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principles of Natural and Revealed Theology. This design very early occupied his mind, while pursuing his own studies under the superintendence of that eminent and learned divine, the late Rev. Dr. Witherspoon. At the request of a number of young men, in the year 1772, graduates of the college, at that time residing in the institution for the prosecution of their theological studies, of whom the author was one, the doctor was prevailed on to commence a course of lectures on this subject, which he continued once a week till the Autumn of 1773, when different objects of pursuit in life attracting the greater portion of the class, it was of course dissolved. The doctor had proceeded in bis course, intermixing his lectures with much extempore illustration, as far as to the Covenant of Grace. The clear method. which be pursued is, on many subjeets, particularly the Trinity and the Covenantse in many of its outlines, adopted. The author acknowledges with pride, the assistance derived from notes, taken at that time from the mouth of the speaker, of these lectures the most copious abridgement, which was, or probably could be made by any gentleman not acquainted with the art of stenography, has been published by the editor of Dr. Witherspoon's works, though with much imperfection, as was naturally to be expected. And, if the veperable man had lived, he would probably, have been little pleased in seeing this, and several other mutilated productions of his pen, accompanying his more perfect works. It is greatly to be lamented, that many circumstances, after the design was commenced, concurred to prevent its execution. The judicious reader who is best acquainted with Dr. Witherspoon's manner, will probably find little affinity in these discourses, with his writings; yet the author is not conscious that they contain opinions, on any principles of religion, materially varying from those which that great man was knows to adopt. Any coincidences of sentiment in the subjects treated by us in common, may easily be traced, if any person have the curiosity, by comparing these discourses with that abridgment. Diversity in the manner of proposing them to the world, ought to be expected, even in a pupil who admires his master.

It is his earnest prayer that the following pages may contribute in any degree to elucidate the doctrines of the holy scriptures, not to the learned only, but to the humblest christian, for which, being freed, as much as possible, from all metaphysical discussion, he hopes they will be found to be usefully adapted.

* During his life a printer in New Jersey was comme

mencing an edition of his Moral Philosophy in its present impersect state. He was arrested in its progress, hy being threatened with a legal prosecution. This event, caused the doctor a year or : two before his death, to direct the burning of a very large number of bis manuscripts by his late wife, he himself being blind. His Moral Philosophy, and Lectures on Criticism, would probably have shared the same fate if many copies of both had not been preserved by his students. They were used merely as texto,

INDEX.

OF NATURAL THEOLOGY: WHEREIN it consists, page 1. of the existence of God, two modes of proof Ist. the scientific or speculative, 3: 2d. the simple and popular in the works of nature, 5. another argument, in the consent of mankind, 7. objectione answered, 9. the attributes of the Deity, natural and moral, 13. of bis spirit uality, 13. of his unity, 14. of bis power and wisdom, eternity and omnipresence, 15. of his holiness, 15. of his goodness, 10. not impaired by the evils of life, 22. of his justice, distributive and vindictive, 27. of the principles of human duty, 29, of our duties to God, general and particular, external and in.' ternal, 30." of our external duties to God, 33. objections to the general principles of worship, 34.o the reasonableness and efficacy of prayer, 37. of our duties to our fellow-men, 40. of our duties to ourselves, 41. of the motives which natural religion enjoys to enforce its duties, those especially drawn from its probable hopes of a future existence, 44. without this hope the designs of the Creator with respect to human nature would seear to be, in a great measure, frustrated, 46. the hope confirmed by the general belief of mankind, 48. it ought to be regarded as an original sentiment of human nature, 49. this ought not to be questioned on account of any errors of speculation or superstition mingled with it, 50. CONfirmed by the ardent desires of good men, and its useful influence on society, 51. strengthened by the unequal distribution of good and evil in the present life, 53., the imperfection and dubiousness of these hopes lead us to revelation, 57.

