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in general were to be attributed to the and consequently that what are aow operation of the waters of a lake. His the mouths of Glen Gluoy and Glen last inspection of those in Lochaber Spean, were shut in by a terra firma, has not only confirmed his conviction and that the united waters of the whole of the truth of this theory, with re- lakes formed a river running through spect to them, but has led him to ima. the Pass of Muckull, towards the eastgine that he has discovered the bound- ern sea. aries, extent, and shape of the ancient An examination of the Glen-mor. lakes, as well as the cause which pro- Da-Albin, or Great Glen of Scotland, duced their evacuation. He conceives stretching in a diagonal line across the that he is warranted to conclude, from island from Inverness to Fort William, the observations he has made, that has convinced me that it has owed its Glen Gluoy was at one time an inde. origin to some convulsion of nature, pendent lake, having its level twelve and that the opening of this vast chasm feet above the lake of Roy, when at was the cause of the discharge of the its highest, into which it discharged a water of the lakes, and of the change stream from its N.E. extremity. Glen of the direction of the current of the Roy must have contained an independ. rivers, which now run to the Western, ent lake in two different states, as in- instead of to the Eastern sea, as they dicated by its uppermost and second seem to have done formerly. He conshelves. Whilst in the first state, its ceives also, that the horizontal shelves level must have been such, that it dis- of Lochaber, and this vast crack across charged its waters, and those tributory the island, reflect a mutual light on to it, from Loch Gluoy, in the direc- each other, elucidating the history of tion of the Loch of Spey, and by it both. towards the Eastern sea. When this March 16th.-Professor Leslie read was the case, a barrier must have ex- an account of his new instrument callisted at the mouth of Glen Roy, se. ed.the Ætherioscope. For an account parating its lake from one at that time of which, we refer to the chapter on occupying the whole valley of the Improvement in Science. Spean, at the level of the lowest shelf At the same meeting, Dr Brewster of all, and which has such a relation to communicated to the Society a paper the summit-level at the Pass of Muc- on a new theory of double refraction. kull, as to warrant the conclusion, that April 6th.-Professor Playfair read it must have sent its stream through part of a biographical account of the it towards the Eastern sea, by the author of the Naval Tactics. course of the river Spey. Two dif. In this essay, which excited the ferent ruptures took place in the bare greatest interest in the Society, Mr rier of division between Lochs Roy Playfair observed, that Mr Clerk beand Spean. The first diminished the longed to a class of active and vigor. surface of Lock Roy so much, as to ous

minds, whichextend their thoughts render it tributary to Loch Spean. and inventions beyond their regular and The second breach reduced it to the professional sphere. Mr Clerk, how. level of Loch Spean, of which it now ever, though not a seaman, was led by formed a portion. Whilst the lakes circumstances, at an early period of were in this state, Mr Lauder Dick life, to take a voyage on board a ship supposes that the whole ground at of war, and was even present at the their south-western end was one un- great fight near Gibraltar. His situbroken mass, and that the great glen ation then as a spectator, and not an of Scotland had then no existence, actor, might be favourable to the ba

bit of reflecting on the mode in which ever might be the cause, it could little naval affairs were conducted. After affect Mr Clerk, to whom the proud coming home, he gradually matured consciousness of having conferred so his well-known system of naval tactics. signal a benefit on his native country, Mr Playfair observed, that no plan was must have afforded higher satisfaction then known by which one fleet could than could be derived from any

advenbring another to action without great titious distinction. It could not but disadvantage. It was impossible that be viewed in a different light, howthe whole could be brought into line ever, when considered as affecting the opposite to the enemy, without some

character of the nation and its rulers, part being first exposed to an unequal for whom the bestowing of honours combat, and considerable loss. All and rewards upon great public benethese disadvantages were obviated, and factors, must always be numbered as in case of superior valour, a complete one of the most important and impevictory secured, by the plan of bear- rious duties. ing down upon the enemy's centre, and breaking his line. Admiral Rod. ney, well known as the first who put this grand mancuvre in practice, uni

