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was also proposed, that specimens of MADRAS LITERARY Society. natural and artificial curiosities, and
remains of antiquity, might be exhi. A General Meeting was held of all bited at their meetings; and such as well-wishers of this laudable attempt were thought worthy to be kept, for the promotion and establishment might be formed into a collection. of literature and knowledge in this The President also expressed it to Presidency, which was most respect. be his opinion, that although their ably attended.
funds were not then sufficient for the The President reminded the Meet. formation of a regular library, they ing, that, when they had first assem- might, out of the entrance money and bled in that place, they had two ob- annual subscriptions, procure the best jects in view,—the one was, the esta publications of the day; and that memblishment of a Public Library; the bers might be invited to add to these, other, that of a Literary Society; and by presenting to the Society whatever that, when they last met, their Com- books they could spare, as well as by mittee satisfied them, by the calcula- depositing at the public rooms any tions they had made, that the first, part of their library which might not from the want of adequate funds, could be in use, or which, on account of abnot be realized at present, although sence from the Presidency, or other they gave it as their opinion that the cause, they might wish to leave in a second might. The Meeting had there. safe place of custody. fore adopted the one which was prac. The President observed, that this ticable, and post poned the other, with. was the outline of the plan which had out losing sight of it altogether, to a been suggested to him by the friends future period, when the funds of the with whom he had communicated ; Society, with the aid of the Govern- and he thought, that for one so simple ment, might enable them to carry it in its nature they had better have only into effect.
the one rule proposed by Sir William The President then said, that con. Jones on a similar occasion, and that sidering they were now assembled sim. was to have no rule at all. When they ply as a Literary Society,-by which came to establish a public library, that, denomination he understood a Meet- like all other property, might require ing to collect the detached labours of regulations to protect it; but he many, in the different departments of thought the affairs of such a Society literature, into a common fund,-he as he conceived this to be, might safe. thought they ought, at this their first ly be entrusted to their Committee, meeting, to resolve to invite all per- unfettered by any restrictions. He sons, including learned natives, either would therefore leave it to the Comat the Presidency or elsewhere, to fa. mittee to decide on their times of vour them with communications on all meeting,—what papers should be read, subjects connected with literature, not what books should be ordered, considering themselves as exclusively how their expenditure should be maan Asiatic Society; and that at their naged,-and, in short, how the whole meetings, the written essays and one affairs of the Society should be reguservations which might be approved lated. of by the Committee, whose appoint. These sentiments were universally ment he meant afterwards to recom- approved of; and, after deliberate dis. mendo-might be read publicly, and cussion, the Meeting determined to become the subject of conversation. It execute what was practicable; but also to keep in view what was desi- tities by the chair-makers. This lady's rable ; for this purpose, among other method of cultivating the bull-rushes resolutions, it was resolved,
was merely to divide and plant the That the gentlemen of the Society roots which the farmers were obliged be invited to make donations of books, to throw out from the river Triske, on and also to deposit works at the So. account of their obstructing the cure ciety's rooms for the use of the mem- rent; but on a large scale, she recombers, the Society becoming responsible mends that they should be raised from that they be restored to the owners, seed, which may be easily procured at whenever required, in the state in which the end of the year when it is fully they were sent.
ripe. It should be sown in the spring, Various other preliminary business in a low situation, after the floods have was transacted, necessarily previous to subsided, on a tender light soil, where more active operations. Officers were it should remain a year
or two. Mrs chosen, pro tempore, &c. &c.
D. however, does not recollect to have seen any above a foot and a half high, that were not growing at least that
depth in water. Whenever rushes were Society FOR THE ENCOURAGEMENT planted, the workmen threw a line
of Arts, ManufACTURES, AND across the ponds, and forced the roots COMMERCE.
into the mud, with a three-pronged
fork, in rows ten inches asunder. The London Society for the En. Where, however, the water is not too couragement of Arts, Manufactures, deep, it is a more ready and safe way and Commerce, has published a vo- for the man to press them down with lume of papers communicated to the his foot. When properly cultivated, Society, classed under the heads of the rushes grow as rank as corn, and Agriculture, Chemistry, Polite Arts, probably average the same quantity Manufactures, and Mechanics.
per acre, shooting three or four times In the important department of as high. Trifling as the subject of Agriculture, we have an interesting this communication may seem, it is one account of the plantation of 212 acres of very considerable importance in a with 985,300 forest trees, by J. Law. commercial point of view. The chairson, Esq. of Old Mill, near Elgin, for makers, coopers, and others, who use which the Society's gold medal was immense quantities of bull-rushes, are awarded to him. The silver Isis me- chiefly dependent upon Holland for dals were presented to the Earl of Jer. their supplies, which, during war, are sey, and Henry Grant, Esq., for em- scanty, irregular, and dear. Mrs D. banking three hundred acres of marsh has conferred a valuable service upon land from the sea. By this improve the country, in thus pointing out a ment, the land, which was formerly method by which to convert ponds not worth more than 5s. per acre, is that are occasionally overflowed, into rendered worth 40 or 50s., without use and profit. any further expence being incurred by The class of Chemistry offers only the landlord,
three papers ; but they are all of very To Mrs D'Oyley, of Red Car, near considerable importance. Gisborough, the silver medal was given The first is a collection of receipts for the culture of bull-rushes, which, for making enamel colours, and for few of our readers need to be informó staining glass, for which the Society ed, have been consumed in vast quan voted twenty guineas to Mr R. Wynn.
