« AnteriorContinuar »
depressed state in which rural con- one to which no effectual remedy will cerns had remained for the last five ever perhaps be provided under the years, was not indeed of long dura- present system. The object of these iion, but even while it lasted, seemed associations did not however come unto have little effect in removing the der the consideration of Parliament discontent which former distress may till the following year. It is therefore be supposed to have generated. This sufficient to remark, that whatever discontent manifested itself in the emi. may have been the distress of our corn gration of several farmers of capital, growers from 1814 till 1818, it was and a great many of a lower descrip- most injudicious at this time, when tion, as well as husbandry labourers, better prospects lay before them, to and in the attempts that were now seek to agitate the public mind anew made, upon a maturely.formed plan, with a question which had been so reto procure an alteration of the corn- cently decided in opposition to the laws, with a view to prevent the ads wishes of the great body of the people. mission of foreign grain. The great,
On the continent of Europe, also, and perhaps excessive imports of this especially in the corn-exporting counyear, renewed and aggravated the tries, the harvest had been abundant, complaints that had been made on the even still more than in Britain ; and same account in 1817, and delegates after their produce was denied access from various parts of the country now to our market, prices fell to a lower met regularly in London, to procurethe rate than had been known for many imposition of a heavy duty, amounting years. There was now peace and plen. indeed to a prohibition on the importiyat home and abroad; but the wounds of corn, and almost every other de- , which war had inflicted were not yet scription of produce which could by closed, and the burdens which it had any means, and at any cost, be grown left behind were felt to press more seat home. The careless, and conse- verely when the excitement which it quentlyinaccurate, returns from which had produced existed no longer, but the averages regulating importation was succeeded by a state of feebleness were calculated, furnished a more le, and exhaustion rather than of healthful gitimate subject of dissatisfaction, and repose.
That revived state of commerce, appear to have been entirely of a fac which had distinguished the close of tious nature, made with a view to take the preceding, year, continued with advantage of the increased demand for little interruption, through the whole labour to raise it beyond its natural of the present. All the branches of rate. This they sought to effect by British manufacture, particularly those striking work themselves, and compel. of cotton, were restored to full activi- ling others to do the same, at a time ty; sufficient employment, and in mac when it was afforded to them at a very ny cases high wages, were afforded to satisfactory rate. This activity of ma. those who depended upon them for nufacture caused a brisk demand for subsistence. The tumults raised by all its materials, the stocks of which, the spinners about the middle of the eviously accumulated, were almost year to obtain an increase of wages, entirely disposed of in the course of
the year. Cotton in particular was al- across half the globe, manufactures ways in demand, notwithstanding the it, and after transporting back the unprecedented amount of the quantity cloth by a conveyance of several exposed to sale by the East India thousand miles, sells it cheaper than Company. The extent of the cotton the natives, notwithstanding the esmanufacture was also proved by the treme cheapness of labour, can proexport from the port of Liverpool, in duce it—such is the power of skiil, the quarter ending January 5, 1818, capital, and machinery. In like manof 24,835,335 of yards, and 380,544 ner, the Staffordshire manufacturers, pairs of stockings, the value of which with their pottery, were able to usarticles was estimated at 1,300,0001. cersell the staple of China. The rise In the following quarter, the export of value in this article was from 79,1911. amounted to 29,295,010 yards. The to 380,8841. Malt liquor increased amount continued to increase, and from 50,0221. to 111,1881.; haberdashlarge orders to be received at Manches- ery from 16,745l. to 80,9621. ; cabiter, Glasgow, and the other seats of net wares from 58971. to 18,4316 this manufacture. The woollen shared From the 5th January, 1815, to the in the augmentation, the quantity of 5th January, 1818, the outward ton. cloth milled in Yorkshire exceeding nage increased from 39,141 to 104,628. that of the preceding year by several These were divided as follow : millions of yards. The iron trade al- London,
85,172 60, at Dudley, Stourbridge, &c. was Liverpool,
10,876 brisker than it had been for several Greenock,
1,702 years. This general prosperity was Newcastle,
2,259 hailed with the greater satisfaction, Portsmouth,
2,122 since it was fondly, though, as after Bristol,
1,061 wardsappeared, prematurely, expected Plymouth,
589 to be permanent, and to mark the Whitby,
468 final termination of the distresses con
379 sequent on the transition from war to In the course of this year, Leith peace.
obtained the privilege of ranking as Among the commercial features of one of the ports from which a trade the present time, one of the most re- to India might be carried on. markable was connected with the open
The commercial prosperity enjoyed ing of the East India trade to private by Britain during the present year adventurers. The result, so far as could did not extend to the continent. In yet appear, had been extremely favour. the Leipsic Michaelmas fair particular. able. The following was given as the ly, a great stagnation was observed amount of exports during the four from the want of money, and conseyears that the trade had continued quently of buyers. The Frankfort open :
fair was more prosperous, and was 1814
L.1,691,234 considered the best that had occurred 1815
2,427,403 since the return of peace. The Eng. 1816
2,498,165 lish manufactured goods were not in 1817
3,348,720 quantities sufficient to meet the deAmong the articles in which the mand, and were observed to be offered augmentation was most conspicuous, at higher prices than formerly; the cotton goods, the staple of India, are English being weary of selling their prominent, having risen from 119,4877. goods at or below prime cost. This to 423,3181. Thus Britain now im- proved advantageous to the manu. ports the raw material from India facturers from Switzerland and Saxony,
who found considerable vent for their " According to these samples, there goods.
is annexed, under A, a tariff for the The Prussian government adopted Eastern provinces, and, under B, a this year a remarkably liberal system tariff for the Western provinces ; and of commercial legislation. The fol. also the general regulations for the lowing are its principal provisions : levying of duties.
