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had England and her Church really understood their joint interests, such appointments would have been made and multiplied long ago, and the national reputation saved from much discredit.
The little book before us is a pleasing evidence of the professional diligence and respectability of our colonial prelates. It exhibits the Bishop of Madras proceeding with great urbanity and zeal through his diocese, and gaining honour to the cause of true religion by his serious deportment, his aptness to teach, and his easy accessibility to all parties. And, bating a little on account of his stiffness towards missionaries of the Protestant Dissenting communities, and a little also on account of a rather amiable demonstrativeness, which gives to his style a sort of consciousness that he wrote for the public, it is a very pretty book. We cannot but feel at home with him in his tent and his palanquin, in his sojourn with the British residents, and in his visits to native princes. We know not that we should have followed the mitre so readily into idolatrous and impure temples. Even the semblance of a serious curiosity towards that which is evil only, and of the worst kind, is too apt to give support to the system, when a half-consciousness of the error already exists; and the merest shred of countenance is at once magnified into a mighty encouragement. Witness the instance in which the Bishop was shown an inscription recording the fact, that the pagoda had been repaired by the resident officer of the East India Company. Will not the Bishop's visits be recorded also?
There is something very pleasing in the progress of the Bishop's evangelical views and feelings. We have been now sometime accustomed to see that, whatever have been the cloudy notions of former days, almost all our colonial, not to say missionary prelates, when brought into contact with the gross ignorance of the heathen, and the equally gross superstitions of Popery in heathen countries, appear to fly for refuge at once to the hope set before them in the Gospel, and to find it increasingly the comfort
of their own souls, and the main strength on which they must lean for usefulness.
This is very manifest in Dr. Spencer; at the same time it is a matter of some regret to see the comparative juvenility of his theology, and that he is only now arriving at the first principles of the oracles of God. When we look back at the Protestant writers of earlier days, it is surprising how very meagre is the theology which serves in this day of practical activity. The Bishop is, however, on the right course—the study of Scripture. He says, “I always explain a portion of the Bible, morning and evening, to the family with whom I lodge at a station, and to my own party on the road. It is a plain, apostolic duty. St. Paul taught all the counsel of God, not only publicly, but from house to house.”
It is to be hoped that so salutary a custom will be the means of ultimately emancipating the Bishop's mind from the unscriptural notions which he yet entertains. In one instance, when speaking of a ruined place of worship, he says: “The font wherein we are buried by baptism into death is still standing, and, placed among the tombs, preached most eloquently the necessity laid on those who died in baptism into sin, of continuing to die into sin daily.” Surely, there is manifest inconsistency in assuming an actual death into sin in baptism, if it has yet to be followed by a continual dying. Either death supersedes a subsequent death; or something of the previous life remains. And is it not strange to hold this notion of an actual death to sin in baptism, when so manifestly the great majority of the baptized live in sin, gross and unchecked, as if no sacred rite had been performed. We are satisfied that this notion of an universal baptismal regeneration is unscriptural; and, however it may have been fostered by the superstitions of the churches, it has no foundation in revealed truth; and it must ultimately yield to the Bishop's healthier habit of Scriptural investigation, or it will assimilate and absorb all the other truths of the Bishop's creed. It is, as the British Critic has said, the fundamental statement on which they erect all the rest of the Roman Catholic system; and if, in contrariety to the Articles, it shall retain a place in modern Anglican theology, more palpable and gross errors will gradually gather round it. We do heartily desire in this worthy prelate's mind, a clear eviction of Scriptural truth on this controverted but essentially important topic. It would infuse a healthy tone into all his theology, and impart a manly liberality yet wanting to his actings towards other Christian communities. It evidently, at present, influences his line of reading, and sends him to Cardinal Ganganelli for instruction in the fulfilment of episcopal duties, rather than to the wholesome treatises on the pastoral care which have emanated from the school of Protestant theology. We would not have minded the little demonstration of his readiness in Italian literature, but it is very undesirable to see an Anglical Bishop seeking his directions in the Italian and Ultramontane school. They who know that school best, are well aware how vital error of the worst kind is artfully blended with a mock humility and spirituality; and that the mild morphine influence of the one is essentially intertwined with the deadly and coarse narcotic of the other. Let Paul speak to us through his instructions to Timothy and Titus. Let our reformers of the Elizabethan age have a fair position conceded to them: but let not our colonial Bishops give this prominency in
their dioceses to Francis Xavier and Pope Ganganelli. It is a bad school at the best; and can only foster in the bench the notion, which they are quite ready enough to entertain, of the mysterious, mighty, and irresponsible power of the prelacy. There are certain hankerings of this nature traceable in Dr. Spencer's mindtinctures of the Laudian school, which it would be happier for him if he could cordially discard. Eliminate this from his system, and he gives promise of being a very useful man.