EVIDENCES OF REVEALED RELIGION: The necessity of a revelation to correct the ignorance and vices of mankind, 60. the proof of an original revelation, afterwards lost, 69. the impotence of reason effectually to instruct mankiod from its defect of certainty, authority, and motives, 72. revelation necessary from the depravity of human nature, 73. if revelation be necessary, a strong presumption in favour of christianity, 75. two heads of proof, the positive and presumptive, 76. miracles and their evidence, 77. a speculative objection, 81. 'Mr. Hume's celebrated objection, 81. it leads to atheism, 83. it would arrest improvements in science, 84. applied to the moral world it refutes itself, 86. credibility of the witnesses of the miracles and resurrection of Christ, 89. the rapid extension of the gospel in the first age, a proof of the reality of its miracles, 100. increased by the humble instruments employed, 104. increased by the natural difficulties and impediments that lay in the way of their enterprize, 107. increased by the fate of their Master, 109. in vain to account for the effect by the superior reasonableness of the moral system of christianity, 111. by the discredit into which the rites of paganismo had fallen, 112. by what is called the sociable spirit of paganism, 113. their success compared with that of modern missionaries, 114. of mahometan imposture, 116. the pretence of credulity alledged against christians, 117. their works shew neither weakness nor enthusiasm, 118. christianity embraced by the learned as well as the vulgar, 120. their sufferings proof of their conviction, 123. they declare their change foonded upon the miracles which they saw rather than on their reasonings, 1:25. the pretence that the evidence of the first christians is the partial evidence of friends, 125. impostors among the heathen, not attended with the same efiects, 126. comparison of heathen prodigies with christian miracles, 127. of supposititious, or pretended supernatural operations, 128. Of prophecy, the next source of direct evidence, 130. the prophecy of Moses concerning the destruction and the preservation of the Jewish nation, 131. the prophecy of Moses and other sacred authors concerning the Messiah, 146. Virgil, 148. traditions of other nations concerning him, 151. progressive illumination concerning him, 154

apparently contradictory prophecies united and reconciled in him, 155. the pro-
phecy of Jacob at the close of life, 158. reflection on its fulfilinent, 162. Collate-
ral or presumptive proofs, 164. of the sublimity of the holy scriptures, 165. of
the morality of the scriptures, 174. including the spirit and genius of their mo-

,rality, 176. its extent reaching to the thoughts and principles of our actions, 181.

it would have been surprising in the wisest philosophers, and much more so in their

plain, uolettered authors, 185. the purity of its principle, 137. its simplicity and

plainness adapted to the humblest capacity, 188. of the efficacy of the scriptures

as a principle of holiness, 189. of the promised aids of the Holy Spirit, 191. the

verification of this principle in experience, 192. of the consistency of the scrip-

tures with themselves, and with the state of the world, 193. of the character of

the Author of our holy religion, 197. the difficulty of drawing such a character

from imagination, 201. the impossibility of Christ's having acted on any princi.

ples merely of human policy, 202. conformable with the character of the Saviour

was that of the instruments he employed, 205. a strong presumption from the good

effects of the christian religion on the interests of society, 206. it has increased

individual happiness, 209. it has improved in a degree, the religious opinions and

morals of many nations who have not yet received its perfect illumination, 211.

OF THE PRINCIPLES OF REVEALED RELIGION:

of the Trinity, 217. vestiges of this doctrine in the traditions of most of the

civilized nations of antiquity, 221. supposed silence of the Old Testament, 225.

since Christ, the Sabellians, the Tritheists, the Arians, the orthodox, 226. proofs

of the Trinity derived only from the holy scriptures, 229. general proofs, 230.

individual proofs, 1st. of the deity of the Sov, 230 : 2d. of the deity of the Holy

Spirit, 238. of the controversy between the Greek and Latin church concerning

the procession of the Son and Holy Spirit, 239.

OF THE DECREES OF GOD:

All things subject to the divine decree, 243. of misery and vice as objects of

the divine decrees, 255. the objects, the order, and characters of the decrees, 257.

the followers of Socinus deny the decrees of God especially as they respect all

moral ends and actions, 259. outlioes of the Arminian system, 260. Calvinists

divided into two parties, supralapsarians and sublapsarians, 263. scripture char-

acters of the decrees : Ist. eternity, 269: 2d. freedom, of the best system by ne-

cessity, 270: 3d. wisdom and sovereignty of the decrees, and under these of the

election of individuals and of nations, 273: 4th of the holiness and justice of the

decrees, 280: 5th. of their absoluteness and immutability, under which is treat-

ed the discrimination between certainty and necessity, 281. of freedom of action,

and the influence of motive, 283. identity of the decrees of God and the laws of

nature, 285.

OF THE COVENANT OF WORKS, AND THE FALL OF MAN :

