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And had all the rights of the other apostles :

xvi.

23

1 Cor.

I not seen Jesus Christ you in declining to take that maintenance from SECT. our Lord? are not you my work in the Lord? you which I might very justly have expected and demanded. And here you must give me leave to express my surprise, as well as my con- IX. 1. cern, to hear, that so unkind and unnatural a construction has been put upon my generosity and tenderness, as if I had declined to accept your contributions, from a consciousness of not being intitled to them as well as my brethren. But can you really imagine that to be the case? Am not I, as truly as any man living, an apostle of Jesus Christ? Am not I as free in this instance, as any other, and may I not, as justly as they, expect to be maintained by you, while I am serving your best interests? Have not I, though called so much later than my brethren, seen Jesus Christ our Lord, after his resurrection, so as to be able to testify the important fact on my own knowledge, as confidently as those that were earlier acquainted with him? And, to urge so plain a point no farther, are not ye Corinthians, particularly, my work in the Lord, and the evident token of his blessing on my apo2 If I be not an stolical labours? On this account, if I am apostle unto others, not an apostle to some others, yet I doubtless am 2 you: for the seal of so to you, who of all people in the world can shew mine apostleship are the least excuse for questioning my mission: for ye in the Lord.

yet doubtless I am to

3 Mine answer to them that do examine me, is this,

4 Have power to drink?

we

ye are indeed the seal of my apostleship in the
"Lord; and the extraordinary success I have
had among you, if others should doubt of my
commission, might, furnish out a proof of it
also to them.

This therefore is my apology to those who ex-3 amine and censure me, as to this part of my conduct. Does my waving the use of a privilege not prove that I have it not? Have we not, both 4 eat and to in natural equity, and according to the Divine constitution, the same power, as others in the same office, to eat and to drink, and to subsist ourselves at the expence of those among whom not we labour? Yea, have we not power to lead 5 power to lead about a about [with us] in our apostolic travels, (if we as other apostles and think it necessary,) a sister, whom we might as take for a wife, as some of the other apostles

5 Have

we

sister, a wife, as weli

a Have I not seen the Lord, &c.] That this was necessary, in order to his being an apostle, that is, a witness of Christ's resurrection, bas before been observed. See Vol. VII, p. 483, note g. Compare Acts xxii. 14, 15, chap. xxvi. 16; 1 Cor. xv. 8.

and

b A sister, a wife.] The word yuvaixa, has no force at all here, if it be rendered a woman: a sister must undoubtedly be a woman: not to say, how improbable it is that the apostle should have carried about with him, in these sacred preregrinations,

24

And particularly to be maintained by his ministry;

SECT. and the brethren of the Lord do, and Peter as the brethren of the xviin particular; and to expect, that she likewise, Lord and Cephas? as well as ourselves, should be provided for by IX. 5. those to whom we have done such important

services, as nothing of this kind can ever requite?

Barnabas, have not we

7 Who goeth a war

fare any time at his

fruit thereof? or who

6 Or can it be thought there is any thing singular 6 Or I only and in my case, or in that of my present compa- power to forbear worknions, that it should rob me of the liberties others ing? have; so that I only, and Barnabas, should not have power to decline working with our own hands for a maintenance, while we are preach7ing the gospel? I might here insist indeed on the natural equity of the thing, that they own charges? who who devote themselves to the service of the pub- planteth a vineyard, lic, should be supported by the public whom and eateth not of the they serve. Who, for instance, ever goes to war feedeth a flock, and at his own charge? The community furnishes eateth not of the milk out provision for those who guard it, and fight of the flock? its battles. And if the services of a soldier deserve that maintenance, which, while engaged in the defence of their country, men cannot earn, how much more may it be expected by us, who daily hazard our lives, as well as wear them. out, for men's everlasting happiness? Who planteth a vineyard, and doth not expect to eat of its fruit? Or who feedeth a flock, and doth not think he hath a right to eat of the milk of the flock? And if it be judged reasonable, that men should have an equivalent for their labours about natural things, and the accommodations of the body, is it not more evidently so, when the felicity of immortal souls is concerned?

