« AnteriorContinuar »
ed to with great precaution, and in a dence, which to their minds is conclu. most limited extent. As long as fever sive. That evidence has demonstrated cases can be diluted through a large the extent of the epidemic, the probaward, with
proper attention to ventila. ble chance of its continuance, as well tion, scarcely any danger of contagion as of its occasional recurrence, the may arise ; but in a period of epide- small means afforded by the hospital mic, such as existed in the late and to receive patients assailed by it, the present year, when all the hospitals great hazard of mixing them with those were crowded with patients assailed who labour under diseases of a diffe. by the prevailing disease of fever, great rent nature, the utility of the fever inhazard must be run, and the expe- stitution, both for the cure of the disrience of this year has demonstrated order, and for arresting the progress the danger and evil of the system. As of contagion ; all these facts, so made
great preservative against conta. out, have satisfied your Committee, gion is a free circulation of air, patients that it would be highly expedient to labouring under chronic disorders can- extend the public aid to this establishnot with propriety be subjected to the ment. And as they see no reason why same treatment ; and a system of medi- the capital stock of the hospital should cal policy, which is essential in one not be augmented, they should propose a case to prevent the spreading of the further grant of 20001.
, which, with the disease, becomes highly prejudicial in 10001. already made, will enable the the other. Besides, a great prejudice institution to increase its means of acprevails ; and your Committee cannot commodation to 100 patients. Taking consider it as unfounded, among the a fair average of the fever cases in the poorer classes of society, who are the metropolis, this establishment will thus main objects of these establishments, be enabled to receive a great propor. against either entering themselves, or tion of the patients who are now sent sending their relations into these hos. to other hospitals ; and probably, in pitals, on account of the hazard of in- ordinary times, nearly the whole of the fection to which they are exposed ; fevers of the metropolis. the events of the last year are certain. Your Committee feel assured, that ly not calculated to weaken these opi- in case the fever should continue its nions. And your Committee feel as- ravages undiminished, and the same sured, that to diminish the number of burden which lay so heavy on the fifever cases in every hospital, by in- nances of this institution in the last creasing the powers of receiving them year, should exist during the present, in institutions exclusively set apart for Parliament would consent to provide that disease, would not only do away some additional support ; but, at prethe impression on the public mind sent, they consider the sum aboveabove alluded to, but contribute most mentioned as sufficient, and they rely materially to the relief and good ar- with confidence on the munificence and rangements of those hospitals, the charity of the public to promote the wards of which are now exposed to be ordinary annual funds for the support indiscriminately filled with patients la- of an institution so well deserving the bouring under diseases in all their dif- countenance of all ranks of society. ferent stages of suffering and malig. Your Committee have fully satisfied nity.
themselves, that the most beneficial Your Committee refrain from en- effects have resulted from hospitals extering more into detail on these sub- clusively set apart for cases of fever. jects; they refer generally to the evi. They refer generally to the accounts. to shew the small income of this ad- Your Committee cannot close this mirable institution, as well as the in. report without expressing a regret that creasing demands on it, and though any hospital in the metropolis should the benevolence of the public has done not possess a register of diseases ; they much to raise the establishment to its trust this omission will speedily be recuseful pre-eminence, yet farther aid is tified. And, in their opinion, it would still wanted ; and your Committee wish be adviseable to register, not only the to recommend his Majesty's Govern- diseases, but also the name and profesment to reconsider the grant they have sion of the patient. It must at all times already made.
be a matter of useful knowledge to be Your Committee, in recommending able to learn the quality and extent of this grant of money, are aware of the the different diseases that prevail at general impolicy of supporting public different periods ; and your Committee hospitals by advances of public money; have felt the want of that information, but the peculiar state of this establish- arising out of this strange irregularity, ment, its nature and character, the in not being able to ascertain the arepressure of its funds, which require rage fever cases that have occurred for immediate and large additions to them; some years past in the metropolis. and, above all, the diseased state of the metropolis in respect of fever, and the probability of its malignity being in
REPORT creased towards the autumn ; all these of the Select Committee on the Copyreasons satisfy your Committee, that
right Acts, with abridged Minutes a departure from the general principle
of Evidence. may in this case be adopted.
