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APPENDIX.

I. TO ADD RECURRING DECIMALS.

Rule 1. Convert the decimals into vulgar fractions, and add.

Rule 2. Write down the decimals at length, under one another as in common addition, to three or four places more than are necessary to obtain two vertical columns alike; add as in common addition; the period will readily be seen in the result.

EXAMPLE
Add together 1.0357, 5684, 345038.

1.03573573573573573
.56845684568456845
.34503834503834503

1.94923092645864921

Ans. 1.9492309264586.

II. TO SUBTRACT RECURRING DECIMALS.

Rule 1. Convert the decimals into vulgar fractions, and add.

Rule 2. Write down the decimals, as in common subtraction, to four or five more places than are necessary to obtain two vertical columns alike; subtract as in common subtraction; the period will readily be seen in the result.

EXAMPLE.
Subtract.653 from 1.54302.

1.54302543025430254302
.65365365365365365365

.88937177660064888937

Ans. .889371776600643.

111. TO MULTIPLY RECURRING DECIMALS.

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Rule 1. If the exact result is required, convert the decimals into vulgar fractions, and multiply; then re-convert the product into a decimal.

Rule 2. If only an approximate answer be required, multiply by the abbreviated form for multiplication of decimals.

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Rule 1. Convert the decimals into vulgar fractions, and divide.

Rule 2. If the divisor be not a recurring decimal, perform the division in the ordinary manner.

Rule 3. If an approximate answer be required, divide by the abbreviated method for division of decimals.

EXAMPLE. Divide 130.592 by 4.7.

592 7 16 130.592 = 4.7 = 130

4-=130— X 999

27 43 3526

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TO DETERMINE THE TOTAL NUMBER OF FIGURES WHICH THERE

WILL BE IN ANY QUOTIENT.

Rule. If the significant figures of the divisor represent a number not greater than the first equal number of significant figures in the dividend, the number of figures in the quotient will be equal to the difference between the numbers in the dividend and divisor, increased by 1.

But if the figures of the divisor represent a larger number than the first equal number of figures in the dividend, the number of figures in the quotient will be equal to this difference.

Thus in dividing 6:24309 by 8275, since 8275 denote a larger number than 6243, therefore there will be two figures in the quotient.

Hence in division of decimals, knowing the whole number of figures in the quotient, and the number of decimals, we can easily find the number of integers or ciphers immediately after the decimal point.

Thus in dividing 356.5043 by 7.253, since 7253 denote a larger number than 3565 therefore there will be 3 figures in the quotient, and since one must be a decimal, therefore 2 will be integers. Again in dividing .3565043 by 7.253, there will be 3 figures in the quotient, but there should be 4 decimals, therefore there must be one cipher after the decimal point.

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To find the sum of two numbers from the above Table. Look for one of them in the top line, and for the other in the left hand column: the sum will be found in the square, which is underneath the one and in the same line with the other.

To find the difference of two numbers from the above Table. Look in the left hand column for the less, and in the same line with this for the greater; the difference will be found at the head of the column in which the greater is.

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To find the product of two numbers from the above Table. Look in the top line for one of them, and in the left hand column for the other; the product will be found in the square underneath the former, and in the same line with the latter.

To find the quotient of a number not greater than 144 divided by a number

not greater than 12 from the above Table. Look in the left hand column for the divisor, and in the same line with it for the dividend or the number next less than the dividend, the integral quotient will be found at the head of the column in which this number is found.

III. TABLE OF SQUARES AND CUBES.

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IV. MEASURES OF MONEY.

S. d.
A groat

0 0
A half crown 0 2 6
A crown

5 0
S.
A guinea..

1
A noble

0 6 8 48 = 12 = 1

An angel

0 10 0 960 = 240 = 20 = 1

A mark

0 13 4

A moidore 1 7 0
V. TROY WEIGHT.

VI. APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT.

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20 480 1

60 - 3 = 1 5760 = 240 = 12

480 = 24 = 8

5760 = 288 = 96 = 12 = 1 Troy Weight is used for weighing Apothecaries' Weight is used for gold, silver, jewels, liquor, &c. and prescriptions. The grain, ounce, in philosophical experiments. and found are the same as in Tros

Weight.
VII. AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT.

dr. oz. 1b.

qr.
cwt. ton. lb. stone

gr. cwt. toli. 16 1

14 = 1 256 = 16 = 1

28 = 2

= 1 7168 = 448 = 28 = 1

112 = 8 4 = 1 28672 = 1792 = 112 = 4 = 1

2240 = 160 = 80 = 20 = 1 573440 = 35840 = 2240 = 80 = 20 = 1 1 lb. Av. = 7000 Troy grains.

Avoirdupois Weight is used for weighing all articles, except gold, silver, and precious stones.

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1 190080 = 15840 5280 = 960 = 240 = 24 3

1 chain = 100 links. The pole is called also a rod, or perch.

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X. CLOTH MEASURE.

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5 quarters = 1 English ell 1

6 quarters = 1 French ell 16 = 4 = 1

3 quarters = 1 Flemish ell XI. SUPERFICIAL OR SQUARE MEASURE.

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16 sq. po.

= 10000 sq. links = 1 sq. chain 10 sq. chains = 100000 sq. links

1 acre 2721 sq. ft. = 1 sq. rod

XII. CUBIC OR SOLID MEASURE.

cubic
inches

cub. in. cub. ft. cub.yd.
1723 = 1

40 cub. ft. = a load of rough timber 50 cub. ft. = a load of squared timber 42 cub. ft. = a ton of shipping

46656 = 27 = 1

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