Explicit instructions are given for pre- venience is prevented by adopting the paring and applying the colours, for expeditious mode of seasoning above which we must refer to the volume it. described. self. The resources of modern che- The next article is on a new steam mistry may probably simplify and im- safety-lamp, founded on the fact, that prove some of the receipts ; but, as a the mixture of steam with the carburegister of actual practice, in a branch retted hydrogen of coal mines prevents of art for the most part involved in se- the gas from
exploding. For this very crecy and empiricism, it possesses ster- important contrivance the public, it ling value.
appears, are indebted to Dr Clanny, Mr Callender's method of seasoning of Bishop-Wearmouth, whose meritomahogany, for which the society re. rious efforts in the construction of warded him, is both simple and effica- safety-lamps, have in former years atcious. The following is his process : tracted the favourable notice of the Having provided a steam-tight wood- society of arts. The structure of this en box, capable of holding convenient- lamp, for which the Society awarded ly such pieces of mahogany as are fit Dr C. their gold medal, it is impossifor chairs, &c. he adapts to it a pipe ble to describe or to understand with from a boiler, by means of which he out the aid of the engraving which acfills the box (after the mahogany has companies it. We may, however, rebeen put into it,) with steam, the tem- mark, from the various trials which perature of which is about equal to have been made with Dr C.'s contrithat of boiling water. The time re- vance, that it has been found an admiquired for wood, an inch and a half rable preventive of explosion in mines. thick, is about two hours ; and pieces These lamps may be constructed of of this thickness are stated to become any size, from eight inches in height sufficiently dry to work after being to more than three feet. When much placed in a warm room or work-shop light is required, the lamps must be for twenty-four hours. By this treat. made large. The steam is consequentment, the wood is something impro- ly extricated in them, and in consived in its general colour ; and those derable quantity, which not only keeps blemishes, which are technically called the whole apparatus cool, but is likegreen veins, are entirely removed. The wise an excellent medium for causing eggs or larvæ, also, of any insect, the fire-damp to burn silently, and which may be contained in the wood, without explosion at the wick of the will be destroyed by the heat of the oil lamp. The strength of light affordsteam.-Two very important advan. ed by these lamps is stated to be so tages are said to result from Mr Cal. great, that it may be thrown to a conlender's process. In the first place, a siderable distance by a mirror or mirconsiderable part of the capital, which rors in those parts of a mine where is vested in wood lying to season du- there may be such a scarcity of oxy. ring many months, may be saved. gen, that no light can be supported, And secondly, as none of the small and where the pit-men have hitherto wood, from two to six inches thick is been obliged to carry on their work ever seasoned, according to the usual in darkness, as is frequently the case course of trade, chairs, ballustrades, in coal-mines. It is further added, and similar articles, which are usually that these lamps have given a clear made of such wood, must necessarily light for sixteen hours, without trimbe very subject to warp, which incon- ming or a second supply of oil.
Mr Warren's piano-monitor for cor. ly ventilated it, by drawing up the recting the errors and assisting the windows, &c. weak wrists
of young students on the Mr Farnham's steam-trap, Mr Caspiano–Mr Dick'sinstrument fordraw. lon's gas lamp, Mr Preston's ventilator ing in perspective-Mr Warcup's in- for ships' cabins, and Mr Joseph Favention for drawing curve lines, which rey's very ingenious and effectual imhe terms a curyagraph—and Mr Hall's provements on the common ball-cock, angulometer—are very useful instru- have each their peculiar merits, and as ments connected with the fine arts. such have been proportionably distin.
The class of manufactures presents guished. Nor should Capt. Bagnold's two papers :-one from Dr Sadding- contrivance for rendering a rudder serton, on a machine for covering wire viceable after sustaining material injury in long shops or sheds ; and one from be passed over. It is honourable to his Mr Onwin, on a banding plane for ingenuity, as well as to his presence of cutting ornamental lines of brass and mind; for he had recourse to it when ebony, and also grooves to receive his ship was in most imminent danger them in cabinet furniture. These pa. of entirely losing her rudder. pers are illustrated by engravings, with- Mr Aust's machine for freeing the out which the nature of the inventions shaft horse of a laden cart when fallen, described is unintelligible. Mr S. was will, from its cheapness and simplicity, rewarded with fifteen guineas, and Mr contribute to obviate the serious incon O. with the silver Isis medal. veniences of those frequent and distress.
