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451 is any thing so sacred in my character as to exempt me from human jurisdiction ; and, in that case, I refuse not to die, nor do I expect or desire any favour : but what I insist upou is strict and impartial justice, equally due to all mankind ; and if, as I know in my conscience, and as thou hast from the course of this trial the greatest reason to believe, there is nothing but malice and falsehood in these things of, which these mine enemies accuse me, no man can justly give me up to them merely to gratify their prejudice and cruelty. And since it is an affair of so great importance, in which, I have reason to believe, my life is concerned, I must insist upon the privilege which the laws of Rome give me, and appeal unto the hearing of Cæsar himself, before whom I doubt not but I shall be able to evince the justice of my cause.
Then Festus, having spoken for a while in private with the chief persons of the Roman army and state about him, who constituted a kind of council, called in the prisoner again, and answered him, Hast thou appealed unto Cæsar ? unto Cæsar shalt thou go. For how desirous soever I am to oblige the people of my province, I will never allow Inyself, upon any occasion, to violate the privileges of a Roman citizen ; I will therefore give proper order, as soon as possible, for conveying thee to Rome, that thou mayest there be presented before the emperor himself. In the mean time, Paul was remanded to his confinement, and his accusers returned to Jerusalem a second time, with the mortification of not having been able to accomplish their purpose against. liim.
While Paul continued in confinement, king. Agrippa, son of that Herod Agrippa whose melancholy death was recorded in the last chapter, caine to Cæsarea on a visit, to Festus; and, baving learnt from him soine particulars concerning Paul, expressed a desire to give him a public hearing. Such a hearing being procured, Agrippa said. unto Paul, when he stood before him, and Festus, and that great assembly of nobility and gentry which was met at his examination, It is now permitted unto thee to speak for thyself; do it therefore with freedom, and be assured that all due regard shall be paid to what thou hast to offer on this occasion. Then Paul, stretching forth his hand in a graceful and respectful manner, addressed himself to the splendid audience before which he stood, and made his defence in terms like these : O king. Agrippa, I esteem myself peculiarly happy that I am this day called to make my defence before thee concerning all these things of which I am accused by the Jews ; especially as I: know that thou art accurately acquainted with all things that relate to the customs, which preyail, and the questions which are in debate among the Jews, to some of which : my cause and discourse will refer. Wherefore, I humbly intreat thee that thou wilt. hear me with patience and indulgence, since it is necessary for me to enlarge circum-stantially upon some important particulars which cannot be justly, represented in a few words. I will therefore begin with observing, that the manner of my life from my youth, which, from the beginning of that age, was spent among those of my own nation at Jerusalem, is well known to all the Jews there, who were acquainted with me from the first of my sitting out in the world, and indeed from the very, time of my entrance upon a course of liberal education under that celebrated master Gamaliel ; and if they would capdidly testify what they kpew to be true, they would join with me in assuring you that I lived a Pharisee, according to the rules observed by that which you well. know to be the strictest sect of our religion, in every thing relating, not only to the written law of God, but likewise to the traditions of the fathers. And now I stand : in judgment in the midst of this assembly, not for any crime that I have committed, but indeed for the hope of that promise of a resurrection to eternal life and happiness by means of the Messiah, which, in times past, was made by God unto our fathers. To the accomplishment of which important promise all the known remainders of
our twelve tribes, 'in one part of the world or another, hope to attain ; and, by the expectation which they have otii, are animated in all their labours and sufferings for religion, while they are worshipping continually night and day in the stated and constant performance of their morning and evening devotions, whether in the temple, or m other places in which they present their prayers ; concerning which hope, O king Agrippa, glorious and reasonable as it is, I may truly say I am most unjustly and inconsistently accused by the Jews. For the doctrine I preach contains the fullest assurance and demonstration of a resurrection that ever was given to the world, and I am persuaded it is this that provokes those of my enemies who disbelieve it to prosecute me with so much malice. · But can there indeed be any eril in maintaining this doctrine myself, and endeavouring to convince others of it? Permit me, ő my honoured auditors, to appeal to you and say, why should it be judged an incredible thing by any of you that God, a being of infinite perfections, and the original author of the human frame, should raise the dead, and continue their existence in a future state? Will not his almighty power enable him to do it? and will not the honour of his moral attributes be hereby illustrated and vindicated. And if it be credible, is it not important enough to deserve the most attentive regard ? I am confident, sirs, you would all have thought it so, had you passed through such extraordinary scenes as occasioned a change in my views and conduct, which, therefore, I will plainly and fully open to this august assembly. I once indeed thought with myself that I ought in conscience to do many things most contrary to the name and destructive to the interest of Jesus the Nazarene, whom, under that title, I most