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OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS.
CAREFULLY PRINTED FROM THE MOST CORRECT COPIES OF THE PRESENT
MARGINAL READINGS AND PARALLEL TEXTS:
A COMMENTARY AND CRITICAL NOTES;
DESIGNED AS A HELP TO A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE SACRED WRITINGS:
BY ADAM CLARKE, LL.D., F.S.A., &,c.
A NEW EDITION, WITH THE AUTHOR'S FINAL CORRECTIONS.
FOR WHATSOEVER THINGS WERE WRITTEN AFORETIME WERE WRITTEN FOR OUR LEARNING; THAT WE, THROUGH
THE OLD TESTAMENT.
VOLUME I. GENESIS TO DEUTERONOMY.
PUBLISHED BY T. MASON & G. LANE,
FOR THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, AT THE CONFERENCE OFFICE, 200 MtTLBERU Y-STREKT.
.JAMES COLLORD, PRINTER.
rPHE different nations of the earth, which have received the Old and New Testaments as a Divine -*- revelation, have not only had them carefully translated into their respective languages, but have also agreed in the propriety and necessity of illustrating them by comments. At first, the insertion of a word or sentence in the margin, explaining some particular word in the text, appears to have constituted the whole of the comment. Afterwards, these were mingled with the text, but with such marks as served to distinguish them from the words they were intended to illustrate; sometimes the comment was interlined with the text, and at other times it occupied a space at the bottom of the page.
Ancient comments written in all these various ways I have often seen; and a Bible now lies before me, written, probably, before the time of Wiclif, where the glosses are all incorporated with the text, and only distinguished from it by a line underneath; the line evidently added by a later hand. As a matter of curiosity I shall introduce a few specimens.
SlnD seine, gWatb, ottoele, S am cbauffb. fi saint tbe fftr. Isa. xliv. 16.
jBJe cete bane as an ape, ano toftlj Betoe of beben bfs Oobd toas fntotmfB or BefonlfB, tfll M» Serfs toerlBeit ftrta Ifcncsst of eglls, an* Jfs najlfs as naslls oc decs of brlBBts. Dan. iv. 33.
Jfte tbat fs best In Jem Is as a palnurc, tbat fs a stbata buscbe, or a tbfstel ot ffrse. Micah vii. 4.
?i)c scbal baptise or cftrtstenB gou, tottb tbe boob Boost anb filr, tojos tnbjmtolngt dotbe or fan (n bfs honB. Matt. iii. 11, 12.
M?bo eber scbal leebe bfs tottf, flebe be to bet a Igbel, tbat fs, a Igttl book of forsaMnge. Matt. v. 31.
331nnDe men seen, rrotuTj men toanBren, mesels ben maati dene, beef men becren, tieeti men rgscn agefn, port m*n ben taken to precbgnge of tbe gospel, or been maati ftepers of tbe gospel. Matt. xi. 5.
S scbal bollte out, or telle out tbfngfs bfti fro matting of tbe toorlti. Matt. ziii. 35.
Zee serpentls fruntts of burrotonnngts of etitirfs tbat sleen bet motirfs, bob) scbuln jet flee fro tbe Dome ot belle. Matt, xxiii. 33.
fficroutie tetraarcja, tbat fs, prince of tbe tourtb parte. Luke iii. 1.
Jftabjmge nour conocrsacloun or lllf gooti amongc tjtitben men. 1 Pet. ii. 12.
<5ee scbuln rescegtit tbe untoelentable cvoton of gtortr, or tbat scjal nebcr faatie. 1 Pet. v. 4.
Slnojnt tbfn eegen tottb colurgo, tbat Is, metifctnal for eegtn maati of oOictse erbts, tjat tbou see. Rev. iii. 18.
Comments written in this way have given birth to multitudes of the various readings afforded by ancient manuscripts; for the notes of distinction being omitted or neglected, the gloss was often considered as an integral part of the text, and entered accordingly by succeeding copyists.
This is particularly remarkable in the Vulgate, which abounds with explanatory words and phrases, similar to those in the preceding quotations. In the Septuagint also, traces of this custom are easily discernible, and to this circumstance many of its various readings may be attributed.
In proportion to the distance of time from the period in which the sacred oracles were delivered, the necessity of comments became more apparent; for the political state of the people to whom the Scriptures were originally given, as well as that of the surrounding nations, being in the lapse of time essentially changed, hence was found the necessity of historical and chronological notes, to illustrate the facts related in the sacred books.
Did the nature of this preface permit, it might be useful to enter into a detailed history of commentators and their works, and show by what gradations they proceeded from simple verbal glosses to those colossal accumulations in which the words of God lie buried in the sayings of men. But this at present is impracticable; a short sketch must therefore suffice.
Perhaps the most ancient comments containing merely verbal glosses were the Chaldee Paraphrases, or Tar gums, particularly those ofONKELOs on the Law, and Jonathan on the Prophets; the former written a short time before the Christian era, the latter about fifty years after the incarnation. These comments are rather glosses on words, than an exposition of things; and the former is little more than a verbal translation of the Hebrew text into pure Chaldee.
The Tahoum Yerushlf.mby is written in the manner of the two former, and contains a paraphrase, in very corrupt Chaldee, on select parts of the five books of Moses.