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constitutes the choir, and in the inside aisles are shown the places where the most remarkable circumstances of our Saviour's passion were transacted, together with the tombs of Godfrey and Baldwin, the two first Christiau kings of Jerusalem. In the chapel of the crucifixion is shown the very hole in the rock in which the cross is said to have been fixed. The altar in this chapel hath three crosses on it, and is richly adorned, particularly with four lamps of immense value that hang before it, and are kept constantly burning. At the west end is that of the sepulchre, which is hewn in that form out of the solid rock, and hath a small dome supported by pillars of porphyry. The cloister round the sepulchre is divided into sundry chapels appropriated to the several sorts of Christians who reside there, as Greeks, Armenians, Maronites, Jan cobites, Copts, Abyssines, Georgians, &c.; and on the north-west side of it are the apartments of the Latins who have the care of the church, and are forced to reside constantly in it, the Turks keeping the keys of it, and not suffering any of them to go out, but obliging them to receive their provisions in at a wicket. At Easter there are some grand ceremonies performed in the church, representing our Lord's passion, crucifixion, death, and resurrection, at which a vast concourse of pilgrims commonly assist ; for a particular account of them we refer the reader to Dr. Shaw and Pococke.
On mount Moriah, on the south-east part of the city, is an edifice called Solomon's temple, standing on or near the same spot as the antient, but when, or by whom erected is uncertain. In the midst of it is a Turkish mosque, where the Jewish sanctum satetorum is supposed to have stood. The building which Dr. Pococke thinks must have been formerly a Christian church, is held in the utmost veneration by the Turks.
The city is now under the government of a sangiac, who resides in a house, said to have been that of Pontius Pilate, over against the castle of Antonia, built by Herod the Great. Many of the churches erected in the memory of some remarkable gospel transaction have been since converted into mosques, into some of which money will proCure admittance, but not into others. Both the friars and other Christians are kept so poor by the tyranny of the government, that the chief support and trade of the place consists in providing strangers with food, and other accommodations, and selling them heads, relics, and other trinkets, for which they are obliged to pay considerable sums to the sangiac, as well as to his officers ; and those are seldom so well contented with their usual duties but they frequently extort some fresh ones, especially from the Franriscans, whose convent is the common receptacle for all pilgrims, and for which they have considerable allowances from the pope, and other crowned heads, besides the prea sents which strangers generally make them at their departure.
The most remarkable antiquities in the neighbourhood of Jerusalem are, First, The pools of Bethesda and Gihon, the former one hundred and twenty paces long, and forty broad, and at least eight deep, but now without water, and the old arches, which it stiil discovers at the west end, are quite dammed up: the other, which is about a quarter of a mile without Bethlehem gate, is a very stately relic, one hundred and six paces long and sixty broad, lined with a wall and plaster, and still well stored with water. Second, The tomb of the Virgin Mary, in the valley of Jehoshaphat, into which one descends by a magnificent flight of forty-seven steps. On the right-hand as we go down is the scpulchre of St. Ann, and on the left that of Joseph, the husband of the Virgin mother; some add, likewise, that of Jehoiakim her father. In all these are erected altars for priests of all sorts, to say mass, and the whole is cut into the solid rock. Third, The tomb of king Jehoshaphat, cut, likewise, into the rock, and divided into several apartments, in one of which is his tomb, which is adorned with a stately portico and entablature over it. Fourth. That commonly called Absalom's pillar, oz
place, as being generally supposed to be that which he is said to have erected in his lifetime to perpetuate his memory, as he had no malc issue. The place, however, both within and without, hath more the resemblance of a sepulchre than any thing, though we do not read that he was buried there, neither do the people here affirm that he was. There is a great heap of stones about it, which is continually increasing, the superstitious Jews and Turks always throwing some as they pass, in token of their abhorrence of Absalom's unnatural rebellion against so holy a parent. The structure itself is about twenty cubits square and sixty high, rising in a lofty square, adorned below with four columns of the Ionic order, with their capitals, entablatures, &c. to each front. From the height of twenty to forty cubits it is somewhat less, and quite plain, excepting a small fillet at the upper end ; and from forty to the top it changes into a round which grows gradually into a point, the whole cut out of the solid rock. There is a room within considerably higher than the level ground without, in the sides of which are niches, probably to receive coffins. Fifth. A little eastward of this is that called the tomb of Zechariah, the son of Barachiah, whom the Jews slew between the temple and the altar, as is commonly supposed. This fabric is all cut out of the natural rock, eighteen feet high, and as many square, and adorned with Ionic columns on each front, cut out, likewise, of the same rock, and supporting a cornice. The whole ends in a pointed top like a diamond. But the most curious, grand, and elaborate pieces in this kind, are the grotts without the walls of Jerusalem, styled the royal sepulchres, but of what kings is not agreed on. They consist of a great number of apartments, some of them spacious, all cut out of the solid marble rock, and may justly be pronounced a royal work, and one of the most noble, surprising, and magnificent. For a particular account of them we must refer the reader, for want of room, to Pococke's travels.
