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distinction, even independent of his ved the first elements of his education learning ; and he possessed a fund of at Westminster School, after which, anecdote, which rendered him accept- he removed to the continent, and spent able in every society. His table was several years in Germany. Here he hospitable ; and he valued himself pare applied, with peculiar ardour, to the ticularly on the possession of the very literature of that country, and imbibest wine. His only peculiarity at bed thoroughly the German spirit ;all troublesome, consisted in a deadly that, at least, which reigns in its tales, aversion to fresh air, so that, when. romances, and ballads ;-the supernaever any one entered his apartment, he tural and the horrible,—all the demomechanically exclaimed, in a tone of nology of the Belles Lettres. In this authority, “Shut the Door.” In the spirit, while abroad, he composed the characters of others, learning was the Monk, a romance, in three volumes, chief object of his veneration; and he published in 1795, and which made a viewed it with a respect quite uncon- very strong impression on the public, nected with envy. Parr and Porson, While the wild and original genius his great rivals, were always viewed by displayed in it extorted admiration, him with the utmost kindness, and his the indecent freedom of some of the respect for them was testified on every scenes was strongly reprobated. This possible occasion. He entered into holy circumstance, indeed, so much affected orders, but too late in life to obtain the author, that he called in the reany high promotion in the church. maining copies of the first edition, and For some years before his death, find- published a second, in which the exing his health decline, he resigned his ceptionable passages were mostly pru. Academy in favour of his son, and re- ned away. Judging from this last edi. tired to his rectory at Deptford. His tion only, we should be tempted to constitution continued to decay, till, suspect that the outcry was somewhat on the 28th December 1817, he was exaggerated,—the general tone of the carried off by a stroke of apoplexy. work appearing to be much more that As it appeared important to the pub- of horror, than of voluptuousness, lic that his magnificent library should agitating and appalling, rather than not be dispersed, Mr Bankes presented seductive. About this time he oba petition from the trustees of the Bri- tained a seat in Parliament, and was tish Museum, requesting parliamentary supposed to aim at distinction as a aid in order to purchase it entire. The parliamentary orator ; but, when in motion being supported by Mr Van- the House, 'he never could summon sittart, was referred to a committee, courage to open his lips. He threw whose very interesting report is insert. up his seat, therefore, and betook him. ed in the Appendix. The result was, self entirely to the drama and literathat a sum of 13,5001. was voted by ture. His next performance was the Parliament, to be applied to the pur. Castle Spectre, a drama, performed chase of the library.
with extraordinary success at Drury
Lane, in December, 1797, and containMATTHEW GREGORY LEWIS was ing certainly great boldness and pathos. the son of Mr Lewis, who officiated It may be considered as tending to for many years as deputy-secretary in corrupt the stage, by introducing the the War-Office, where he enjoyed a practice of courting success by the salary of 16,0001. a-year,-a sum un- exhibition of splendid scenery. Hence, exampled in the present days of more for a long time, genuine tragedy gave rigid economy. "Young Lewis recei- place entirely to mere spectacle, --nor
VOL. XI. PART 1.
is the same taste yet wholly banished. Uburlous interest. The consequence In 1801, he published two volumes of was, that the age of 21, instead of poems, under the title of Tales of putting him in possession of his forWonder,—which name their contents tune, was the era of his ruin. The ac. fully justified. He now betook him- cumulated claims poured in to an exself to romance, and, in 1804, publish- tent beyond what his fortune was equal ed the Bravo of Venice, in one volume; to meet. He was obliged, not only in 1806, the Feudal Tyrants, in four to sell his property, but, that proving volumes. He published also, Tales of insufficient, to go abroad under the Terror, in three volumes, and Romantic changed name of John Gifford. Here, Tales, in four volumes; but the curi. left to solitude and rueful musings, he osity of the public in this direction was fortunately led into habits of study was now worn out. These last works and application, to which he had been excited less interest, and his publica- hitherto a stranger. Having taken up tions became less frequent.
his abode in the vicinity of Rouen, he Mr Lewis having succeeded, on the applied diligently to the study of the death of his father, to a considerable literature of France--and particularly property in the West Indies, determi. its history. The fruits of these studies ned to visit it. His principal motive appeared on his return to England in is said to have been a desire to melio. 1788, when he applied himself to the rate the condition of the slaves em- composition of a History of France, ployed on the property. If this was which appeared in five successive 4to the motive, he fell a martyr in the volumes, between 1791 and 1794. cause of humanity; for, having con. During this interval, too, he engaged tracted the disease of the climate, he eagerly in those political discussions, brought it along with him, and died to which the first progress of the French in the Gulf of Florida, in the spring Revolution gave rise. At that time, of 1818.