From the experience derived from The earliest foundation for a claim the establishments at Chester, Man- from any public library, to the gratu. chester, and Waterford, according to itous delivery of new publications, is a report which has been laid before to be found in a deed of the year 1610, them, it appears that not only no ha- by which the Company of Stationers zard of spreading infection has been of London, at the request of Sir Thoincurred, but, in point of fact, the mas Bodley, engages to deliver a copy number of contagious diseases has been of every book printed in the company greatly diminished, not only in towns, (and not having been before printed,) but in the very district and neighbour- to the University of Oxford. This, hood where houses of recovery have however, seems to be confined to the been situated. Dr Roget, late phy- publications of the Company in its cor. sician to the Manchester Infirmary, porate capacity, and could in no case informed your Committee, that at extend to those which might proceed Manchester no medical officer or at- from individuals unconnected with it. tendant in the hospital has been affilic. Soon after the Restoration in the ted with the fever generated within its year 1662, was passed, the “ Act for walls ; and that in the town itself the preventing abuses in printing seditious, number of cases of that disease has di- Treasonable, and unlicensed books and minished to a less degree than the or- pamphlets, and for regulating of printdinary average prior to the establish- ing and printing presses ;" by which, ment of this institution. Dr Holme, for the first time, it was enacted, That physician to the infirmary, from its es- every printer should reserve three cotablishment to the present period, con- pies of the best and largest paper of firms this statement to its full extent. every book new printed, or reprinted
by him with additions, and shall, before in copyrights ; these copyrights had any public vending of the said book, been assigned from hand to hand, had bring them to the master of the Com- been the subject of family settlements, f pany
of Stationers, and deliver them and in some instances larger prices had to him ; one whereof shall be delivered been given for the purchase of them, to the keeper of his Majesty's library, (relation being had to the comparative and the other two to be sent to the value of money,) than at any time subvice-chancellor of the two universities sequent to the act of the 8th of Queen respectively, to the use of the public Anne. By this act, which, in the last libraries of the said universities. This of these two cases, has since been deact was originally introduced for two termined to have destroyed the former years, but was continued by two acts perpetual copyright, and to have subof the same parliament till 1679, when stituted one for a more limited period, it expired. It was, however, revived but protected by additional penalties in the first year of James the Second, on those who should infringe it, it is and finally expired in 1695.
directed, that nine copies of each book It has been stated by Mr Gaisford, that shall be printed or published, or one of the curators of the Bodleian Li- reprinted and published with addibrary, “ that there are several books tions, shall, by the printer, be deliverentered in its register, as sent from the ed to the warehouse-keeper of the Stationers' Company subsequent to the Company of Stationers, before such expiration of that act ;" but it is pro- publication made, for the use of the bable that this delivery was by no Royal Library, the libraries of the means general, as there are no traces Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, of it at Stationers' Hall, and as Hearne, the libraries of the four Universities of in the preface to the “ Reliquæ Bod- Scotland, the library of Sion College leianæ," printed in 1703, presses for in London, and the library belonging benefactions to that library as peculi- to the Faculty of Advocates at Edinarly desirable," since the act of par. burgh. liament for sending copies of books, From the passing of this act until printed by the London booksellers, is the decision of the cases of Beckford expired, and there are divers wanting and Hood in 1798, and of the Univerfor several years past."
sity of Cambridge and Bryer in 1813, During this period, the claim of au. it was universally understood, that neithors and publishers to the perpetual ther the protection of copyright, nor copyright of their publications, rested the obligation to deliver the eleven coupon what was afterwards determined pies attached to the publication of any to have been the common law, by a book, unless it was registered at Stamajority of nine to three of the judges, tioners' Hall, an act which was consion the cases of Millar and Taylor in dered as purely optional and unneces1769, and Donaldson and Becket in sary, where it was intended to abandon 1774. Large estates had been vested the claim for copyright ; and, in con
* Upon reference to the continuing act of 17 Ch. 2d. c. 4, the clauses respecting the delivering of the three copies appear to be perpetual, yet it should seem that they were not so considered, not being adverted to in the Act of Anne.
+ Birch, in his Life of Archbishop Tillotson, states, that his widow, after his death in 1695, sold the copyright of his unpublished sermons for 2,500 guineas.
# The whole number of entries during the 70 years, from 1710 to 1780, does not equal that which has taken place in the last four years. See Appendix, No. I.
formity to this construction, the act deposited ; in France and Austria two, of 41 Geo. 3d, expressly entitled the and in the Netherlands three ; but in libraries of Trinity College, and the several of these countries this is not King's Inn, Dublin, to copies of such neccessary, unless copyright is inbooks only as should be entered at tended to be claimed. Stationers' Hall.