In the neighbourhood of Jerusalem is a spot of ground, about thirty yards long and fifteen broad, now the burying-place of the Armenians, which is shown as the Aceldama, or Field of Blood, and since styled the Holy Field, purchased with the price of Judas's treasou, for the burial of strangers. It is walled round to prevent the Turks abusing the bones of Christians, and one half of it is taken up in a building, in the nature of a charnel-house. Besides the above, a great many other antiquities, in the city and its environs, are shown to strangers, there being scarcely any place or transaction mentioned either in the Old or New Testament, but they show the very spot of ground where the one stood, and the other was done, not only here, but all over Judea.
The territories of the tribe of Judah extended south of Benjamin about twenty-seven miles, that is, quite to the mountains of Seir, or Edom, which were the frontiers between it and Idumea, and was bounded on the east by the Dead sea, and on the west by the tribes of Dan and Simeon, both which lay between it and the Mediterranean. Judah was reckoned the largest and most populous tribe of all the twelve, and the inhabitants the stoutest and most valiant. It was, moreover, the chief and royal tribe, from which the kingdom was denominated. The land was beautifully variegated with fertile plains, hills, dales, small lakes, springs, &c. ; and produced great plenty of corn, wine, oil, fruits, pasture, &c. except where it lay contiguous to Idumea. It was, properly, in the territory of Judah, that the Canaanites dwelt ; and here it was, likewise, that Abraham and his descendants sojourned till their going down into Egypt. The principal places of this tribe were Libnah, Makkedah, Azecha, Beth-zor, or Bethsora. Emmaus, Nicopolis, Bezech, Bethlehem, Tekoah, Engadi, Odalla, Keilah, Hebrou, Jether, Jerimoth, Taphnah, Kirjath-jearim, Maon, Holun, Gozen, Gelo, Cabzael, Hazor, or Chadzor, and Massador. At the head of these we may justly place the royal city of Bethlehem, not only on account of its being the birth-place of king David, and from him emphatically styled the city of David, but much more so as it was apo
pointed by providence to be the birth-place of the Lord Jesus Christ, though, at present, reduced to a poor village. It is situate on a hill, in a fertile and delightful plain, about five or six miles, according to Josephus and Eusebius, but seven or eight; according to more modern travellers, south of Jerusalem ; and is still held in great esteem, both for the magnificent church which the pious empress Helena caused to be built over the grotto where the divine infant was born, and for the great concourse of pilgrims who yearly repair to it. The building, which is roofed with cedar, supported by four rows of stately pillars of white marble, ten in a row, and the walls faced with the same stone, we have already described, with the other artificial rarities, together with the most remarkable things in and about it. The Christians chiefly live here upon making crosses, beads, and models of the church of St. Sepulchre, with wood, inlaid with mother of pearl, which they sell to the pilgrims. Hebron, now called El-kahil
, the antient seat of Dayid before he had taken Jerusalem, stands on a ridge of mountains which overlook a most delicious valley, twenty miles south of that metropolis. The old city hath long since lain in ruins, but near to them stands a village, in which is still a good handsome church, built, by the same pious empress, over the cave where Abraham, and Sarah, Isaac, Jacob, and Leah, lie buried. The Turks have since tumed it into a mosque, and the place is much revered by them, as well as by the Jews and Christians. Lebnah, a strong city, situate in a narrow neck of land, in this tribe, which ran northwards between those of Dan and Benjamin. Emmaus, in Hebrew, Chammin, from its hot and salutiferous waters, and famed for our Saviour's appearanco to two of his disciples, stood, as the evangelist there tells us, about sixty furlongs, or eight miles, south-west from Jerusalem, and had a church built on the spot where Christ manifested himself to the two disconsolate travellers.
