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He then gives the reason why he is held in communication with evil spirits, which is as follows:—

"He is born into evils, which are those of hell, thus into the state which is diametrically opposite to Divine order; consequently he is to be brought back into order; and this can be effected mediately through the instrumentality of spirits."

And he adds—

"It would be different if man were born in good, which is according to the order of heaven; he would not then be governed by the Lord through spirits, but by order itself, consequently by common influx." (H. H. 296.)

God did not create man as a subject to whose existence evil was necessary, nor did He give him a will that could not be free without evil; it was the same power when it was created that it is now; and so far was it from being dependent upon evil for its liberty, that the very first evil that existed was produced by its free exercise, and subsequently every other evil that did or does now exist.

From what has been stated, we trust that it will be seen that there are two equilibriums, one which is proper to a state of probation, in which man forms to himself a state in which he is to experience all his consciousness of existence, whether it be good or evil; and another by which he is preserved in that state, and, so far as he does not molest others, to live in the freedom of that state for ever. S. S.

(A Question of Spbinger's to Swidenbobg.)

Whenever the New Jerusalem is mentioned by its antagonists in theological or ecclesiastical books, it is almost always regarded as a special religious party and sect, or as a small chapel placed by the side of the great Christian mother-churches. Such, at least, is generally the case when German and Swedish scholars submit the doctrines of the New Jerusalem to their critical remarks and speculative investigations. We find, for instance, that Dr. K. Graul, in a theological school-book,* makes the New Jerusalem parallel not only with the Roman Catholic and the larger Protestant Churches, but also with the smaller ones, as the Arminian, Moravian, Fruingian, Friends or Quakers, Baptists, Latter Day Saints, and others. This book is translated into Swedish, and by theologians and clergymen cited as a good work of its kind. It can, therefore, I think, never too often be iterated, that the New Christian Church, or New Jerusalem, refuses to be regarded as one of

*"Die Unterscheidungslehren der verschiedenen christlichen Bekenntnisse im Lichte gbttlichen Worts. 5 verm. Aufl. Leipzig, 1857."


the many different sects into which the general body of Christians is unhappily divided, but that it claims, as the name imports, to be an entirely new dispensation of doctrinal truth, as compared with any of the systems which at present prevail.

To consider the New Church as a special religious institution is but so far due and proper, as the heavenly truths which constitute her doctrines cannot, without external means and agencies, be spread all over the world. They must have a bodily organization, consisting of persons, societies, and churches, which, as an alma mater, preserve and watch over the precious spiritual treasures, and as a perpetual herald, proclaim and announce the Divine Truths from one time, land, and generation to another. But the New Jerusalem herself is not confined to any external form or ritual whatever. Her doctrines admit of every variety in this respect, and inculcate only that unity wbich is produced by charity. The New Jerusalem has nothing that reminds one of religious particularism. All its truths are of universal Christian character, and quite unsectarian. To be sure, nobody has ever embraced a more general Christianity than Swedenborg himself. Among all soi-disant Swedenborginas, he was the least Swedenborgian. And so free from all sectarianism as he was himself, so free is the doctrine that his writings promulgate. This doctrine is eminently of an universally Christian nature, and has no other restrictions or limitations than those of Christianity itself. To be convinced of this, we need but compare the general form of the New Jerusalem doctrine, which we read in the beginning of "The True Christian Eeligion," with the respective Confessions of the many Christian sects and churches in the world. Among these churches everyone has her marks of distinction, symbols, or symbolical books, the purpose of which is to separate and distinguish the members of one church from those of another, and make them, if not enemies, at least antagonists and strangers to each other. The New Church has no such intention, but quite a different one. It has no confessional symbols. The principal aim is to conjoin, not to disjoin. It does not strive and struggle to be an "Ecclesia polemica et militans" against all the others, but it aspires to be an "Ecclesia pacifica et triumphans."

While the Old Churches, almost after every article of faith, have an "anathema" or a "damnantur" against all disbelievers, this "anathema" is banished from the New Church. All, even heretics, can be saved, says Swedenborg,* if they have not "confirmed themselves in the falses of religion, or led evil lives." Whoever believes in one God, embodied in Christ, and lives according to His commandments, shuns evil, and

» T.C.R. 799.


does what is good, is a welcome friend in the New Jerusalem. In more general words the Christian faith cannot be expressed. They seem to be the quintessence of Christianity. Now, it is evident that a confession of so general a character, cannot properly be called a sect or a special church, because it has nothing special or exclusive but the faith in Christ and obedience to His commandments. And these two " notm characteristics" are a "conditio, sine qua non" for all Christendom. If Christians do not believe in the very heavenly Good and True, manifested in the person of Christ, nor obey His commandments, they are not Christians but baptized heathens, whose hearts deny the confession which their lips have pronounced. Our old Apostolic Creed, to which, as we see from one of his letters to Dr. Beyer,* Swedenborg himself conformed, professes a "holy and universal or Catholic Church, the communion of saints." Many ancient and recent theologians have considered this Catholic Church as an internal and invisible one, which is spread in all countries and times, among all peoples, and which ought to be well distinguished from the external Catholic Church that is under the rule of the Pope. In our days, not a few speculative theologians conceive the whole Christian era as divided into three periods, which, from the names of three apostles, they call that of Peter, of Paul, and of John. The first period includes that of Catholicism; the second, that of Protestantism, both of which are now about to pass away; and the third, that of Christianity, which is to come, or "the New Jeru. salem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband." As the great and eternal Sabbath is to our Sundays, which weekly come and go over the earth, so is the new, invisible, heavenly, perpetual Church to the visible, temporal, and transitory. The latter are only the shadows of the former,—her imperfect, dim, and faint figures.

