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Yet all, as the members in a body, are one in Christ.

to another, the interpretation of tongues.

63

xxiii.

divers kinds of tongues; pretation of tongues; in consequence of which SECT. a person shall be able to understand, and render into a known language, that which is spoken by 1 Cor. a foreigner, in a tongue, with which neither XII. 10. he himself nor the other hearers have been ac

dividing to every man

members, and all the

members of that one

11 But all these quainted. But the one and the same almighty 11 worketh that, one and Spirit worketh all these diversities of gifts, the self-same Spirit, dividing unto every one severally as he thinketh severally as he will. fit: his wisdom fixes the scheme, what this variety should be; and his sovereign pleasure determines, why they should be imparted to such and such particular persons, rather than to 12 For as the body others. The variety, I say, is wisely appoint- 12 is one, and hath many ed; for as the body is one, and yet hath many members, but all the members of that one body, many as they are, constitute one body, united in one well regulated system; so also [is] Christ, that is, the whole society of which Christ is the Head; and for the whole of which he may, as it were, be put, being indeed all and in all. 15 For by one Spirit For by, and according to the operation of one are we all baptized in- Spirit, we Christians are all baptized into one to one body whether body, whether we be originally Jews or Greeks, we be Jews or Gentiles, whether slaves or freemen; the religion we befree; and have been fore professed, whether true or false, the rank all made to drink into which we now hold in life, whether high or low, one Spirit.

body, being many, are one budy: so also

Christ.

is

whether we be bond or

13

makes no difference as to the grand point; our union with the body is the same; and the same happy consequences follow from that union. And this in particular, that we are all made to drink into one Spirit ; as we drink of the same sacramental cup, so we do by our communion with Christ, whose blood is represented by it, all imbibe the influences of the same Spirit, by which the Divine life was at first not one member, but produced, and is continually preserved. I say, 14 we have all imbibed it ; as the whole body may be said to imbibe the wine, which enters in at the mouth, and descends to the stomach; yet it is not intended for the benefit of those members alone, but of the whole; so in like manner, the body is not one member, but many; yet

14 For the body is

ruany.

h To another, the gifts of tongues-to another, the interpretation of tongues] For the farther illustration of these clauses, and the interpretation here given, see the notes on chap. xiv. 28.

i As he thinketh fit.] Bila does not so much express arbitrary pleasure, as a determination founded on wise council.

SO

k Drink into one Spirit.] Mr. Locke thinks St. Paul refers to the sacramental cup, rather than the bread here, because the wine is more spirituous, and in a lively manner represents the animating effects of Christ's blood, and the Spirit communicated by it.

64

Reflections on the diversity of spiritual gifts.

SECT. So united, that the Spirit, imparted to one, is xxii. designed, whether in its miraculous operations, 1 Cor. or sanctifying influences, for the benefit of the XII. 14. whole.

Ver.

IMPROVEMENT.

LET us thankfully acknowledge the Divine goodness, that we 2, have not been led on after the example of our Pagan ancestors, to the vain worship of dumb and stupid idols; but have been taught from our infancy, to adore the living Jehovah. May we, in the most solemn and consistent manner, say, That Jesus is the 3 Lord! And while our actions speak our regard to him as such, may it appear, that our hearts are under the influences of the Spirit of God, by which alone men are brought to that Divine temper.

Let us often reflect upon those glorious attestations which were given to the truth of our holy religion, by that diversity of gifts and operations with which its first teachers were furnished and 4,&c. adorned. Let us thankfully receive their testimony, and thereby set to our seal, that God is true. And let a view to that great design, in which all these wonderful things centre, engage us to study more a union of heart, with all who in every place call on the name of the Lord Jesus Christ. In him Greeks and Barbarians, bond and free, are united. His glory therefore let all unanimously seek; and while his name is blasphemed by the ignorant and malignant, who cannot bear the purity of that religion which he teaches, may it so be defended by us, as at the same time to be exemplified and adorned.

SECT. xxiv.

SECT. XXIV.

The apostle, farther to inforce that humility in the use of their spiritual gifts, and that mutual affection which the Corinthians so much needed to be farther taught, goes on, in prosecution of the allegory used above, to represent christians as so united in one body as to have entirely the same interest; and insists on a tender care of the least member, from its subservience to the good of the whole, 1 Cor. XII. 15, to the end.