Asiatic Society. versally declared himself indebted for the knowledge of it to Mr Clerk. To August 6, 1817.-An interesting other testimonies, Mr Playfair could paper was read, written by Mr Ellis, add that of Lord Haddington, who communicating a curious instance of taw this illustrious veteran at an ad. literary forgery, or rather religious im. vanced age, when he was unable to stir position. To 1778 a book was printed from his sofa. Even then he loudly at Paris, entitled L'Ezour Vedam, professed his obligations to the Naval containing the exposition of the opiTactics, and cried out, with character- vions of the Indian priests and philosoistic enthusiasm,-" John Clerk for phers, and said to be translated from ever!” Lord Howe, when a copy of the Sanscrit by a Bramin. It was said the work was sent to him, wrote, that in the preface, that the work was ori. he admired the ingenuity of the wri- ginally among the papers of M. Barter, but that he would follow the old thelemy, a member of council at Ponsystem. In fact, however, before the dicherry ; that M. Moldave brought a 22d of June, he must have changed his copy of it from India, and presented opinion ; for he followed the plan of it to Voltaire, who sent it, in 1761, to the Naval Tactics, and thereby gained the library of the King of France. a complete triumph. It was by act- Voltaire had been informed that the ing upon the same system, that Lords chief priest of Cheringham, distin. St Vincent, Duncan, and Nelson, gain. guished for his knowledge of the French ed that series of victories which ren. language, and the services he had perdered their names immortal. In short, formed for the India Company, was this system might justly be considered the translator of the Ezour Vedam, as the main instrument which raised and he appears to have believed it an the naval glory of Britain to such an authentic work. M. Anquetil du Perunrivalled height. Mr Playfair then ron was of the same opinion. M. Sonadverted, in terms of deep and eloquent nerat, however, seems to have detectregret, to the circumstance, that no ed the error, and describes the Ezour tribute of national gratitude had been Vedam as not genuine, but the compaid to merit so transcendent. What position of a missionary at Masulipatam, sous le manteau Brame. Mr El- them in their present form, imposed lis has since ascertained that the ori. on them a false title, transcribed them ginal of this work still exists among into the Roman character, and transthe manuscripts in the possession of the lated them into French. It is said, Catholic missionaries at Pondicherry, however, that the manner, style, form, which are understood to have belong. and substance, of the Pseudo Vedas ed to the society of Jesuits. Besides the do not bear the most distant resemEzour Vedam, there were also among blance to the writings whose titles they these manuscripts imitations of the other assume. Mr Ellis gives an elaborate three Vedas, each of them in Sanscrit, analysis of the real Vedas, and comin the Roman character, and in French. pares them particularly with the forMr Ellis enters into a philological in- geries. The whole scope of the Pseu. vestigation of the manuscripts, to shew do Vedas is evidently the destruction that whether the author were a native of the existing belief of the Hindoos, or a European, the work must either without regarding consequences, or have originated in the provinces of caring whether a blank be substituted Bengal and Orissa, or have been com- for it or not. The writings of Ram posed by some one who had there learn. Mohun Roy seem to be precisely of ed the rudiments of the Sanscrit. He the same tendency as the discussions then gives a list of the manuscripts of Robertus de Nobilibus. The misin the possession of the Catholic mis- sion of Madura appears to have been sionaries, and their contents. They are founded on the principle, of concealeight in number. One of them includes ing from the natives the country of the divinity of Bramah, and asserts him the missionaries, and imposing them to have been a man in all respects re- on the people as belonging to the sasembling other human beings. They cred tribe of the Bramins. Romaca are all intended to refute the doctrines, Brahmana was the title they assumed ; and shew the absurdity of the ceremo- and this deception probably led to nies, inculcated by the Bramins. The many more. native Christians at Pondicherry are of The paper of Mr Ellis, of which we opinion, that they were written by have given this imperfect report, disRobertus de Nobilibus, a near relation plays a profound knowledge of Sansof his Holiness Marcellus (the II. and crit literature, and will be read with the nephew of Cardinal Bellarmine, peculiar interest by the oriental schowho founded the Madura mission, lar. about the year 1620. This personage The same intelligent writer has appears to be well known both to transmitted to the society, his able Hindoos and Christians, under the dissertation on the Malayalma lanSanscrit title of Tatwa bod’haswami; guage, which is spoken in the southern whose writings on polemical theology provinces of Travancore. are said to resemble greatly the con- October 1st.-An account of an extroversial parts of the Pseudo Vedas, tensive cavern, containing the remains discovered by Mr Ellis. That learn- of a colossal statue, recently discovered gentleman thinks it not improbable, ed in the mountains in the vicinity of that the substance of them, as they Shapoor, in the modern province of now exist, is from his pen; and that Fars, (the ancient Persis,) was receivthey consisted originally, like his works ed from Lieutenant R. Taylor, of the in Tamil, of detached treatises on va. Bombay establishment, and presented rious controversial points; and that by the secretary to the Society. some other