8

8 Say I these things

9 For it is written

But do I speak these things merely as a man, as a mar? or saith not upon principles of human reason alone. And doth the law the same also? 9 not the Jewish law speak also the same? For there is a passage in the sacred volume, on which in the law of Moses, the like argument may be built, (I mean, Deut. xxv. 4,) where it is written, even in the law of

nations, a woman to whom he was not mar-
ried. So that the answer which the Pa-
pists generally make to the argument often
brought from these words, in favour of a
married clergy, is absolutely inconclusive.

c And Peter.] This is an important
clause, both as it declares in effect that
St. Peter continued to live with his wife
after he became an apostle; and also that
St. Peter had no rights, as an apostle,
which were not common to St. Paul. Α
remark utterly subversive of popery, if
traced to its obvious consequences.

d I only, and Barnabas.] From this

Moses

Thou shalt not muzzle

the

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Which he argues from scripture and equity :

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f1 If we have sown

unto you spiritual things, is it a great thing if we shall reap your carnal things?

xvi.

25

Moses itself, for which some have so distinguish- SECT.
ing a regard, "Thou shalt not muzzle the ox
nga regard,
that treadeth out the corn," but shalt allow 1 Cor.
the poor animal to feed, while it is labouring for IX. 9,
thee, in the midst of food: a circumstance in
which its hunger would be peculiarly painful.
Now is God so solicitous about oxen, that he in- 10
tended this precept merely for their relief?
Or doth he say [this] with a farther view, and on
the whole, for our sakes? Surely, we may con-
clude, he intended such precepts as these, rela-
ting to compassion to the brutes, in some mea-
sure at least for our sakes, to humanize the heart
with generous and compassionate sentiments,
and to make men much more tender to each
other, where their various interests are con-
cerned. I may therefore apply it to the case be-
fore us, as entirely comprehended in his exten-
sive universal views; and say, for us indeed was
[it] written, that the necessary offices of life
might be more cheerfully performed, in the ex-
pectation of such due acknowledgments; that
he, who ploweth, might plow in hope of success,
and that he who thresheth in such hope, should not
be disappointed, but should in proper time par-
take of his hope, and possess the good for which
he has laboured. And surely, admits his care
for others who are in meaner offices of life, God
could not intend, that the ministers of the gos-
pel alone should be sunk under continual discou-
ragement, neglect, and ill-usage.

And indeed when we consider what great be- 1Į nefactors these persons are to the souls amongst whom they labour with success, the reasonableness of the conclusion will appear beyond all contradiction. For if we, by our incessant diligence in preaching to you the gospel of the blessed God, have sown unto you spiritual things, which may spring up in a harvest of eternal blessings, [is it] any great matter that we should reap your carnal things? Is there the least proportion between any thing which your liberality can impart to us, and that which we have been the happy instruments of imparting to you? This

e That treadeth out the corn.] It is well known that this was the custom in Judea, and other eastern nations. It is still retained by many of them, and particularly in Ceylon. Raphelius has produced passages from Xenophon, which something illustrates it.

f On the whole.] It cannot be thought
that God had no regard at all to the Brute-
creatures in such precepts as these; and
therefore I thought it better to render
malws, on the whole, than entirely or al-
together, though that sense is more fre-
queat.
g Partake

26

SECT.

xvi.

1 Cor.

Yet he had waved this right in condescension to them.

over you, are not we

This is the privilege of ministers in general, 12 If others be parand it is a privilege which you well know takers of this power some of them have exerted. And if others are rather? Nevertheless, IX. 12. so readily allowed to partake of [this] power we have not used this over you, [shall] not we rather claim it, with power; but suffer all things, lest we should yet more evident and apparent reason, who have hinder the gospel of been the means, not only of edifying and in- Christ structing you, but likewise of calling you into the profession of Christianity? But we have not made use of this power, though founded in such evident and various principles of equity. But we rather choose to endure all things, the fatigues of labour, and inconveniences of frequent necessity, that we may not occasion any hindrance to the gospel of Christ, from the cavils of illdisposed people, who are always watchful for opportunities to misrepresent and censure our conduct.