1 CORINTHIANS XII. 15.

IT is of the highest importance, in your present circumstances, for the honour of God 1 Cor. and your comfort and edification, in the use of XII. 15. the gifts with which God hath endowed you, that I should farther illustrate and enforce the

observation

1 COR. XII. 15.

IF the foot shall say, the hand, I am not of

Because I am not

the

It would be absurd for one member to usurp the place of the rest; 65

16 And if the ear

not of the body; is it therefore not of the body?

χχίν.

1 Cor.

16

the body is it there- observation I have just been making, that the SFCT. fore not of the body? body is not one member, but made up of the conjunction of many, which have various offices and purposes. None can therefore complain of XII. 15. its own situation, as if it were insignificant; nor should any despise another, as unworthy of regard. As to the first of these, if the foot should say, Because I am not the hand, but am placed in the lowest order, rest upon the ground, and am often covered with dirt, therefore I am not of the body; is it indeed for this, not any part of the body; or would it have reason to represent itself, as, on this account, an out-cast? And if the ear should say, Because I am not so shall say, Because I visible, so beautiful, so useful as the eye, theream not the eye, I am fore I am not of the body, is it indeed, for this reason not of the body? Is it not a very important and useful part? Yea, is not the body far more perfect, in consequence of the foot, and the ear, being what they respectively are, than it would be, if each of them were another hand, or another eye? For if the whole body [were] 17 as it were, an eye; and a man could look at will, through every pore; where [were] the hearing, that important sense, which admits so much pleasing entertainment and improvement? And if the whole [were] hearing, where [were] the smelling, a sense which though less important than the former, is not destitute of its proper delight and its proper use? But now we 18 see, that God, the great and wise Creator, hath placed the various members, every one of them in the body, as he hath seen fit; and his inimitable contrivance, and overflowing goodness; is glorified in their variety, and in their arrangement. But if they all were one member, or the 19 members all of one form and use, where [were] the body? How could it possibly subsist? What a monstrous thing would such a detached member be, if it could be supposed to exist alone? Or if each member were to be transformed into that which might in itself seem most noble, how ruinous to the whole would such a transformation be? But now, as [there are] 20 many members, there is in the union of them all, but one harmonious regular body, furnished

17 If the whole body were an eye, where were the hearing? if the whole were hearing where were the smell ing.

15 But now hath God set the members every one of them in the body, as it hath pleas

ed him..

19 And if they were all one member, where were the body?

20 But now are they many members, yet but one body.

a If the whole body [were] an eye, &c.] The apostle by this intends probably to insinuate, that, were there no other gifts in

for

the church but those which they so much
extolled in some of their teachers, it wonld
be a very great disadvantage to the body.

bppear

66

1 Cor.

For all have their proper ornament or use ; SECT. for the various animal functions, and capable of Xxiv. a variety of sensations and actions. And no one of them ought to despise any of the rest ; XII. 21. for the eye cannot say to the hand, I have no need of thee; since by the hand the body is main tained and fed, and the eye itself preserved and defended. And again, the head, elevated as it is, and so admirably furnished with all the nerves and organs planted in it, [cannot say] to the most distant and extreme parts, even the feet, mean as their form and office seems, I have no need of you; since by means of them, the head, and all the other parts of the body, are supported, and removed from place to place.

22

But it may farther be observed here, agreeably to the point which I have now in view, that the members of the body, which appear to be weaker than the rest, and perhaps are most delicate and tender in their structure,are more abundantly necessary; so that without them the animal functions can by no means be discharged. 23 And so likewise with respect to those which seem to be the more ignoble and dishonourable [parts] of the body, those we surround with more abundant honour and those which seem our uncomely [parts] have, by virtue of the dress we put upon them, more abundant comeliness than most 24 of the rest. For our comely and graceful

21 And the eye cannot say unto the hand, I have no need of thee:

nor again, the head to the feet, I have no need of you.

22 Nay much more,

those members of the body, which seem to be

more feeble, are necessary.