the periodical press, both in regard to
reviews and newspapers, was almost John GIFFORD, one of the most ac. entirely in the hands of the Whig, tive political writers of the present day, or rather the republican party. In was born in 1758. His original name 1792, he published an Address to the was Green, being the son of John People of England, to which was anGreen, who was bred to the professionnexed, an Abstract of Paine's Life of the law, but died early. At the and Writings. He translated Lally age of 17, the death of a relation put Tollendal's Vindication of the Emihim in possession of some landed pro- grants; and circulated widely, an “Adperty, on the strength of which he was dress to the Loyal Associations." Mr entered as a commoner in St John's Cobbet also, who was then at a very College, Oxford. This situation, which different point of the political meridian connected him with many young men than now, having emitted “ A Bone of large fortune, was one cause of lead- to gnaw for the Democrats, by Peter ing him into ruinous habits of expence, Porcupine,” Mr Gifford introduced it totally inconsistent with his limited by a preface, entitled, “ A Rod for prospects. Having removed to Lon- the Backs of the Critica, by Humphrey don, his extravagance became still more Hedgehog.” At that time, the pas. boundless; and as his guardians refu- sions ran too high to admit of any sed to supply him with the means of thing sober or reasonable. Mr Gifsupporting it, he had recourse to the ford took the loftiest ultra-loyal tone; ruinous expedient of borrowing at he held as revolutionists and enemies of
their country, all who, in the state, a dissenting clergyman; a situation opposed any of the measures of go. for which he was well qualified by vernment; and, in church, all dissenters morals, character, and learning ; but whatever, whether Presbyterian or having contracted a passion for conCalvinistic on one side, or the disciples troversy on abstruse theological subof Price and Priestley on the other. jects, he was suspected of having He even accused ministers, and the imbibed some opinions adverse to law officers of government, as too tame those entertained among the class to and supine. He aided in the establish- whom he sought to recommend himment of the British Critic; and pro. self. He was induced to repair to bably thinking it too moderate, after- Amsterdam, where he received a temwards set on foot the Anti-jacobin porary situation. He met, however, Review. He edited the Narrative of with a much greater good fortune in a “ Residence in France, during the the acquaintance of Miss Groen, or years 1792, 3, 4, and 5, by an English Green, who possessed from 80001. to Lady," a work which was popular at 10,0001., and was also a very good the time, and passed through several and agreeable person. Thus made ineditions. His last and greatest work, dependent, he yielded to a propensity was the Life of Mr Pitt, published in he had long entertained for medicine, 1809, in three volumes 4to, and after- and repaired to the celebrated schools wards in six volumes 8vo.
of Leyden. By a singular taste, the For these exertions in the service of obstetric branch possessed attractions government, Mr Gifford was reward- for him beyond any other. After ob. ed by an appointment in the Police taining considerable reputation as an Office, which he exercised, first in accoucheur in severalof the great Dutch Worship Street, Shoreditch, and after. towns, he removed to London, where wards in Marlborough Street. As the he attained a very respectable pracemolument of this office was moderate, tice, and was for some time in comand as duties were attached to it, which pany with Dr Sims. At this time, he he was very well qualified to execute, had the opportunity of rendering an it cannot be considered as paying a very important service to the public. high price for so much loyalty. To- consequence of the numerous canals, wards the end of his life, he resided which intersect the streets of Amchiefly at Bromley, in Kent, where he sterdam, the drowning of children died on the 6th March, 1818, in the was a frequent accident, and was sub60th year of his age. He was twice mitted to by the citizens with Dutch married, and left several children. apathy, as an evil admitting of no re
medy. Happily, however, a tender THOMAS COGAN, a writer and phi- mother having her son brought in lifelanthropist of some eminence, was born less, made such exertions by the use of at Rowel, in the country of North- the warm-bath, friction, and other reampton, on 8th February, 1736. His medies, that she had the happiness of father was a respectable and diligent restoring him. This roused the atapothecary, who gave an excellent tention of the citizens ; a society for education to a numerous family. Tho- the restoration of drowned persons was mas was placed at Kibworth, in Lei. immediately formed, and attended with cestershire, in the flourishing academy the most beneficial effects. Seven of the late Dr Aikin, father of the years after, Dr Cogan and Dr Hawes, eminent physician and writer of the aided by Dr Lettsome and some other same name. He was educated for gentlemen, established the Royal Hu.
mane Society for the recovery of those of Reid, Beattie, and other Scot. drowned persons. The first anniver- tish philosophers. Some years before sary of this institution was on 15th his death he had given up all employApril, 1774 ; and it was celebrated ment, and divided his time between ever since by an annual dinner, at Bath and London. Being affected, which a prince of the blood has fre. however, with asthmaand severe cough, quently presided. The dinner is pre- his strength gradually gave way, and ceded by a sermon; and after it, those he died with an uncommon dignity, restored to life, by the efforts of the christian calmness, and resignation, on society, have frequently walked round the 2d February, 1818, in the 82d the saloon in solemn procession. In year of his age. the course of less than half a century, 4411 persons have been resuscitated in We had prepared a notice of Mr this manner.