impiously derided, esteeming all his pretences to be the Messiah most false and contemptible. - I determined, therefore, to exert all my power against those who owned him under that character. Which accordingly I did, particularly in Jerusalem, where many now living were witnesses of my wild rage ; and cannot but remember how I shut up many of the saints in prisons, having received authority from the chief priests to do it ; and how, when some of them were killed, I gave my vote against them, and did all I could to animate both the rulers and the people to cut them off from the face of the earth. And, frequently punishing them in all the synagogues wherever I could meet with them, I coro pelled them, if I could possibly effect it, to blaspheme the name of Jesus Christ, which I Dow so highly revere, and openly to renounce all dependance upon him. And, being exceedingly mad against them, I persecuted them even to these foreign cities, to which some of them had fled, hunting out the poor refugees, and endeavouring to drive them not only out of their country, but of the world. In this view, as I was going to Deniascus, with authority and commission from the chief priests, to execute this cruel purpose against all the Christians I could find there, at mid-day, when I was in the way thither, and was drawing near the end of my journey, I solemuly declare before thee, o king Agrippa, and before this assembly, as in the presence of God, I saw a great and most astonishing light from heaven, exceeding the splendor of the sun, shining about me, and those who travelled with me. And when we were all fallen down to the earth, as if we had been struck with lightning, I very distinctly heard a voice speaking to me, and saying, in the Hebrew language, Saul, Saul, why dost thou persecuie me? It is bard for thee to attempt an opposition to me, and madly to presume to kick against the goads. And I said in astonishment, who art thou Lord? and which way have I persecuted thee? And who can judge of my surprize, when he who appeared to me in this divine lustre and glory said, I am Jesus the Nazarene whom thou persecutest by the opposition thou art making to my cause and interest. But though, by erigaging in this desperate attempt, thou hast forfeited thy life, I am determiued graciously to spare it, and to use thee hereafter as the instrument of my glory; arise,
, if I could possand openly to renounce hem even to these for
therefore, and stand upon thy feet; for to this purpose I have, in this extraordinary manner, appeared unto thee, even to ordain thee a minister of my gospel, and a witness both of the things thou last now seen, and of those in which I will hereafter appear unto thee. And thou shalt experience my gracious presence with thee, delivering thee from the rage and malice of the Jewish people, and also from the dangers thou shalt encounter with among the Gentiles, to whom I now send thee; that I may make thee instrumental, by the preaching of my gospel, to open their eyes which are now in a miserable state of blindness, that they may turn from that spiritual darkness in which they are now involved, to the light of divine knowledge and holiness, and from the power of Satan, to which they are now in a wretched subjection, unto the love and service of God ; that so they may receive the free and full forgiveness of their sius, be they ever so many, or ever so aggravated ; and may obtain an inheritance among them that are sanctified, through that faith which is in me. From that ever-memorable time, O king Agrippa, through the grace of God subduing my heart, I was not disobedient to the heavenly vision with which he was pleased thus miraculously to favour me ; but I immediately engaged with all the united powers of my soul in the service of that divine master against whose interest and kingdom I had hitherto been acting; openly declared, first to them at Damascus, where I was going when this vision happened, and afterwards to those at Jerusalem, and through all the country of Judea, and then to ail the Gentiles wherever I came in my various and wide-extended travels from one country to another, that they should repent of their sins and turn to God with their wbole hearts, performing deeds worthy of that repentance which they profess, and without which the sincerity of it can never be approved in his sight. Now let any one judge wliether for this I should be treated as a criminal worthy of death, or whether indeed I have deserved these bonds. Yet, on account of these things, and for no other cause, the Jews, who have the same inveteracy against the gospel of Jesus that I once had, seizing me in the temple some time ago, attempted, in a tumultuous manner, to have killed me with their own hands. And since I was rescued at first by Lysias the tribune, they have repeated the attempt again and again, contriving to assassinate me in my way to the council, before which they urged that I might again be brought. I impute it, therefore, to an extraordinary providence that I am yet alive ; and publicly declare it with all thankfulness, that it is by having obtained help from God that I continue until this day; and I endeavour to employ my life to the purposes for which it is prolonged, resolutely and courageously testifying both to small and great, as to what is really a matter of the greatest concern, both to the meanest and the most exalted of mankind, the way of salvation by Christ Jesus my Lord : thereby, indeed, in effect, saying nothing but what the prophets and Moses have declared should be ; that is, in short, that the Messiah, having suffered, and being of the first of those who rose from the dead to an immortal life, should discover light, and be the means of revealing knowledge and happiness both to the people of the Jews and also to the Gentiles ; that by following his instructions, and obeying his commands, they also might at length obtain a glorious resurrection, and a life of everlasting felicity in the heavenly world. ..