But how is this invisible, ideal, holy Church to come? We have, in this respect, but to look upon the advice and hints which the Scriptures give us. Certainly, the New Jerusalem will not descend to us from heaven in the shape of a sect-church, with old, strict, and severe ecclesiastical discipline, many ceremonials and festivals. She will come, no doubt, as " the kingdom of God," that "cometh not with observation, neither shall they say, Lo! here, or Lo! there; for, behold, the kingdom of God is within us;" namely, in our understanding and will, when they are reformed and regenerated, so that our inward man is heaven in its smallest form. We pray daily to our Father in heaven—

* That of 30th October, 1769, inserted in "Collections for Philanthropists. Stockholm, 1787."


"Thy kingdom come; Thy will be done on earth, as in heaven." When once the will of God is done on earth as in heaven, then is the kingdom of God and the New Jerusalem also come on earth. But for the arrival of this happy state of an universal Christian spirit and truth, an unanimous charity, faith, and hope, within the whole human race, no term or time can be fixed.

A friend of Swedenborg's, the Counsellor of Commerce, Christophe Springer, asked Swedenborg, two or three weeks before his death, the question—"When i the New Jerusalem to come?" Swedenborg answered—"No mortal, not even the angels, know the appointed time. But that it shall come, you can see yourself in Apoc. xxi. 2; Zech. xiv. 9."*

It is in the nature of the subject that nobody, save the Omniscient, can know the hour of this great and marvellous event. We can but hope and prognosticate it. But let us first cause the New Jerusalem doctrines to be spread and preached over the world, and obeyed by its inhabitants; let our love of God and charity to our fellow-creatures be pure and unanimous; let our faith, not with regard to the dogmatical tenets, which vary on earth among men as in heaven among angels, f but with regard to the life of faith, that manifests itself in all Christian goodness and virtue, as the sun manifests itself in daylight, the spring in blossoms, and the summer in fruits; let this faith be unanimous among us, unanimous the hope, the true Christian confidence, which, during all the tempests of time, has its sure anchor-hold beyond the grave, in eternal life; let, then, the communication between the spiritual and the material spheres be more opened than at present, as open as it was in the paradisiacal time of Adam—and we shall see all things renewed, and the great Sabbath-day, whose morning we now are but dimly aware of, dawning upon us.

A Swedish Professor of Oriental Languages, 1.1. Bjornstahl, gives lis, in a letter from London, dated 19th March, 1775, { some notices of Mr. Springer, which seem to be not unworthy of being remembered. He says—

"I am lodging in the same house as our renowned countryman, Mr. Springer. The old man is now more than seventy-one years of age, but is cheerful and lively. He is familiar with the politics and secret history of Europe, especially

• See Springer's Letter to Pernetti, of 18th January, 1782, inserted in the Preface to the latter's French translation of "Heaven and Hell. Berlin, 1782."

T Swedenborg says—" Different omnes in ccelo quoad vera." (Diar. Spirit., Pars II., sec. 5451.)

% "Resa till Frankrike, ttalien, Sweitz, Tyrkland, Holland, England, Turkiet, och Grekland. Stockh. 1780." Andra Delen, sidd. 179, 221, 222.


of Sweden, Russia, and England. He speaks as a prophet of past and future things, is reputed as an oracle even by the highest lords, seems to be cut-out for state affairs, and has a very good administrative capacity. I call him Old Papa of the Swedes here. Through good economy, the Swedish church in London is now rich. Her funds are deposited in the bank, and are not exposed to the danger of being dissipated, as has formerly happened. And this arrangement is due to the prudence of Mr. Springer, who is the oldest supporter of the church, and at present its warden."

Then the letter contains a short account of Springer's life, his commercial and political activity, his misfortunes and imprisonment in Sweden, his travels in foreign countries, as in Russia, Poland, Germany, and England, and his inextinguishable, zealous love of his ungrateful native country. The entire letter is a small, but not inconsiderable, "item" in the Swedish history of the time. In the above-quoted letter, Mr. Springer says to Pernetti—

"I can give no reason for Swedenborg's intimate friendship for me, who am not a learned man. We were, to be sure, acquainted in Sweden; but that our intimacy should be so constant as it has been, I never could have imagined. All that Swedenborg has told me concerning my deceased friends and enemies, and the secret transactions I have had with them, is more than astonishing," &c.

Perhaps Springer had his old friendship and familiar conversations with Swedenborg to thank for the circumstance, that Bjornstahl, three years after Swedenborg's death, was still admiring Springer's words as those of a prophet or an oracle. Lund, Sweden. AcH. Kahl.


By the late Rev. W. Mason.

An excitable temperament is, without doubt, a great misfortune to its possessor; but if the giving way to it be a fault, and that fault be measured by the extent of the mischief it causes, it is a very serious fault indeed. Not only does it deal acrimoniously and unjustly, because it exaggerates the errors of those with whom it enters into judgment; not only does it exhibit want of patience, calmness, and candour, on occasions of collisions of interest or opinion; but it is the fruitful creator oj'faults in others, by disturbing their equanimity, exciting their hostility, and opening in their lower principles the sluices of false, perverting, bitter thoughts, and not the less so because policy may restrain them from going forth into corresponding devouring expressions. Devouring expressions they may indeed be called, because of their tendency so to

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