Brydone, the celebrated traveller, who Dr Cogan, possessing a fortuné died during the present year ; but haequal to all his wants, and having no ving since obtained hopes of a more family, determined, in 1780, to retire ample and fully authenticated memoir, from business. He went to reside in we are induced to delay, for the purHolland, which his wife probably pre- pose of introducing it into our next ferred, and which he himself had al. volume. most learned to consider as a native country. He might have remained France, this year, lost an eminent there for life, had not the entrance of antiquary and writer, the Chevalier the French into Holland induced him ANDRE Louis MILLIN; he was born to return to England. From mate- at Paris, of a family which had risen to rials collected abroad, he now publish- distinction, both in the army and the ed a Journey down the Rhine, 8vo, magistracy. Either of these careers 1794. Returning to the west of Eng. was open to him, but he preferred the land, he took a large farm, and though pursuits of literature, which his indeagriculture was quite a new occupa- pendent fortune enabled him to purtion, soon excelled in it. He was the sue uninterrupted. Till the age of means of spreading several new and ap- twenty, he merely indulged a taste for proved practices, and obtained several various reading, particularly of foreign premiums from an agricultural society works, and the fruits of his studies to which he belonged. He then ap- appeared in “ Melanges des Literature plied himself to cultivate with success Etrangère, 6 vols 12mo, Paris, 1785." the department of moral philosophy. Soon after, an intimacy with a young He published in 1802 a " Philosophi- man of the name of Willemot inspired cal Treatise on the Passions, in one him with a passion for botany; and volume, and afterwards an Ethical imitating the examples of Monteula Treatise on the same subject, in 2 vols. in mathematics, and Baillie in astrono8vo. These treatises were chiefly my, he planned to compose a History practical, and were well received by of Natural Science. After having exthe public. In 1817, he published hausted all the means of information Ethical Questions, or speculations on in this branch which Paris afforded, the principal subjects of controversy he went to Strasburg to visit Profesin moral philosophy ; but in these sor Hermann. From him he derived a speculative discussions, he appears to passionate attachment to the Linnæan have gone beyond his depth. He system, against which there existed supports the theories of Priestley, and then in France a strong prejudice. attacks, without well understanding, He prevailed, however, upon six other
naturalists to form with him a Lin- was resumed under the title of Annales næan Society, about the same time that Encyclopediques. Dr Smith established one under the In 1794, on the death of the Abbe same title in London. The Academy Barthelemi, M. Millin was chosen to of Sciences, however, seized with what succeed him as keeper of the Cabinet appears an unworthy jealousy, threat- of Medals in the National Library; ened to shut their door against the From that time he gave up national members of this body, which was in history, and devoted himself entirely consequence dissolved. After the re- to the duties of this new function. volution, it again met, under the title He sold all his cabinets and collecof " the Society of Natural History." tions, and with the produce purchased It experienced now great success; medals and books of antiquities ; he and M. Millin, farther to spread the gave lectures on the subject; he made fame of his master, instituted an an- journeys to Italy and the south of nual fête in honour of Linnæus ; he France, for the purpose of exploring translated also “ Pultney's General their antiquities, and published valuView of the Writings of Linnæus." able narratives of these travels. In the M. Millin, being secretary to the So- course of them, he suffered one of the ciety, edited several volumes of its greatest calamities which can befall a transactions; he also assisted in courses collector and man of letters. He had of lectures given by the Society. left his library in charge of a person
These pursuits suffered now a ter- who had been long in his service, but rible interruption. M. Millin had been whom he had frequent occasion to an advocate for moderate reform ; but blame for recent misconduct ; not with. this did not prevent him from being standing which, he still kept him and included in the proscription of Robes treated him with kindness. This wretch, pierre. He was immured in a dun. impelled either by revenge or frenzy, geon with 150 of the most illustrious set fire to the collection; and the whole, dames in France, whom he saw suc- consisting of 12,000 volumes, 100 port. cessively depart for the scaffold. His folios of engravings, and numerous day was fixed for the 11th Thermi- original MSS. became a prey to the dor; but on the 9th, the stroke of fames. He even took the prints out fate fell on his persecutor; and he was of the portfolios, and piled them on restored to the world. His fortune, the floor, to insure their destruction. however, was gone ; but the new go- The neighbours being alarmed, and vernment conferred on him several li. attempting to enter, he threw out terary appointments, which insured first a false key; and when they at his subsistence. He now also under- last penetrated to his room, he was took the Magazin Encyclopedique ; a found with his throat cut, and weltercontinuation, on an enlarged plan, of ing in his blood. Before his death, the Journal des Savans. "It enjoyed however, M. Millin had in some degree high favour with the public, and con- repaired this loss. He died at Paris, tinued long to be the medium, through on the 14th August, 1818. which many of the first men of science communicated their observations to Italy, this year, lost an inquirer, althe public. This publication, in 1816, most unrivalled in the exposition of extended to 130 volumes, when it was ancient arts and monuments. ENNIUS discontinued on account of some stamp Quirinus Visconti was born at regulations adopted by the Bourbon Rome in 1753, and was fortunate in government. Soon after, however, it
Soon after, however, it a father, who was himself a learned