We would just glance also at a minor error which is generally found in association with the former. It is the ever presenting the notion of the church to the mind under the figure of a female. This is specially a Romish error, and it tends always to screw up the Christian community towards mariolatry. It is easy to jump from the imaginary mother to Mary the Mother of God. The more healthy state of mind is to regard the Church as a company of faithful men, and the authority in the Church as that of a Saviour present by his Spirit, and speaking through his word. “Our dear mother, the Church,” of which Dr. Spencer speaks, is a delusion, which, in the strictness of notion essentially important in matters of eternal moment, should never be allowed. We have thought it our duty to notice these spots on the pages of a book, in other respects interesting and praiseworthy, and likely to be useful to the colonial Church and its several missions.
THE FALLEN CROWN.
The Queen has ris’n from her crim- , “Right well, my lieges, have ye sped son throne,
The duty ye have done: And her peers are bending round, The mighty struggle's o'er,” she Where high estates their sov’reignown said,
From Britain's utmost bound. “The victory is won!
All eyes are on her jewell’d brow,
And her cheek of youthful bloom; All ears intensely listen now
To hear a nation's doom.
“And trust me, lieges, every power
A British Queen can own
I pledge my ancient crown!"
Then round the plaudit murmurs float | And the Queen mäy come to her hall
And whispered praise mounts high; again,
And lords and knights may swell her
train, The Queen has left the sacred hall, And wealth and title bow
And the nobles are gath’ring round, When, lo! the crown is seen to fall And the silver voice which charms Degraded to the ground!
May thrill in magic toneBruis’d is the sacred gold, and tost | But the crown has fall’n from the The pearls and diamonds rare;
keeper's hand, The ermine stain’d, and torn, and lost And its fairest gem is gone! The brightest jewel there!
Rome's revelshout maymounton high, Past is the pageant-train; and past L. And fill the Sovereign's ear;
The Queen to her secret bower; But above it must rise the deep-drawn But still through lengthen'd years sigh will last
Of a fallen nation's fear! The memory of that hour.
It shall mourn at the Almighty's feet, Then first the British realm could tell Our stripped and batter'd crown; Of sacred rights no more;
And bring from his all-gracious seat Then first the crown of Britain fell | A restoring blessing down. Dishonoured on the floor.
PARISH OF ST. PANCRAS.
A LETTER has lately been addressed become inhabited by, certainly not to the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, less, probably more than 10,000 inas Patrons of St. Pancras, by the Rev. dividuals, so that at this moment the H. Hughes, on the deplorable state population is very nearly, if not exof this parish as to church and school ceeding, 140,000. accommodation. We fear that other " This, the population of one soparishes in the metropolis could make called parish, is more than that of similar appalling statements. There many counties in England. În 1841 is no point of deeper interest to the the county of Rutland had 21,340, the nation generally, than the moral and county of Westmoreland 56,469; the religious improvement of the metro- county of Huntingdon 58,699: the polis; and we do trust that affluent county of Bedford 109,937; the county Christians will have their sympathies of Hereford 114,438 inhabitants. The more and more drawn out to all those largest and most populous of five institutions and projects which have English counties had in 1841,114,438 for their object its amelioration. We inhabitants; the parish, not county, give some of Mr. Hughes' fearful of St. Pancras, has, in 1845, 140,000. statistics.
And there is every probability that " The population, according to the this number will go on increasing till last census (1841) was 129,598. It is the whole 2,600 acres, of which the still rapidly increasing. I am inform- parish consists, is covered with builded that since 1841, fifteen hundredings, and teeming with human life. additional houses have been built, and * According to this computation,
there ought to be found in the parish of St. Pancras church-accommodation for 47,000 persons. That is, FORTY CHURCHES, accommodating eleven to twelve hundred each, would not be at all too many for such a population; not more than enough to allow the church to fulfil towards the people the duties she owes them as souls committed to her charge. But what is the real state of the case ? In FOURTEEN CHURCHES AND CHAPELS there is accommodation for about 17,000 persons. A provision not all more than sufficient for a population of 51,000, has thus been made to suffice for a parish 140,000. And hence, it necessarily results that either the surplus 89,000 must be held as treated by the Church as if they had no existence whatever, for them she has no care, and exercises no guardianship, or else the Church, by the paucity of her arrangements, and the narrowness of her accommodation, compels those who frequent her temples to come so seldom, that 47,000 persons worship God in the places intended for 17,000.
“ To two of the more recently erected churches, Christ Church and All Saints, districts have been legally assigned, containing together about 20,000 inhabitants. These churches have six clergy, viz. Christ Church four, and All Saints two ; leaving only twelve clergy for the remaining 120,000 of the population, or ONE CLERGYMAN FOR EVERY TEN THOUSAND Souls. Surely there cannot be a greater mockery than to speak of this as a provision made by the National Church for the spiritual necessities of the people.