and has since arranged In Sepiember, 1816, Mr Williams

and Captain Maude, of his Majesty's From the statue, to the most retired ship Favourite, on visiting the site of parts of the cavern, the excavation in. the ancient city of Shapoor, accom- creases in height and width. After panied by Meer Shumsoodeen, a pre- passing down an inclined plane for datory chieftain, the cave, containing about twenty feet, and up an ascent of a prostrate colossal figure, was point. about fifty feet more, the travellers ed out by the latter, who, from his reached a dry reservoir, seventeen feet plundering mode of life, had become by seven wide, and five feet deep. well acquainted with the hidden recess. Farther on, they began to descend, by es of the mountains. The cave is dis- torch light, a long narrow passage in tant from Shapoor three miles, on the the rock, and reached another cavern, opposite side of the river. From the the roof of which was supported by a base of the mountain, near the summit few huge shapeless pillars. of which the excavation is made, no No conjecture is offered respecting traces of a cavern are discernible. The the use or object of this extraordinary ascent is difficult, chiefly from its per- excavation. pendicular height. When the travel- On Wednesday, Feb. 11, 1818, was lers had nearly reached the top, they held, a meeting of this Society, at found themselves at the foot of an which the Lord Bishop presided. abrupt rampart, about thirty feet high, Among other things a letter from the depth of which, from its upper M. Cuvier, secretary to the Academy edge to the entrance of the cave, to of Sciences at Paris, was read, introwhich it forms a level landing, was ducing, in the name of that Institution, sixty feet. The entrance to the ca. M. Diard to the Asiatic Society. vern is a plain, roughly hewn arch, That gentleman is a corresponding three feet high, and thirty-five feet member of the Royal Museum of Nawide, beyond which the height in. tural History. Several works, also, creases to forty feet, and the width to were received. sixty and seventy. The figure, which Dr Wallich favoured the Society is of stone, appears to have stood ori- with some samples of paper made of ginally on a pedestal in the middle of the bark of the paper-shrub, a species this excavation, but was discovered ly. of Daphne, and probably the same ing on the ground, and the legs, be that is described by Father Lauriero, low the knees, broken off. The cos. in his Flora of Cochin-China. The tume appears to be similar to the sculp. paper manufactured from this sub. tures at Shapoor, Nukshi, Roostum, stance is extremely cheap and durable. and Persepolis, and with the same It is said to be particularly calculated luxuriant flow of curled hair. Its arms for cartridges, being strong, tough, rest upon the hips, and the costume is not liable to crack or break however a robe, fastened by a small button at much bent or folded, proof against bethe neck, and falling loosely over the ing moth-eaten, and not in the least elbows, and in this respect díffers from subject to dampness from any change the sculptures just mentioned. The in the weather. If kept in water for length of the face, from the forehead any considerable time, it will not rot; to the chin, is two feet three inches; and is invariably used all over Keand the whole length of the body four maoon, and in great request in many feet and a half. According to this parts of the plains, for the purpose

of measurement, the whole figure must writing genealogical records, deeds, have been about fourteen feet high. &c. The method of preparing the

VOL. XI. PART II.

paper is extremely simple. The ex- Capella, and its bite is reckoned equal. ternal surface of the bark being scra- ly dangerous. The length varies from ped off, that which remains is boiled in six to twelve or fourteen inches; but clean water, with a small quantity of the female, although rather larger, bas the ashes of the oak, which whitens less brilliant colours than the male. the material. It is then washed, beat Mr Thomson, during his residence to a pulp, and, after being mixed up in Bengal and the Upper Provinces, with the fairest water, is spread on has tried without success to obtain the moulds, of frames made of common snake called Cobra Manilla. He obbamboo mats.

serves, that the late General Gillespie Besides these, Dr Wallich present. received the bite of this serpent when ed to the Museum a specimen of the he was plucking a peach ; and, in two Bhojputtra of the natives, being the or three minutes afterwards, lost all outer rind of a new species of birch. sensation. The last thing he recollect. It is much used in the mountainous ed was some persons calling out for countries to the north for writing up- eau de luce; which, applied very coon, particularly by the religious. On piously, both internally and externally, one of the pieces was a letter written he believed, saved his life, but he add. by the Rawal, head-priest of Kidder- ed, that his constitution was not fully nath, a temple on one of the mountains restored in two or three years. of the Himulayah, and a great place Mr Thomson, during his stay at of Hindoo pilgrimage.

Calicut, accidentally discovered a spe. For these specimens Dr Wallich was cies of silk worm, which feeds on the indebted to the liberality and kindness leaves of the wild mango tree. Among of the Hon. E. Gardner, resident at the caterpillars he collected, for the Katmandoo, who has already enriched purpose of obtaining butterflies, were the botanic garden with many valuable some about the size of a man's little vegetable productions of Nepaul. finger, with heads and tails of the co

Dr Wallich is superintendant of the lour of bright coral, and bodies cover. botanic gardens. He also transmitted ed with silvery hairs rising from a black drawings of other plants.

skin. They soon left off feeding, and A letter was read from a new instie became restless, endeavouring to crawl tution, called the Société Polytech- up the sides of the glass shade under nique of the Island of Bourbon, desi. which they were placed. The motion ring to establish a correspondence with of their heads from side to side was the Asiatic Society.

constant and regular ; and Mr Thom. A letter was read from Mr Thom- son at length found, that they had

late private secretary to the Mar- constructed ladders of most impercepquis of Hastings, dated Calicut, Nov. tible threads, and, when furnished with 3d, 1817, transmitting to the Society dry twigs, they began to form their drawings of the Cobra Manilla, and pods. The quality of the silk is coarser two sorts of sea snakes.

ihan that of Bengal, which may proIt is said, that the Cobra Manillo is ceed from the nature of their food, as known on the Malabar coast as the mulberry trees are not found in the bangle snake : and this name is a trans- neighbourhood of Calicut. lation of Wala Caripan, which, in the Drawings of the male and female Malabar language, signifies the deadly silk-moth accompanied this communibangle, or bracelet. It has two faog cation. teeth, exactly like those of the Cobra

son,

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