“ It is necessary to abolish all the re- "Goods not entered for consumption strictions on the free trade between in the country pay import and export the different provinces of the kingdom.' duty, but not consumption duty. Such All foreign productions, both of na goods may be bonded. Diminution of ture and art, may be imported under the duties is allowed in certain cases, a pass in transitu through the whole particularly for goods brought to the extent of the Prussian dominions. The fairs of Nuremburg and Frankfort (on exportation of all the same produce the Oder), or retiring from them. All tions, both of nature and art, is allow- inland duties levied by the state, by ed. Exceptions may be admitted for communes, or private persons, are particular reasons, and for a limited abolished and cease from the day when time.
this law is in force. If the communes, « This freedom of trade shall be as- or private persons, levy such duties a sumed as a basis in negociations with titre onereux, they are to have an other states. Facilities enjoyed by the indemnity founded on clear annual. subjects of the states in their trade receipt, taken at an average of the with other countries shall be recipro. three last years. From this abolition cated as far as the different relations are excepted Octroi on the Rhine, allow, and commercial treaties shall Elbe, and Weser, and all such duties be concluded when necessary ; on the as are levied for keeping up of the other hand, the right is resumed to roads, causeways, bridges, harbours, retaliate by corresponding measures light-houses, &c. which are designed the restrictions by which the inter- for the promotion of traffic.” course of the subject with foreign Another absolute government (Na. countries naturally suffers.
ples,) distinguished itself by the li“The regular import duty on foreign beral footing on which it placed its goods is fixed for half a dollar per cwt. monetary system. According to a dePrussian. Those goods which, con. cree dated the 20th of April, 1818, trary to this rule, are admitted duty any person may freely export from free, or taxed with a higher or lower the kingdom either gold or silver coin, duty, are specified in the tariff. or may melt it down, make it into bars,
Exportation is duty free; the ex- or employ it in any manner of work. ceptions are specified in the tariff. manship. The coin is to be of silver
“ Besides the import duty, many fo- only, and the principle of a constant reign goods, if they remain in the coun. proportion between gold and silver, try, are to pay a duty on consumption adopted by almost all civilized nations, (an excise.) Upon goods of foreign is rejected. In consequence of the manufacture, this duty shall not ex. fruitless attempts to establish this, it ceed ten per cent. on the value ; and has happened that gold at one time it shall be less when it can be so withe disappears from a state, while at anoout injury to the internal industry. ther it is superabundant. Gold is to
“Goods liable to commission duty be taken only by weight. The utare specified in the tariff.
most liberty is allowed in exchang“T'he duties are levied on the weight, ing silver for gold, or gold for silver. number, and measure.
The mint receives these metals in bars,
which it delivers out coined, after de. worthy of record in this place, viz. ducting a small per centage.
France, 34 pipes-Holland, 45-SweThe quantity of port wines shipped den, 8-Hamburgh, 147-Demark, at Oporto for the United Kingdom in 54— Prussia, 38-Russia, 212–North 1817, was as follows :-In England, America, 71-Gibraltar, 58-Ne. 19,400 pipes—Scotland, 2,500 ; and therlands, l-Genoa, 81- New OrIreland, 4,500. The quantities ship- leans, 3.- In all, 27,147 pipes. ped for other countries may be also
The zeal which animates the pre- Number of livings, the value of sent age for ihe diffusion of religous which are not specified, being instruction, was laudably displayed returned as impropriations, or
27 during the present year, by the parlia
38 mentary vote of a million for the erection of new churches. As this formed Nuinber of livings not included in
the preceding classes, and thereone of the prominent legislative mea
fore presumed to exceed the vasures of 1818, it will be found narrated
lue of £150 yearly
.. 5995 at some length, in our report of the proceedingsof the two Houses. Mean
An abstract of the totals of parishes time, the following facts relative to
containing a population of above 2000 the state of the Church of England, of which the churches will not conwill be found interesting.
tain one half: Population
4,659,786 Number of Benefices
10,421 Number of persons the churches Population
9,940,391 and chapels will contain 949,222 Churches of the establish
Excess of population above the ment 10,192
capacity of churches and cha Chapels 1,551-117,43 pels
3,710,56% Number of persons they can contain
4,770,975 An abstract of the totals of parishes of Glebe-houses fit for residence 5,417 above 4000 inhabitants, of which the Benefices which have no glebe
churches will not contain a quarter :houses 2,626 Population
2,947,698 Glebe-houses not fit for residence 2,183 Number of persons the churches Livings not exceeding £10. 12
and chapels will contain . 419,193 20 45
Excess of population above the
capacity of churches and cha-
No abatement was observable during 278
this year, of the zeal for the propaga. 90 251 tion of the gospel over the different 100 . 594
quarters of the world.—The following 110 . 250
is a Table shewing all the missionary 120 280
stations in the world the number of 130 . 254
missionaries at each-and the societies 140.217 150 . 219
by whom they were employed. Total number of benefices not exceeding £150
Geomalty Coree Grace Hill
Java, 2 Jessore
1.3/868 100 53 86 8|549| 415
+ Tranquebar was originally a Danish Mission, instituted in 1705, and is restored to Denmark, but has been long supported by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge in Bartlett's Buildings, London. The Scots' Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in the Highlands, &c. incorporated 1709, had formerly a Mission in North America, which is now extinct; but have 9 Missionaries and 11 Catechists in the Highlands and Ísles.