“Here, in the parish of St.Pancras, we have but twelve clergymen to 120,000 of the inhabitants, and that appalling fact not presenting the worst feature of the case, for so unequally is even that number divided, that the two acting clergymen of the parish church actually have under their nominal charge a population of 40,000 souls.
“ The picture grows darker as we proceed. It is generally admitted that it is the duty of the Church to make a provision for the religious
education of the children of the poor, in some degree proportioned to their wants.
“In a population of 140,000 we have Attending Day, or Day and
Sunday Schools........ 4,000 Attending Sunday Schools 1,000 And what a lamentable and unheard of state of things this is. One thirtyfifth part of the population, boys, girls and infants, all included, receiving daily education at our hands! That is, the same proportion as 20 would be out of a population of 700 or 10 out of a population of 350. For the other one hundred and fortieth part rescued from the streets on the Sabbath day we may be thankful, but it would only give 10 Sunday scholars out of a population of 1,400, or 5 out of a population of 700.
“The evils consequent on this state of things are just such as might naturally be looked for.
"1. There is no bond of union between the clergy and the people.
“2. The great mass of the labouring population has altogether abandoned attendance on public worship.
“ 3. The ordinances of the Church have, to a great extent, fallen into desuetude.
“4. Parents feel little or no interest in the moral and religious improvement of their children.
“5. There is little family or personal
“ Such are some of the evils consequent on the defect of Ecclesiastical Institutions in this parish. Let it not for a moment be thought that in enumerating them I intend to cast a reproach on the poor. No! The evils are theirs, but the reproach is on ourselves. So far from intending to reproach the poor, I willingly affirm that I grieve more bitterly than ever over the evils which exist among us, when I think of the native worth of the poor, who have been so cruelly abandoned to ungodliness and sin. What heroism have I not witnessed among them! What patience in suffering, what perseverance amidst trials, what uncomplaining endurance of want, what quiet resignation in disease and pain! And then, what
tender affections, what sympathy minister of each district to an amount with one another's sorrows, what of not less than £100 per annum. watchfulness in sickness, unwearied To do this will require a sum of watchfulness, unbought by gold, and £36,000: but, surely, when we conunbidden even by the claims of affi- sider the value of the interests at nity, or the obligations of friendship. stake, we need not despair of raising To keep that Gospel from the poor, such a sum, if only our exertions in which God intended for the poor, the cause are commensurate with its must always, in all circumstances, importance. ages, climes, be a grievous sin against “I am well aware that many objecHim who intended it for their especial tions will be advanced against the benefit. But if ever the sin does course I would earnestly, yet, believe seem to stand before us in its deepest me, most respectfully, urge you to colouring of guilt, in our eyes most adopt. Among others there is one to inexcusable, in our judgment most which I would not allude were I not wrongful, it is when it is withheld sure that it will be both felt and from our English poor.”
urged, and that is that the subdivision To meet the difficulty, Mr. Hughes of the parish will very much diminish wisely proposes a scheme which is the emoluments of any future Vicar the least impracticable, and the most of St. Pancras, and consequently renspeedily available: viz. to form dis- der the patronage less valuable. It tricts, locate clergymen, license rooms will be added to this that it is highly for public worship, and thus localize conducive to the interests of the a religious interest which shall lead Church that those who fill influential eventually to the building of churches positions in her ministry should be ·
“I am not of opinion that our amply remunerated. I admit that à efforts should be directed, in the first subdivision of the parish such as I instance, to raising a fund for the propose, would have a tendency to erection of additional churches, and diminish the value of the Living. But that for the following reason:—The suppose that it should even be reduced clear and intelligible object placed to £800 or £900 per annum, is that before us should be nothing less than a consideration to be set against the the providing an adequate remedy for eternal welfare of the 89,000 immortal the evils we deplore, and are anxious beings whom the Church now utterly to abolish. This I am thoroughly neglects, and leaves without the Gosconvinced can never be effected except pel and without hope? Or is it more by a division of the parish into a num for the interests of the Church that ber of districts, or district parishes, future Vicars of St. Pancras should of moderate extent, for all ecclesiasti- have £2000 a year, than that she cal and spiritual purposes independent should do her duty, and feed the perof one another, each with its own ishing multitudes who now ask in church and schools, and each placed vain to be supplied with the bread of under the charge of its own proper life.” pastor.
One would wish to think it impos“The expense of accomplishing sible that any rector could contentedly this will be very great, yet not so pocket his £2000 a year, while such great as to place success beyond the multitudes entrusted to his care are reach of hope. The funds placed at thus left to perish from lack of knowthe disposal of the Ecclesiastical Com- ledge. We do trust that the Dean missioners being exhausted, it will be and Chapter of St. Paul's will not be absolutely necessary to endow the appealed to in vain.