In mechanics, Mr Wyon, of Farna ing accidents which daily occur in the ham, has invented a time-keeper and crowded streets of the metropolis. It compensation pendulum, for which a consists of the simple addition to the gold medal and twenty guineas were common props of the cart of an iron voted to him. Besides reducing fric. bar and hook about half their length, tion, Mr W.'s instrument displays attached to the top of each prop, and much novelty and real improvement in a bent iron prong at the bottom to the construction of the pendulum.- prevent their slipping: the props are Much time and unnecessary labour are strengthened with an iron ferrule at saved by Mr James Jones's self-adjust- each end. When a horse falls, the props ing crane, for which he was also re- are taken from their usual fastenings, warded with a gold medal.-It is im. with the hooks attached to the shaft possible to convey any idea of both ends ; the fore-horse chains are then these useful contrivances, without re. hooked'in at the top of the props, and, ferring to the plates by which the de- as they stick in the ground when he scriptions are accompanied. The same pulls, he raises them perpendicular, remark is applicable to Mr Barchard's and they pull the shaft up after them; cylindrical traversing rake, for the pur- the horse's power on the props increase pose of stirring tobacco, malt, corn, as they become more upright, which is hops, &c. when drying on the kiln. essential, as it gives the best help to To tobacco-manufacturers, this con- the fallen horse when he is about to trivance (for which the inventor re. rise. ceived the society's silver medal,) is The Society has conferred repeated peculiarly valuable ; as the fumes ari. and liberal rewards on life.boats and sing from it are so powerful as to ren- other means of saving shipwrecked mader it scarcely possible for a man to riners; on machines for superseding the go into the kiln until he has thorough. present barbarous practice of cleansing
chimneys by means of climbing-boys; and on methods by which shoe-makers REPORT OF THE AFRICAN SOCIETY. and other artizans may be enabled to perform their work standing, and may Delivered April 9, 1818. thus avoid the organic diseases attendant on a constrained sitting posture. The Directors begin their Report of Captain Bray's life-boat, Mr Wilson's the proceedings of the last year, by chimney-sweeping machine, and Mr laying before the general meeting a Coad's very ingenious and simple con- brief view of what has occurred in retrivance to enable shoe-makers to work lation to the foreign slave trade. The standing, have been liberally rewarded. first article is upon the necessity of the
Mr Essex's machine for cleaning right of search in time of peace, by corn is confidently recommended by which it appears that the Danes, and the society, as a very important ap- the King of the Netherlands, have acpendage to the thrashing.mill. The knowledged this right. grain is step by step separated from
In reviewing the state of the French the fragments of straw, from the chaff, slave trade, it appears, that the bene. from the seeds of the weeds, and from volent views of the king have not been the lighter grain ; and, by friction and properly acted upon by individuals, ventilation, comes out, not only tho- and that a very culpable degree of suroughly cleansed from all impurities, pineness has been shewn by that go. but also materially improved in dryness vernment, in executing the conditions and external aspect. At the same time, of the treaty solemnly subscribed to. the chaff is freed from the dust, with The Portuguese and Spaniards also which it is usually freed in large pro. appear to have been extremely active portion, and thus is rendered a more in this horrid traffic, though the sin. agreeable and nutritiousfood for horses, cerity of the latter in its intended abo-' and other domestic animals. ?his most lition, is argued from their having advaluable invention was justly honoured mitted the right of search. with the society's gold medal.
In America, it appears that the Mr Conolly's telegraph system has condition of the free blacks and people received the attention and reward to of colour in the United States, amountwhich, from its facility and expedition, ing to 200,000, has lately excited the it seems fairly entitled: and Dr Davis's interest and sympathy of many leading craniotomy forceps have been rewards persons in that country; and an exed.
tensive society has been formed, of The thanks of the Society were vo- which the nephew of the venerable ted to Sir John Sinclair, Bart. for the Washington, now Chief Judge of the description of a portable mill for grind. Federal Court, is the president. In the ing flour. These mills were used by the Isle of France and Ceylon, the same French armies in foreign service, and encouraging prospect is held out. particularly in the Russian campaign, The evil effects of the revival of the in which, from the length and rapidity slave trade are thus noticed :of the march, it was manifest that as The preceding part of the Report great a reduction as possible of the will have prepared the meeting to exheavy baggage would be necessary. pect very discouraging accounts of the
• The whole apparatus is contained in state of the slave trade on the coast of a box fourteen inches square and eight Africa. The report of persons on the inches high.
spot is, that it has been carried on du