9 or 10,000 men, of which by both parties in collecting reinforce- two-thirds consisted of Creole militia, ments of troops, and all the neces- occupied Calabozo, Varinas, and Sansary munitions of war. Each boasted ta Fé. The independent force, amountgreatly of the advantages which had ing to from 12 to 14,000, occupied the been obtained in the late campaign, whole champaign country, and was disand of the number of enemies who had tributed in several distinct corps on the been taken or destroyed. but the Orinoco, from Guiana to San Fernantruth is, that in the late sanguinary do d'Apure. An account of the opeactions, the royalists and patriots were rations which followed, will be given equally ruined in infantry, and were in a subsequent volume. both under the necessity of a short The naval force which the independbreathing interval, to recruit their ex. ent government had established in the hausted strength. For this purpose, the year 1817, under Admiral Brion, was season of inaction was duly iinproved in the year 1818 still farther increased by both; but more especially by the and improved ; and whatever might independent chiefs. They displayed be said as to the issue of the operathe greatest activity in collecting mili- tions on shore, there could be no ques. tary stores, and in drawing together tion as to the maritime superiority of recruits from the various districts in the patriotic fleets. Not only was the the plains ; from England, also, a rein. sea covered by their privateers, which forcement of auxiliary troops and offi. preyed upon the Spanish trade from cers were landed, and General Gregor the Gulf of Mexico to the coasts of M“Gregor ascended the Orinoco, with Old Spain, and the islands in the East another body of English volunteers, and Indies, and made many rich captures, with supplies of muskets, ammunition, but the whole province of Caraccas, besides a large quantity of military stores from Porto Cabello to Cumana, was and clothing, both for horse and foot. held under blockade by the squadron Bolivar having employed the whole of Brion, consisting of from 35 to 40
vessels, carrying 800 guns, and above try by the successes of the royalists.
At St Bartholemi, he had In 1817 they had gained important an engagement with the Spanish fleet, and decisive advantages; and the dein which he would have completely feat of the royalists at Chacabuco was destroyed it, if his efforts had been so decisive in its consequences, that properly_seconded by. Commodore the whole country was laid open to Aury. But this chief, from what their victorious arms. The general accause is not sufficiently explained, de- cordingly entered Santiago in triumph; tached himself from the Venezuelan and the patriot army pursuing its adforce, and having made himself master vantage, arrived before Talca-buang, of the island of Providence, he con- where the broken remains of the royalverted it into a resort for privateers, ist force had taken refuge. The indoand a naval depot for an armament, pendent generals did not deem it ex. which was destined, when the proper pedient to undertake the siege of this opportunity arrived, to aid an insur- town. General San Martin, therefore, rection in the kingdom of New Gra- leaving a sufficient number of troops nada. Brion, however, pursued his to blockade it, proceeded to march on success, and landed in the Orinoco a Valparaiso, convoy, consisting of 10,000 muskets, The independent generals were no a great quantity of clothing, military way discouraged by the successful reequipments and stores, and
also artil- sistance of Talca-huano. Having relery, of which the insurgents were ceived reinforcements from Santiago greatly in want. On the 24th Au- and Buenos Ayres, they extended their gust, after a brilliant naval action with views to nothing less than the conquest the Spanish fleet, he surprised the town of Peru, and the reduction of Lima, of Guiria, which the royalists had dis- while the Viceroy of that kingdom mantled the year before, but which was, on the other hand, fitting out a was of great importance to the pa- new armament for the invasion of triots, as it gave them a sea-port, Chili. This expedition, which conthrough which they could at once, sisted of about 4000 troops, under the without difficulty, receive the rein. command of bis son-in-law, Osorio, forcements of troops which they ex. the same who was defeated at Chaca. pected from England. The capture buco, landed without any obstacle, in of this place terminated the campaign. the beginning of February, in the Bay
In Buenos Ayres, the triumph of of Conception; and being reinforced the independent' cause had been for by the garrison of Talca-huano, the several years signal and complete ; and blockade of which place was precipithough the government was at times tately raised, and other additional rein an unsettled state, from the contests cruits procured in the country, the of rival chiefs for the supreme power, royalist force was increased to between yet there was no want of activity in 5000 and 6000 men, which was advan. providing for the public security, orcing by forced marches on the capital in assisting those provinces which
were of Chili. still endeavouring to throw off the To resist this formidable invasion, yoke of the mother country. It was the republican chiefs collected all their owing to the supplies of troops recei forces; and they at the same time pubved from Buenos Ayres, that Chili was lished a manifesto, setting forth the enabled in the year 1817 to renew the grievances of the country, and the vastruggle for independence, which had rious oppressions which it had sufferbeca previously terminated in that counced from the colonial monopoly of the