ster about holy things,

arc partakers with the

13 But though I do not now ask any thing of 13 Do ye not know,
this kind for myself, yet I will not give up the that they which mini-
justice of the demand. And I might farther live of the things of the
support it, from the provision which God made temple and they
for the priests and Levites, under the Mosaic which wait at the altar,
Jaw. Know ye not therefore, that they who are altar
employed about holy things, are fed out of the pro-
visions which belong to the temple, and [that]
they who wait upon the service of the altar, are
partakers with the altar, in a part of the vic
tims offered on it, particularly the vows and
14 the sacrifices of peace-offerings: And it is

farther to be considered, that so also, that is, on
principles like these, the Lord Jesus Christ him-
self hath expressly commanded and ordained that
they who preach the gospel should live and subsist
upon the gospel; when he declares, as you

g Partake of [this] power, &c.] Mr. Pyle thinks this refers to the other apostles of Christ; but I rather think St. Paul intended to glance on the false teachers who carried their claims of this right to such an exhorbitant height, though their services had been by no means comparable to those of the apostle. Compare 2 Cor, xi. 20.-Mr. Locke would here read young par, of your substance; but Matt. x. 1; Jelin xvii. 2; and many other places, prove that is up, may properly be rendered, power over you.

h Hindrance to the gospel.] From the conduct of the other apostles, and of St, Paul at other places, particularly among the Macedonian churches, we may conclude, that he might see some circum

know

14 Even so hath the

Lord ordained, that

they which preach the

gospel should live of the gospel.

stances at Corinth, (not necessary for us exactly to know,) which determined him to decline accepting of any subsistence from them while he resided there.

i Live upon the gospel.] Mr. Mede understands tyyty here, of the reward given for bringing a good message, (see Diatrib. in loc.) and shews, that the word sometimes has that meaning in heathen authors; but it is a very uncommon signification in the sacred," and therefore not to be admitted, without farther proof.— That man might be said to live on the gospel, who was maintained for preaching it; as he might be said to live on the temple, who was supported out of its income, for ministering there, though the word temple has the usual signification.

Reflections on the right ministers have to be maintained.

know more than one of the evangelists assures
us he did, "that the labourer is worthy of his
hire." Compare Mat. x. 10; Luke x. 7.

27

SECT.

xvi.

1 Cor.

IX. 14.

IMPROVEMENT.

MAY the disciples of Christ learn from these instructions, to Ver. honour the Lord with their substance, and the first-fruits of all 1-7 their increase! And may they feel those happy effects attending the ministration of the gospel, and reap such an abundant harvest of spiritual blessings, that the imparting temporal subsistence 11 and accommodation, to those who are the instruments of conveying them, may not be matter of constraint, but of free and affectionate choice! May the ministers of Christ, while they thankfully accept of that subsistence, which Providence, by the instrumentality of their brethren, sends them, ever act a moderate and generous part, and maintain such a visible superiority to all secular views, as may do an honour to the gospel, and command veneration to themselves!

May the secular advantages of the office never invite bad men into it; nor its discouragements deter good men from undertaking it. And whatever censures a malignant world, who themselves know not any higher motives than self-interest, shall pass, may the ministers of Jesus ever have a testimony in their consciences, that they seek not the properties, but the souls, of their hearers!

Let us attend to the humane genius of the Mosaic law, mani- 8-10 fested in the precepts which relate even to the brutes. And remember, that it is the character, and should be the care of a merciful man, to extend mercy to his beast. Much more then let us shew compassion to our fellow-men. Let us not desire to enjoy the benefit of their labours, even in the lowest employments of life, without giving them some valuable equivalent. Let us bear towards all, the hearts of equitable and generous brethren, and constantly wish the prosperity and happiness of the human family. On the whole, may there be between the teachers, and those who are taught by them, a continual intercourse of benevolent affections, and friendly actions; as becomes those who stand in such an endearing relation to each other, and have, as Christians, the honour of being intimately related to that blessed Redeemer, who sought not his own things, but ours, and hath thereby laid the strongest engagement upon us, if we have any spark of gratitude and honour, not to seek our own things, but his ?

VOL. IX.

D

SECT

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