23 And those mem

bers of the body, which we think to be less honourable, upon these we bestow more abun

dant honour and our un comelyparts have more

abundant comeliness. 24 For our come

but God hath temperhaving given more aed the body together. bundant honour

to

[parts] have no need of being so adorned, as ly parts have no need they appear to greater advantage uncovered; but God hath so attempered the several parts of the body together, as to give a more abundant honour to that which is so formed, as rather to appear deficient; for by making the meanest part thus necessary, he hath entitled it to the care of 25 the noblest : That so there might be no schism

that part which lack▾

ed;

25 That there should

in the body, no division of separate interests; but be no schism in the [that] all the members might have the same care body; but that the

b Appear to be weaker.] Some think this refers to the brains and bowels, which are very tender, and liable to many disorders. Others understand it, of the least muscular parts, or veins, arteries, and other minute channels in the body; the least obstruction in which would be fatal. If more feeble, be put for less noble; it suggests a very obvious and important sense, relating to the channels by which nature has provided for throwing off the dregs; which dishonourable as they may seem, pre so necessary, that if they be obstruct,

of

members

ed, intense torment and inevitable death

must ensue.

c Our dishonourable parts, &c.] It seems as if he had said, the face, on which the image of God is particularly stamped, we leave uncovered; but as for those parts, which decency, or custom teaches us to conceal, we contrive not only to cover, but also as far as we conveniently can, to adorn by covering.

d We surround with more abundant honour : τόλοις τιμήν περισσότερον περιλαθεί μv.] Our version by no means expresses the force of the Greek idiom here.

another.

And if one member suffer, all the rest suffer with it.

26 And whether one

1 Cor.

67

members should have of each other, as being each an important part ECT. the same care one for of the whole. So that if one member suffer, all xxiv. the members suffer with it, and are concerned membersuffer; all the to remove the complaint; or if one member be XII. 26. members suffer with honoured and adorned, all the members rejoice with it: the ornament of one part being looked upon as that of the whole.

it: or one member be

honoured, all the members rejoice with it.

27 Now ye are the

28 And God bath set

teachers, after that miracles, then gifts of healings, helps, go

vernments, diversities of tongues.

Now to apply this to the purpose for which I 27 body of Christ, and introduced it: you are all the body of Christ, and members in particular. members [each] in particular. And as God 28 some in the church, hath placed some members in more eminent stafirst apostles, seconda- tions in the body; so also some Christians in the rily proplets, thirdly church. He hath placed in the first rank, ароstles; who are honoured with an office of the highest distinction, and furnished with endowments peculiar to themselves. In the second place, are ranked prophets; whose business it is to foretel future events, or to speak by immediate inspiration, for the edification of the church. In the third, teachers, of a more ordinary kind, afterwards, those who are endowed, upon some particular occasion, with [miraculous] powers; then the gifts of healing diseases by anointing the sick with oil, and praying for their recovery. Besides these, he has endowed some with such extraordinary activity and sagacity, as may fit them to be helpers in the management of charities; others are qualified by their prudence to be governments, by whose advice, the affairs of societies may be steered and conducted in the safest and happiest manner; there are also wonderful operations, by which men are taught [different] kind of tongues, which they had never learned by any human methods. 29 Now as the offices of the church are different, are all prophets? are the gifts by which men are fitted to discharge them, are proportionably so. [Are] all the

29 Are all apostles?

all

e If one member suffer, &c.] Bos, in his Exercitations on this text, has collected many parallel passages from Seneca, and other heathen" writers.

f Helpers-governments, &c.] I think, we can only guess at the meaning of these words; not having principles on which to proceed in fixing them absolutely. I have inserted what seemed to me most probable in the paraphrase. The Author of Miscel lanea Sacra thinks, much light is to be derived, by comparing verses 8-10, with verses 28-38, the order in one text corresponding with that of the other; but the order of the same words differing in the

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members

two places demonstrates the contrary. I
have met with no remark here, which
seems more pertinent than that of Mons.
Amyrant; who thinks, that the same per-
sons might possess many of these gifts, and
sustain several of these characters, which
were not stated distinct offices; and might
be called helpers, in reference to their
great dexterity and readiness to help those
in distress; and governments, in regard to
that genius for business, sagacity in judg-
ing the circumstances of affairs, and natu-
ral authority in the councils and resoluti-
ons of societies, which rendered them fit
to preside on such occasions.

8 Are

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