This technical phraseology justified, 289. of the selection of an object for the

trial of man's obedience, 291. the implication of the threatening, thou shall sure-
iy die, 301. of the original immortality of our first parents, 303. of the repre-
sentative character of Adam, 304. of the justice of this institution, 305. of its
benignity, 307. of the opinion that was denounced to take place on the day of the
fall, 308. of the import of the tree of knowledge, and the tree of life, 309. of the
introduction of sin into the works of God, 311. of the opinion of Leibnitz that
all good possible exists, 313. of the serpent and the temptation, 314. fraginents
of the history of the fall found in all nations, 315. of the immediate effects of the
fall on our first parents, 317. of their repentance, 319. of the effects of the fall
on Adain's posterity, 320. the gospel united with the law in the moment of the
fall, 322. the general strain of the scriptures, a stronger proof of original depravity
than particular passages, 325. testimony of experience, 327. extent of origical
sin, and of its transmission, 327. Of Feith, its efficacy as a practical principle of
boliness, and the reasonableness of its bolding such a distinguished place in the
cliristian system, 333. definition of evangelic faith, 336. the dependence of
feith for its existence op the good dispositions of the heart, 339. assemblage of
the preceding principles, 342. the efficacy of faith, 343. excellency of this priuciple as a basis of religion, 346. other definitions of faith, 348. of false resemblances of faith, 348. of a weak faith, 351. of a strong faith, 354. by what virtue in faith it confers a right to the blessings of the covenant, 356.

OF THE COVENANT OF GRACE: Three preliminary questions, 361. the necessity of-atonement, 362. the justice and utility of vicarious satisfaction, 365. requisite that satisfaction be made by a divine person, 368. the covenant of grace defiped, 370. a mistaken view of the covenant of grace, 373. the constitution of the covenant in its promises and conditions, 377. of the promise of a Saviour, 379. promise of the free and full pardon of sin, 380. the question whether Christ died for all, or only a selected number, 381. promise of the spirit of sanctification, 382. promise of the favour of God, and its happy fruits in this life, 385, the final promise and blessing of the covenant, 386. of the condition of the covenant of grace, 388.

OF BANCTIFICATION, AND ITS LEADING QUESTIONS: Of regeneration, 306. the author of regeneration, 307. two errors on this subject, 309. sanctification a state of progressive improvement, 402. the holiness of the believer imperfect in this life, 404. ordinary ineans of sanctification, 407. the necessity of good works in a system of free grace, 408. of the perfection of a moral and religious act, 409. of the perseverance of the saints, 411. the inportance of this doctrine, 414.

JUSTIFICATION : Difference between the apostles St. Paul and St. James, 423. the believer still subject to the calamities of this life, 425. absurdity of the Romish interpretation of Col. 1. 24, 427.

ADOPTION: External seals of the covenant of grace-I. Baptism, 433. Baptism and the Lord's Supper both seals of the covenant, 433. other denominations applied to them, 435. design of the external seals, 438. different import of the two seals, 438. Baptism our christian circumcision, 441. the design of Baptism ohvi. ou8- Ist. from the use of a similar rite in the ancient Greek and Jewish nations, 444: 2d. from its being the seal annexed by God to his own covenant, 447. the proper subjects of this ordinance 152. the benefits of this ordinance, 459. the visible church, 463. review of the meaning and design of this ordinance, 466. of the forn of Baptism, 468. II. Of the Lord's Supper, 477. of the ceremonies Fith which it ought to be accompanied, 180. of Transubstantiation, 435. of Consubstantiation, 489. of the requisite qualifications for this ordinance, 490. the benefits of a pious use of this ordinance, 492. of the christian doctrine of a future state of being, 497. of the resurrection of the body, 499. the reasonableness and preciousness of this doctrine, 499. the future, and everlasting state of punishment to the wicked, 508.

A SERMON :
The connexion of sound principles of truth, with virtue and riety, 519.

ERRATA. p 115 1 10 for personage, read patronage. p 130 1 18 put the appearance and character of the Messiah in italic letterbo p 161 Note, iosert the before sacred writings.

ib 1 16 for equivical read equivocal. p 163 12 for connected hns, read connected as parts. p 155 1 6 sor principle, read principal. p 178 1 1 for school, read schools. p 193 1 17 for genins, read genius. p 222 1 1 for Lyst, read Syst.

ib. two lines from bottom read turn p 223 112 for embraced, read embrace. 1 237 1 5 for philosophic, read philosophico. p 240 1 6 in grecian make the first letter a capital. p247 115 for the period, after particularly, place a comma p 249 1 11 for inferences read inference. p 250 I 14 for analysis read analyzes. p 261 1 12 for indiscernable read indiscernible. p 318 11 for become read became.

328 1 6 for by the excess, read by excess. p 452 1 8 for righteous read righteousness. p 463 last line but one in the note, for his free, read the free. p 439 1 1 for ecquen read ecquem. p 499 18 for for read to. p 504 I 18 last word, for what read that is. p 536 1 22 for life, aster pastoral, read office.

An error bas been committed by the author in the arrangement of the many. scripts as they were sent to the Printer, placing the fourth chapter on Faith in the room of the ninth on Adoption. If the reader will hear in mind in the first sentences, that its place has been a little anticipated, it creates no injury to the work.

THE AUTHOR.

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