The Committee having directed a In Beckfort v. Hood, the Court of statement to be prepared by one of King's Bench decided, that the omis- the witnesses, an experienced bookselsion of the entry only prevented a pro- ler, of the retail price of one copy of secution for the penalties inflicted by every book entered at Stationers' Hall the statutes, but it did not in any de- between the 30th July 1814, and the gree impede the recovery of a satisfac- 1st of April, 1817, finds that it tion for the violation of the copy- amounts in the whole to 1419.. 35. right. The same Court further deter- lld, which will give an average of mined, in the case of the University 5321. 4s. per annum ; but the price of of Cambridge against Bryer, in 1812, the books received into the Cambridge that the eleven copies were equally University Library from July 1814 to claimable by the public libraries, where June 1817, amounts to 1145l. 10s. books had not been entered at Sta. the average of which is 3811. 18s. Sd. tioners' Hall, as where they had. per annum,
The burthen of the delivery, which In the course of the inquiry comby the latter decision was for the first mitted to them, the Committee have time established to be obligatory upon proceeded to examine a variety of evipublishers, produced in the following dence, which, as it is already laid be. year a great variety of petitions to the fore the House, they think it un. House of Commons
for redress, which necessary here to recapitulate ; but were referred to a Committee, whose upon a full consideration of the subReport will be found in the appendix ; ject, they have come to the following and in 1814 the last act on this subject Resolutions :was passed, which directed the indis- 1. “That it is the opinion of this criminate delivery of one large paper Committee, that it is desirable that so copy of every book which should be much of the Copyright act as requires published (at the time of its being en- the gratuitous delivery of eleven copies tered at Stationers' Hall) to the Bri- should be repealed, except so far as tish Museum, but limited the claim of relates to the British ; Museum, and the other ten libraries to such books that it is desirable that a fixed allow as they should demand in writing) ance should be granted, in lieu therewithin twelve months after publica- of, to such of the other public libration; and directed that a copy of the ries as may be thought expedient. list of books entered at Stationers' 2. “ That it is the opinion of this Hall should be transmitted to the lib. Committee, that if it should not be rarians once in three months, if not re- thought expedient by the House to quired oftener.
comply with the above recommendaIt appears, so far as your Commit- tion, it is desirable that the number of tee have been enabled to procure in- libraries entitled to claim such delivery formation, that there is no other coun- should be restricted to the British Mu. try in which a demand of this nature seum, and the libraries of Oxford, is carried to a similar extent. In Cambridge, Edinburgh, and Dublin America, Prussia, Saxony and Ba universities. varia, one copy only is required to be 3. “ That it is the opinion of this
Committee, that all books of prints, Dr Murray's (the editor of Bruce's wherein the letter-press shall not ex. Travels) History of Languages. ceed a certain very small proportion Translations of Matthew Paris and to each plate, shall be exempted from other Latin Historians. William of delivery, except to the Museum, with Malmsbury, only published. One an exception of all books of mathema. more has been translated, but not tics.
published. 4. “ That it is the opinion of this An extensive British Biography, Committee, that all books in respect arranged in periods. A considerable of which claim to copyright shall be portion of this work has been written expressly and effectually abandoned, by some of the first literary men of the be also exempted.
present day. 5. “ That is is the opinion of this The collected works of Sir Isaac Committee, that the obligation impo- Newton. sed on printers to retain one copy of Hearne's (the Antiquary) works. each work printed by them, shall Collections of the Irish Historians. cease, and the copy of the Museum Bawdwen's Translation of the be made evidence in lieu of it.” 5 June, Doomsday Book, after the translation 1818.
was finished, and one copy and a half EVIDENCE.
printed. Mr Owen Rees, (partner in the Mr Rees stated, that all the librahouse of Messrs Longman and Co.) ries demanded every book ; except two
Mr Rees stated, that the value of which did not require music and nobooks delivered by them under the vels. Those which had subscribed act calculated at the mere actual cost, for books previously to the act, had amounted to almost L.3000. He gave discontinued their subscription, and in a list of the cost of delivering the now received them gratis. Mr Todd following books:
made a present of his edition of JohnRees's Encylopædia,
L.955 16 0 son's Dictionary, value eleven'guineas, Daniell's Voyage to India, 93 0 0
to Sion College, yet the same College Daniell's Coast Views,
demanded another copy under the act.
346 10 0 Morte D'Arthur,
96 12 0
Being asked if booksellers and authors Coxe's Duke of Marlborough,69 6 0
had not derived great benefit from the
extension of the copyright to Ireland, The obligation of delivering the he answered, that they had done so, eleven copies had debarred them from in regard to works of moderate price; publishing several works, particularly but expensive works incurred no haone by Baron Humboldt on the Non- zard of being pirated. The only one descript Plants of America; it would of the above list which it could have have been with coloured plates, and answered to reprint in Ireland, was the impression only 250 copies. There Coxe's Marlborough. were other books in which this obliga- Among the hardships to which the tions had its weight, though it had delivery of the eleven copies subjected not been the sole cause of their re- them, Mr Rees stated, that, according jection. Among important works to printing usage, the press work was which had been abandoned for want charged at an hour, or 250 copies, and of sufficent encouragement, Mr Rees if they threw off any
smaller number, mentioned the following :
they were obliged to pay for the whole Reverend Mr Boucher's Dictionary 250. He had printed impressions of of Obsolete and Provincial words. 100 and 150, and paid for them at the