And as he was thus making his defence, Festus, astonished to hear him represent this despised gospel of Jesus of Nazareth as a matter of such high and universal · concern, and thinking the vision he had related as introductory to that assertion quite an incredible story, said, with a loud voice, which reached the whole auditory, Paul, thou art distracted ; much study of these antient records, on which thou layest so great a stress, drives thee to madness, or thou wouldest never talk of such facts as these, or expect to be credited in such wild assertions. But this invidious inputation was so
far from provoking Paul to any indecency, that, with a perfect command of himself, he calmly and gravely replied, I am not mad, most noble Festus ; but I utter the words of truth and sobriety, which' will bear the test of the seyerest examination, and I desire nothing more than that they may be brought to it. For the king himself knoweth of these things, and is no stranger to them, to whom also I speak with freedom, embok dened by his permission, and assured of his character ; for I am persuaded he has better and more favourable thoughts of what I have been saying, as none of these things are entirely hidden from him ; for this is not an affair that was transacted in a corner : the death of Jesus, the preaching of his gospel, my rage against it, and sudden conversion to it, were all open and notorious facts, of the truth of which thousands had, opportunity of being certainly and thoroughly informed : and I am satisfied the king has often heard of them. O king Agrippa, believest thou the prophets ? Yes, I know that thou believest them to bave been written by a divine inspiration, and art aware of the weight of those arguments which are derived from the authority of their testimony. Then Agrippa said to Paul, Thou hast given such an account of these matters, that thou almost persuadest me to become a Christian myself, instead of condemning thee under that character. And Paul, powerfully struck with so remarkable an acknow. ledgment, said, with great feryency of spirit, and yet with perfect decency, o king, I would to God, that not only thou, but also all them that hear me this day, were both almost, and altogether such as I am, except these bonds. "My afflictions I would bear myself till providence shall release me from them ; but my satisfaction in the truth of the gospel is so entire, and the consolations I experience from it are so solid and noble, that I can wish nothing better to this illustrious audience, than that they had the same faith in it as I now enjoy. : And as he said this, that the impression Paul began to make upon the court might reach no further, the king arose, and Festus the governor, and Bernice, and those that sat with them upon the bench. And when they had retired to the governor's apartment, they agreed among themselves that this man, whether his reasonings were conclusive or not, had done nothing worthy of death nor imprisonment, and therefore might haye been immediately set at liberty, if he had not, by a ppealing to Cæsar, rendered it necessary that he should be conveyed to the imperial tribunal at Rome.