The lot of Dan was bounded, on the north, hy Ephraim; on the west, by the Philistines and the Mediterranean ; on the south, by Simeon ; and on the east, by Judah and Benjamin. Its greatest length, from north to south, did not exceed forty miles ; and it was exceeding narrow on the north side, and not above twenty-five broad on the south. But what it wanted in room was, in a great measure, made up by the fertility of the soil, and the industry and bravery of its inhabitants, some of whom, rather than be confined within their narrow limits, ventured so far as the city of Laish, in the utmost verge north of Palestine, after new settlements. As for the country, it abounded with corn, wine, oil, fruits, and all other necessaries. And here was the famed valley called Nahal Escol, or of the grapes, whence the spies, sent by Moses, brought such noble specimens of its fertility to the Israelitish camp. Dan had, besides, a good number of cities within its small extent, the chief of which were Joppa, Jainnia, Casphin, Thimnah, Bethshemesh, Ajalon, Lachish, Lehi, Modin, Eltek, Gibbethon, and "Zora, or Sora. Of these we shall describe here only the two former, which were maritime ones. Joppa, Japha, now Jaffa, once a considerable sea port on the Mediterranean, and the only one which the Jews had on that sea, was seated on an high and spacious hill, which commanded a full prospect of the sea on one side, and of a delightful fertile country on the other. It had the town of Jamnia on the south ; Cæsarea Palestina on the north ; and Rama, or Ramula on the east ; and is often mentioned both in the Old and New Testament. But this fine city was so entirely ruined during the Holy War, that it had scarcely any buildings left standing, but the old castle, which was situate on an eminence above it, and another near the sea-side. At present, the town is rebuilt towards the sea, with good stone houses, and drives a considerable trade, particular in the Roman and Jerusalem soap. There are, likewise, great quantities of rice, corn, and other commodities, brought thither from Egypt, and exported thence into other countries. The misfortune is, that the port hath been formerly so marred, that no ships of burden
can come into it, but are obliged to ride on the road before it, which is, however, safe and convenient enough. On the west side of the haven is a charming spring, which supplies the town, and refreshes all the passengers that go and come by it. Jarnnia is another sea-port on the same coast, between Joppa and Azotas, but is not mentioned in sacred history, unless it be that Jabne which Uzziah took from the Philistines.
The tribe of Simeon was confined to a very small lot on the most southern corner of Judea, being bounded by Dan, on the north ; the little river Sichor, on the south, which parted it from Idumea; by Judah, on the east ; and by a sınall - neck of land, towards the Mediterranean, on the west. The greatest part of it was so mountainous, sandy, and barren, especially that which lay on the south side of the river Bezor, which ran across it, and on the north of which they laad but a very narrow slip of fertile land, and was, moreover, so harassed by the Philistines on one side, and the Idumeans on the other, that, finding neither room nor sustenance sufficient, nor any quietness in their inheritance, they were obliged to seek their fortune among other tribes, from the very beginning, hiring themselves out to assist their brethren in the conquest of their lots, for the sake of having some smali share allotted to them ; whilst others dispersed themselves amongst every tribe, where, it seems, they served as scribes, notaries, schoolmasters, &c.; so truly was their father Jacob's curse verified on them, as well as on the tribe of Levi, on account of their bloody massacre of the Shechemites: Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce ; and their revenge, for it was inhuman : I will disperse them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel. Their towns were few, and none of them very considerable, but rather answerable to the thinness and poverty of the inhabitants. The chief of them were Zikleg, Ain, Hormah, Debir, Gerar, and Beersheba.
The five Philistine satrapies were situated along the Mediterranean coast, between that and the tribes of Simeon, Dan, and part of Benjamin ; and extending from the sea-port of Jamnia to the mouth of the river Bezor. How far their territories extended in land is not easy to guess, but, upon the whole, it appears they were confined within very narrow limits ; for though they were able to raise very considerable armies against the Israelites, the far greater part of them seem to have consisted of auxiliaries from Edom, or Idumea. Their names were as follow, as they lay from north to south : Gath, Accaron, or Ecron, Ashdod, or Azotus, Ascalon, and Gaza, with its sea-ports called Portus, Gazæ, and Majuma ; of all which we can only say, in general, that they appear to have been strong, rich, and populous; and to have had each of them some considerable towns and villages under them, all of them situate, as far as can be gathered from the sacred records, in fertile territories, and well cultivated by the industrious inhabitants.