As it was determined that Paul and his company should sail into Italy, they delivered him and some other prisoners to a centurion of the Augustan cohort, whose name was Julius. And, going on board a ship of Adramyttium, a city of Mysia, not far froni Pergamos, they weighed anchor, intending to sail by the coasts of the Lesser Asia, Aristarchus, a Macedonian, a Christian brother, of the city of Thessalonica, beiig with them. Steering their course northward from Cæsarea, the next day they reached Sidon, a celebrated city on the Phænician shore; and Julius, the centurion, treating Paul with great humanity, permitted him to go to his friends there, whom he had not been able to visit in his way to Jerusalem; and to enjoy the benefit of their care, towards rendering his voyage as agreeable as they could, as well as affording him some present refreshment. And, weighing anchor from thence, they sailed under the island of Cyprus, leaving it on the left hand ; because the winds were in the south-west quarter, and so were contrary to them, and consequently prevented their taking the more direct course which they might otherwise have done by sailing more to the west, and leaving Cyprus to the north. And, sailing through the sea which lies over against Cilicia and Pamphylia, without an opportunity, of calling on any of their friends at Tarsus, Attalia, Perga, or Antioch in Pisidia, where Paul had once and again made so deligbtful a progress, they came to the port of Myra, a city of Lycia, whose cele brated promoutory they could descry at a considerable distance. There the centurion,
of the citoasts of the not far fri
On the Phiceni ward from
finding a ship of Alexandria that was bound for Italy, put them on board it, and emharked with it. When they had sailed slowly for several days, by Rhodes and several other islands which lay near the Carian shore, and were hardly got over against the point of. Cnidus, a celebrated port of Caria, the wind not permitting them to make greater dispatch, they steered to the south, and sailed under Crete, over against the promontory of Salmone, on the eastern coast of that island ; and, passing it with difficulty, when they had made the Cape, they came to a certain place called the fair havens, the most considerable port of that part of Crete.. And as much time was spent in making this little way, and the season of the year was so far advanced that sailing was now hazardous, because the fast of expiation was now over, and consequently winter was coming on apace, Paul spake to those who had the chief direction of the voyage, exhorted them not to put out to sea, and forewarned them that the prosecution of their present scheme would be attended with the loss of much property and the danger of their lives. Julius, however, the centurion, in whose breast the determination of the affair lay, paid greater regard in this instance to the opinion of the pilot and the master of the vessel, thạn to those things which were spoken by Paul, imagining, notwithstanding the esteem he had for him in other respects, that these were more competent judges in the business of navigation. As the haven, notwithstanding its agreeable name, was not commodious to winter in, the greater part of the company advised to set sail from thence, if they might possibly reach to Phenice, which is a kind of double haven, on the south coast of Crete, looking from the south-west to the north-west, where, in consequence of a jutting point of land which defended it, they hoped on getting into the upper part of it, to lie secure from almost any wind that could blow. As the weather, in a little time, became more favourable, and the south wind blew gently, which would prevent her driving out to sea, supposing they were now secure of their purpose, and by the help of a side wind might coast along the island, they weighed anchor from the fair havens, and sailed on close to the shore of Crete. But not long after they had put to sea, the ship was in great danger, as on a sudden there arose against it a very tempestuous whirling kind of wind, which, by the mariners in this sea, is called Euroclydon, or, in modern language, a Levanter, which often shifts the quarter from whence it blows; and accordingly, in this case, was first east, and by north, and afterwards several degrees southward of the east. And as the ship was violently hurried away by the force of it, and was not able to bear up against the wind, which was so very boisterous that, as the seamen used to speak, she could not look the storm in the face, they gave her up to the wind, and were driven before it. And, running under a certain island, called Clauda, a little to the south of the western coast of Crete, the violence of the storm was such, that, with the utmost difficulty, they were hardly able to make themselves masters of the boat, which they were willing to preserve from being sta ved, that it might be of use in an exigency. When they had drawn up the boat, they used all the helps they could to make the vessel able to ride out the storm, under girding the ship, to keep it from bulging ; and fearing, as the wind varied more to the porth, and blew towards Africa, lest they should fall upon the greater or lesser Syrtis, those quick-sands on the African shore so famous for the destruction of mariners and vessels, they struck sail that so their progress might be slower, hoping that some favourable weather might come for their relief, and so were driven before the wind. As they were exceedingly tossed by the storm, and there was danger of the veesel's foundering the next day they lightened the ship, by heaving overboard the cargo with which she was laden. On the third day', the tempest was so great, that all the passengers, as well as mariners, were employed; and they cast out the very tackling of the sbip, which, in such circurustances, they must have been very desirous of preserving
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