We shall conclude our survey with Edom, or Idumea. This country lay south of Palestine, and was part of Arabia and Petrea, having Judea on the north ; Égypt, and a branch of tbe Red sea, on the west ; the rest of Arabia Petrea, on the south ; and the desert of Arabia, on the east. It lay mostly under the thirtieth degree of latitude, and thirty-fourth of east longitude. As to its extent, it hath so often changed, that there is no stating it without having regard to the various periods of time through which it passed. At first, Esau, or Edom, from whom it received its name, and his descendants, settled along the mountains of Seir, on the east and south of the Dead sea, from whence they spread themselves, by degrees, through the west part of Arabia Petrea, from that sea quite to the Mediterranean. In the time of Moses, Joshua, and even of the Jewish kings, they were hemmed in by the Dead sea on the one side, and the Ela : mtic gulf on the other ; but during the Jewish captivity at Babylon, they advanced farther north into Judea, and spread themselves as far as Hebron, in the tribe of Judah ; so that Strabo, and, after bin, many other geographers, have rightly divided it into eastern and southern Idumea, with regard to its situation froin Palestine, the capital of the former of which was called Bozrah, and that of the latter, Petrea, or Jectael. Josephus, with regard to its different extent, at different periods, distinguishes it, when at the largest, by the epithet of great, in opposition to its more narrow boundaries ; and even places Hebron among the Idumean cities.
the Idumean cities. He seems, likewise, to make a kind of distinction between that which he calls the Lower, and Upper Idumea ; but, upon the whole, the country is, both in the sacred books, and all other authors that have written on it, represented as hot, dry, mountainous, and, in some parts, barren and desert, and the mountains full of dreadful rocks and caverns; in which respect it was not at all unlike the southern part of Judah, which is called a desert, and full of such rocky recesses and caverns, commonly afterwards the lurking-places of thieves and banditti. Its chief cities were Bozrah, Pau, and Anah.
The inhabitants of the Holy Land have been divided, from the most remote antiquity, into two classes, they that inhabited houses, and they that removed from place to place, having no other shelter than what was afforded by tents and booths. With respect to the former, we shall here give an extract from Dr. Shaw's travels into Barbary and the Levant. We have preserved his own words, as being those of an eye-witness, and are, therefore, not accountable for his interpretations of scripture.
“ As there is a near relation bettveen the buildings in this country, and those that are occasionally mentioned in the Holy Scriptures, it may be presumed, that a particular account of the structure and contrivance of the one, will not a little contribute to the clearing up such doubts and difficulties as have arisen from not rightly comprehending the fashion of the other.
“ Now the general method of building, both in Barbary and the Levant, seems to have continued the same, from the earliest ages down to this time, without the least alteration or improvement. Large doors, spacious chambers, marble pavements, cloistered courts, with fountains sometimes playing in the midst, are, certainly, conveniences very well adapted to the circumstances of these climates, where the summer heats are generally so intense. The jealousy, likewise, of these people is less apt to be alarmed, wbilst
, if we except a small latticed window, or balcony, which sometimes look into the street, all the other windows open into their respective courts or quadrangles.
“ The streets of these cities, the better to shade them from the sun, are usually narrow, with sometimes a range of shops on each side. If, from these, we enter into any of the principal houses, we shall first pass through a porch, or gate-way, with benches on each side, where the master of the family receives visits, and dispatches business ; few persons, not even the nearest relations, having admission any further, except npon extraordinary occasions. From hence we are received into the court, which, lying open to the weather, is, according to the ability of the owner, paved with marble, or such proper materials as will carry off the water into the common sewers. When much people are to be admitted, as upon the celebration of a marriage, the circumcising of a child, cr occasions of the like nature, the company is seldom or never admitted into one of the chambers. The court is the usual place of their reception, which is strewed accordingly, with mats or carpets, for their more commodious entertainment ; and as this is called cl woost, or the middle of the house, literally answering to the to meso themidn of St. Luke, ch. v. v. 19, it is probable, that the place where our Saviour and the apostles were frequently accustomed to give their instructions might have been in the like situation, i. e. in the area, or quadrangle, of one of these houses. In the summer season, and upon all occasions, when a large company is to be received, the court is, commonly, sheltered from the heat and inclemencies of the weather, by s vellum umbrella, or veil, which, being expanded upon ropes from one side of the